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1424 - System of Rice Intensification Research - A Review

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Presentation at the 4th International Rice Congress
Presenter: Erika Styger
Title: System of Rice Intensification Research - A Review: 1993-2013
Venue: Bangkok International Trade and Exhibition Centre (BITEC), Bangkok, Thailand
Date: October 31, 2014

Published in: Technology
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1424 - System of Rice Intensification Research - A Review

  1. 1. System of Rice Intensification Research: a Review SRI International Network and Resources Center (SRI-Rice) College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Cornell University, Ithaca New York 1993-2013 Presentation at the International Rice Congress, Bangkok, Thailand, Oct 31, 2014 Erika Styger, PhD
  2. 2. System of Rice Intensification A. Early and healthy plant establishment C. Build fertile soils rich in organic matter and soil biota D. Mange water carefully, avoid flooding &water stress  Soil preparation  Seed treatment/pre- germination  Raised bed nursery  Transplanting: • At 2 leave stage, 8- 12 days old - or -  Direct seeding: • Precision seeding (at 1 or 2 plants/hill) Reduce plant density  1 plant/hill - and -  Increase spacing between plants (25cm x 25cm or more), planted in a grid  Mechanical weeding  Fertilize with organic matter and add chemical fertilizer if needed: • Manure/compost • Cover crop / green manure • Crop residues  Incorporate OM or combine SRI with Conservation Agriculture  Land preparation: Leveling, bunding, application or organic matter  Non flooded conditions during the vegetative period Alternate wetting and drying (AWD) – or - Bunding, additional irrigation or drainage Principles SRI Practices Indicative and to adapt Methodology Conceptual Framework B. Minimize competition between plants (Styger and Jenkins, 2014)
  3. 3. Spread and Adoption of SRI More than 10 million farmers benefit from SRI methods in 54 countries (end of 2013) SRI-Rice (2014)
  4. 4. SRI Research Review • How SRI research has evolved • What has been researched • Who has carried out the research • What were the findings
  5. 5. Methodology • 624 Journal Articles • All articles key-worded (32 kw) • All references available at http://sri.cals.cornell.edu/ (Refworks, Mendeley)
  6. 6. Number of articles by year and by country group 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 93 99 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 All others India China Number of papers India > China
  7. 7. 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 93 99 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 Number of papers All other countries China Cumulative Total Cumulative number of SRI articles from 1993-2013 by year and by country groups 576 244 332 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 93 99 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 All others India 161 171 273 journals, with 72 Chinese journals (26%)
  8. 8. Number of SRI journal articles published per country *no circles for India and China 14 3 21 1 2 2 1 3 2 2 5 2 244* 13 7 1 6 3 171* 16 12 8 (by the end of 2013) 3 2 4 4 2 9 4 3 3 (N=576 Articles)
  9. 9. Evolution of SRI Research 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 93 99 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 Number of papers All other countries China Cumulative Total 1st SRI paper De Laulanié > 10 articles on Madagascar & Reviews: SRI theory (USA, NL), few research articles SRI conference Sanya, China Controversy: “SRI non scientific, anecdotal, benefits exaggerated” 4 first authors, 6 papers China’s research minimally considered outside of China Rapid increase in publications for all other countries especially after 2011 Diversification of publications: 36 countries by end of 2013 Cumulative number of SRI articles
  10. 10. Number of countries with reported SRI trials and published journal articles (from 1993-2013) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 1993 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 Number of countries Country Trials Journal publications 32 54 5 Years 7 Years
  11. 11. Institutions where SRI research was undertaken and published BLUE: Research Centers RED: Universities India China BLUE: Universities and research institutes RED: Local agricultural extension YELLOW: Government departments of agriculture GREEN: Companies By Christine Ly, SRI-Rice, 2014 By Zhoucen Feng, SRI-Rice, 2013 Maps available at sririce.org
  12. 12. Types of research articles Comparison Trials (335 papers) Trials with SRI as BMP (121 papers) Reviews (81 papers) Others (87 papers) (N=624 papers) SRI: young, single seedling/hill, wider/adjusted spacing, cono-weeding, AWD, organic matter & chemical fertilization Conventional : several older seedlings/hill, higher plant density, hand weeding/ herbicides, continuous flooding, chemical fertilization Comparison Trials: most common practices for the 2 Systems
  13. 13. 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 Social impact and gender Pest and diseases Soil biota Adoption Weed management Root studies Organic matter management Review Plant establishment Seedling age Variety trials Economic evaluation Morphology and Physiology Nutrient management Plant density Water management Main SRI Research Topics (N = 624 papers) Number of papers 25% of N 13% of N
  14. 14. Findings: Tendencies and Trends I - in relation to SRI: • Water management - 168 papers – Improved water productivity – Reduction of irrigation water use (20-50%) – In combination with increased yields • Nutrient management 155 papers – Optimum treatments include organic and inorganic fertilization – Improved nutrient use efficiency • Age of seedlings: 88 papers – Testing transplanting from 6d to >30d – Highest yields with 10-14d old seedlings; – Confirms theory to plant before 4th phyllochron
  15. 15. Findings: Tendencies and Trends II • Economic evaluation 129 papers – Production costs and labor: higher/equal/lower – Net return and benefit/cost ratio: most often higher • Adoption Studies 52 papers – Quality of training and technical follow up – Importance of rice crop and opportunity costs – Market access and policy support – Social organization of labor and water management
  16. 16. • Morphology and Physiology: 132 papers; 86 from China (2004-2008); 26 from India (2009-2013) – Wider canopy angle and higher leaf area index – Higher light interception, chlorophyll content, photosynthesis rate – Delayed leaf and root senescence • Root studies: 57 papers (70% since 2010) – Higher root biomass, volume and root length density – Higher soil microbial activity longer grain filling period and higher yields Thakur, et al. 2014 Findings: Tendencies and Trends III
  17. 17. Findings: Tendencies and Trends IV • Greenhouse gas emissions (10 papers of which 7 papers in 2013 and 2014) – Methane reduction (6 papers): all reduced by 10- 64% – Nitrous oxide (2 papers): increase 22.5%, reduced 12.5% – Global warming potential: (4 papers): all reduced by 21-73%
  18. 18. 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 neg equal pos 9 % (15p) 14% (23p) 77% (134p) Yield effect for SRI System in Comparison Trials N= 162 papers Number of papers
  19. 19. Conclusions • > 600 journal articles on SRI largely confirm what can be empirically observed in farmers’ fields of >50 countries – More efficient phenotype – Increased grain productivity – Reduced seed, water, agro-chemical use • In most countries, SRI was first introduced at farmers’ level – research publications lag several years behind farmer field results • Most research undertaken by National Institutions
  20. 20. Recommendations I Research foci Deepen topical analysis – E.g. water, weed, nutrient management – Optimize physiological processes to produce more effective phenotypes – Strengthen synergies between plant, soil and soil biota – Influence genetic expression for reaching plant’s genetic potential through management approaches
  21. 21. Recommendations II Broaden to Farming Systems Level – Apply a broader farming systems and landscape analysis – Integrate socio-economic and socio-cultural research with technical research – Integrate other agro-ecological approaches Conservation Agriculture, Agroforestry, IPM with SRI Apply New Research Models – Include farmers actively in research to identify optimal agronomic practices
  22. 22. Thank You! www.sririce.org eds8@cornell.edu

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