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1701- Rice Production in Guinea and SRI, Peace Corps Guinea

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Presented by: Hillary Mara
Date: January 9, 2017
Title: Rice Production in Guinea and SRI; Peace Corps Guinea
Location: Dubreka, Guinea

Published in: Education
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1701- Rice Production in Guinea and SRI, Peace Corps Guinea

  1. 1. Rice Production in Guinea & SRI Peace Corps Guinea Agroforestry PST January 9, 2017 Hillary Mara ham72@cornell.edu Guinea RPCV ‘12-’14, Mali RPCRV ‘14-’15
  2. 2. Rice production in Sub-Saharan Africa 64% 32% 3% 1% West Africa Eastern Africa Central Africa Southern Africa Each dot represents 20,000 tons Data: FAO Rice production 2006 64% of rice is produced in West Africa Nigeria, Guinea, Ivory Coast, Mali Ref: Warda (2008) Africa rice trends 2007
  3. 3. Rice production, consumption and deficit in West Africa between 2010 and 2018 Regional Policy: ECOWAS Rice Offensive (2012) to double rice production in the region by 2018
  4. 4. Rice can grow in nearly every climate zone in West Africa, from the Sahel in the north to the humid coastline in the south.
  5. 5. Rice production basins in West Africa Bulletin club du sahel-AO: Enjeu Ouest Africain N°2 Juin 2011 Rice system Surface area % Contribution to production % Yields (t/ha) Irrigated 12-14 38 5 -6 Lowland rainfed 31 24 1 – 2.5 Upland rainfed 44 21 1
  6. 6. There are 4 major rice systems in the region: 1. Irrigated rice occurs in every climate zone, as long as there is enough water, and the right infrastructure exists 2. Rainfed upland rice occurs in the southern and middle latitudes, where rainfall is sufficient to grow rice in a manner similar to maize 3. Rainfed lowland rice occurs in valleys and ponds that flood seasonally throughout West Africa 4. Swamp/deepwater rice occurs in the coastal southwest, using special varieties of rice
  7. 7. Rice Production & Imports in Guinea • Nearly 80% of farms in Guinea produce rice, representing approximately 1/3 of the population involved in rice production, with 75% of this production destined for personal household consumption (i.e. subsistence production); Rice that is sold is used to finance household needs and children’s education • Guinea imports approximately 20% of its domestic annual rice requirements and imports are increasing: In 2015, over 600,000 tons of rice was imported • Guinea’s National Strategy in regards to rice production is to reduce rice imports by 15%, become self-sufficient in rice production, and to become a net exporter – Despite this emphasis on domestic production, rice imports have continued to rise
  8. 8. Continued… • There has been significant investment in this sector, as a result the contribution of the rice sector to GDP is continually improving: 5.2% in 2000, expected to reach 6.2% by 2018 • Guinea participated in World Bank’s “WAAPP” (West Africa Agricultural Productivity Program), with IRAG testing SRI for its viability in Guinea, with positive results • During the Ebola crisis, rice production in Guinea fell by 1/5, and cross-border trade with neighboring countries (Liberia, Sierra Leone, Senegal, and Mali) faced new obstacles including temporarily closed borders, halting exports
  9. 9. Rice Production & Trade in Guinea
  10. 10. Rice in Guinean Culture & Diet • Oryza glaberrima, native Africa rice, was domesticated in neighboring Mali ~1500 BC and is still cultivated in parts of Guinea today- though most rice grown is derived from Asian Oryza sativa • Eaten by all ethnic groups as the base of every meal of the day (bouillie, gâteau, rice & sauce…): 170 kilograms consumed per capita/ year • “Le pain blanc,” used in traditional/ religious practices: offered to ancestors, during sacrifices, beekeeping… • Given as a gift to welcome important people to a community (riz du pays/ “baara baara”)
  11. 11. Introduction to the System of Rice Intensification (SRI)
  12. 12. What is the System of Rice Intensification, or SRI?
  13. 13. Simply put, SRI is a way to grow more rice, more ecologically, using less water, seed, and agrochemicals.
  14. 14. It is primarily a knowledge and management approach, not a specific variety of rice.
  15. 15. Through smarter management, plants grow better, soil health improves, and yields increase.
  16. 16. SRI started in Madagascar in the 1980s, with farmers growing irrigated rice.
  17. 17. Between 1997 and 2015, SRI spread to 55+ countries, for both irrigated and rainfed rice.
  18. 18. SRI is visually distinct…
  19. 19. When using a nursery, SRI plants are transplanted very young – when they have only 2 leaves SRI at a glance:
  20. 20. Fields are watered but not flooded during the initial plant growth phase and up until flowering SRI at a glance:
  21. 21. Organic matter is the primary source of soil fertility SRI at a glance:
  22. 22. Plants have plenty of space. SRI at a glance: 1 plant 1 plant 1 plant1 plant 25cm + 25cm +
  23. 23. SRI is different from conventional rice farming in several key ways…
  24. 24. Plant Spacing Irrigation Narrow spacing, multiple plants per ‘hill’ (4-10+) Wide spacing, 1 (or 2) plants per ‘hill’ Fields are often permanently flooded Watering as needed, soils stay aerobic SRI Conventional SRI vs. Conventional
  25. 25. SRI vs. Conventional Transplanting Fertilization If transplanting, at 3-5 weeks; plant roots often damaged Careful transplanting at the 2-leaf stage (8-12 days) Often with chemical / mineral fertilizers only Organic matter (compost, manure, etc.) is preferred SRI Conventional
  26. 26. A key aspect of SRI is how it changes plant growth…
  27. 27. Wider, more open plant shape (33° vs. 18°) More chlorophyll in the leaves Taller plants, deeper roots (24% taller) Longer, wider, thicker leaves (36% longer, 36% wider) More ‘tillers’ Changes to plant growth with SRI:
  28. 28. SRIConventional With SRI, plants show better growth above and below ground These two plants are the same age and the same variety…
  29. 29. few tillers many tillers shallow roots deeper roots Tiller: a lateral shoot growing from the base of a plant stem SRIConventional SRI plants have more ‘tillers’ and deeper roots
  30. 30. Conventional – rice plants left in the nursery (27 days old) 1-2 tillers per plant
  31. 31. SRI – A single plant, transplanted from the same nursery 15 days earlier (27 days old) 1 plant 12 tillers
  32. 32. SRI – The same plant, at 43 days old 1 plant 94 tillers
  33. 33. Conventional 27 days old 1-2 tillers each SRI 27 days old 12 tillers When left in close proximity plants grow upright; when given space they spread out.
  34. 34. This improved plant growth brings a number of benefits…
  35. 35. Higher yield (30%, often more) Shorter cropping cycle (1-2 weeks) Saves money on inputs Benefits of SRI: Better overall plant and soil health Larger, better quality grain
  36. 36. Benefits of SRI: Greater Resilience Better pest resistance Better disease resistance Better wind resistance Better drought resistance
  37. 37. Benefits of SRI: Reduced Inputs 30-50% reduction in water use 80-95% reduction in seed use Reduced pumping and fuel costs for irrigated rice Up to 100% reduction in agrochemical use
  38. 38. Like any methodology, SRI has its challenges…
  39. 39. Some SRI Challenges Finding organic matter AdaptationLack of tools Behavior change Early ripening Changes in labor Vulnerability of young seedlings
  40. 40. But these can all be overcome with careful testing, adaptation, and farmer innovation.
  41. 41. Review • What are the major principles of SRI?
  42. 42. Principle 1: Establish plants early and carefully
  43. 43. Principle 2: Reduce plant density
  44. 44. Principle 3: Build soil health and fertility using organic matter
  45. 45. Principle 4: Manage water carefully to avoid permanent flooding during the vegetative growth phase
  46. 46. Understanding how SRI changes for different rice systems
  47. 47. How (and why) can PCVs use SRI in their communities? • Rice is grown in most rural communities in Guinea: engage farmers on an important aspect of their livelihoods • No material resources needed outside of those available in community • Can be used along with other trainings in agricultural techniques including: compost, nurseries, seed selection… • Can visibly see results: build community enthusiasm for other projects • SRI encourages farmers to think differently & critically- it can change they way they farm. Guineans like to follow rules… always encourage innovation and adaptation!
  48. 48. Resources for PCVs • SRI toolkit available on PC Live • SRI-Rice website, YouTube channel, Facebook groups (including West Africa group and PC SRI group) • Contact: Hillary Mara (ham72@cornell.edu)/ Devon Jenkins (dlj67@cornell.edu) • In Guinea, Dr. Barry of IRAG/ Martin Kourouma of NARSEME (Kindia) 628245912
  49. 49. References • Most slides in this presentation are adapted from the SRI- Rice/Peace Corps Presentations developed by Devon Jenkins for the PC SRI toolkit and from a presentation by Dr. Erika Styger, SRI-Rice. • Other works cited include: • “National Strategy for the Development of Rice Growing.” Republic of Guinea: Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock. http://www.jica.go.jp/english/our_work/thematic_issues/agricul tural/pdf/guinea_en.pdf • “Reviving Agriculture in Ebola-hit Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone.” The World Bank. February 12 2015. http://www.worldbank.org/en/topic/agriculture/brief/reviving- agriculture-in-ebola-hit-guinea-liberia-and-sierra-leone • “Regional Agricultural Policy for West Africa.” ECOWAP. 2008. http://www.diplomatie.gouv.fr/fr/IMG/pdf/01_ANG- ComCEDEAO.pdf

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