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Design of -- Two phase non overlapping low frequency clock generator using Cadence Virtuoso EDA tools
Design of -- Two phase non overlapping low frequency clock generator using Cadence Virtuoso EDA tools
Design of -- Two phase non overlapping low frequency clock generator using Cadence Virtuoso EDA tools
Design of -- Two phase non overlapping low frequency clock generator using Cadence Virtuoso EDA tools
Design of -- Two phase non overlapping low frequency clock generator using Cadence Virtuoso EDA tools
Design of -- Two phase non overlapping low frequency clock generator using Cadence Virtuoso EDA tools
Design of -- Two phase non overlapping low frequency clock generator using Cadence Virtuoso EDA tools
Design of -- Two phase non overlapping low frequency clock generator using Cadence Virtuoso EDA tools
Design of -- Two phase non overlapping low frequency clock generator using Cadence Virtuoso EDA tools
Design of -- Two phase non overlapping low frequency clock generator using Cadence Virtuoso EDA tools
Design of -- Two phase non overlapping low frequency clock generator using Cadence Virtuoso EDA tools
Design of -- Two phase non overlapping low frequency clock generator using Cadence Virtuoso EDA tools
Design of -- Two phase non overlapping low frequency clock generator using Cadence Virtuoso EDA tools
Design of -- Two phase non overlapping low frequency clock generator using Cadence Virtuoso EDA tools
Design of -- Two phase non overlapping low frequency clock generator using Cadence Virtuoso EDA tools
Design of -- Two phase non overlapping low frequency clock generator using Cadence Virtuoso EDA tools
Design of -- Two phase non overlapping low frequency clock generator using Cadence Virtuoso EDA tools
Design of -- Two phase non overlapping low frequency clock generator using Cadence Virtuoso EDA tools
Design of -- Two phase non overlapping low frequency clock generator using Cadence Virtuoso EDA tools
Design of -- Two phase non overlapping low frequency clock generator using Cadence Virtuoso EDA tools
Design of -- Two phase non overlapping low frequency clock generator using Cadence Virtuoso EDA tools
Design of -- Two phase non overlapping low frequency clock generator using Cadence Virtuoso EDA tools
Design of -- Two phase non overlapping low frequency clock generator using Cadence Virtuoso EDA tools
Design of -- Two phase non overlapping low frequency clock generator using Cadence Virtuoso EDA tools
Design of -- Two phase non overlapping low frequency clock generator using Cadence Virtuoso EDA tools
Design of -- Two phase non overlapping low frequency clock generator using Cadence Virtuoso EDA tools
Design of -- Two phase non overlapping low frequency clock generator using Cadence Virtuoso EDA tools
Design of -- Two phase non overlapping low frequency clock generator using Cadence Virtuoso EDA tools
Design of -- Two phase non overlapping low frequency clock generator using Cadence Virtuoso EDA tools
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Design of -- Two phase non overlapping low frequency clock generator using Cadence Virtuoso EDA tools

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MINI PROJECT REPORT

MINI PROJECT REPORT

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  • 1. TWO-PHASE NON OVERLAPPING CLOCK GENERATOR WITH BUFFERED OUTPUT Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION This mini project focuses on designing and analyzing a simple two phase non overlapping low frequency clock generator with buffered output on both phases. A two-phase clock offers a great deal of freedom in sequential circuit design if the clock period and the duration of the signals ɸ1 and ɸ2 are correctly chosen. With two-phase clocking strategy, data is allowed to become stable before and processing and there is no chance of race condition occurring. Clocked circuitry is considerably easier to design than the corresponding asynchronous sequential circuitry. It does, however, usually pay the penalty of being slower. It is necessary to recognize the fact that ɸ1 and ɸ2 need not be symmetrical always. For a given clock period, each clock phase period and associated underlap period can be varied as the application demands. Along with its application is synchronizing circuits two-phase non overlapping clock signals are used in dynamic pass transistor circuits to ensure that at any point of time only one block of logic circuit is operational. This is also called as two-phase clocking circuit and is one of the most widely used timing strategies. Owing to wide popularity of two-phase clocking strategies several researchers have proposed different techniques to generate non overlapping two-phase clock signals. Adding to the same list, this mini project focuses on developing a simple two-phase non overlapping clock generator that could meets the basic objectives of the clocking strategies. The designed circuit is required to accept a single phase input clock signal of minimum 10 MHz and a maximum of 100 MHz clock frequency. The output clock signals are to be clean square waves and each should be capable of driving a capacitive load of 0.33 pF without undue waveform degradation. The approach taken is one of the circuit developments through the design of schematic, simulation of circuit and necessary modifications, improving the performance of the two-phase clock generator. Dept of ECE, S.D.M.C.E.T, Dharwad Page 1 1
  • 2. TWO-PHASE NON OVERLAPPING CLOCK GENERATOR WITH BUFFERED OUTPUT Objectives 1. Designing a circuit to generate true non overlapping two-phase clock signals with under-lap of atleast 1ns. 2. Two-phase clock signal generator circuit should be capable of operating in the frequency range of 10 MHz – 100 MHz. 3. Two-phase clock signal generator circuit should be capable of driving reasonable load capacitance without undue distorted waveforms. The schematic is created in Cadence Virtuoso Schematic editor and simulated using the ADE-L simulation tool provided with the Cadence Virtuoso EDA tool package. Based on the results obtained the basic circuit is modified to meet all the objectives and to give better performance. The rest of the report is organized as follows: Chapter 2, under the heading Literature Survey gives the insight into the works done by other researchers in the same field. Chapter 3 explains about the Computer Aided Design tools used in Very Large Scale Integration design. In Chapter 4, description of different concepts associated with this mini project is explained. Chapter 5 describes how the design was implemented and improved. The simulation results for all the versions of design are shown in the same section. Section 6 concludes the report. Dept of ECE, S.D.M.C.E.T, Dharwad Page 2 2
  • 3. TWO-PHASE NON OVERLAPPING CLOCK GENERATOR WITH BUFFERED OUTPUT Chapter 2 LITERATURE SURVEY In electronics and especially synchronous digital circuits, clocks are defined as pulsed, synchronizing signals that provide the time reference for the movement of data in the synchronous digital system. A clock signal is produced by a clock generator. Although more complex arrangements are used, the most common clock signal is in the form of a square wave with a 50% duty cycle, usually with a fixed, constant frequency. Circuits using the clock signal for synchronization may become active at either the rising edge, falling edge, or, in the case of double data rate, both in the rising and in the falling edges of the clock cycle. Most integrated circuits (ICs) of sufficient complexity use a clock signal in order to synchronize different parts of the circuit, cycling at a rate less than the worst-case internal propagation delays. In some cases, more than one clock cycle is required to perform a predictable action. As ICs become more complex, the problem of supplying accurate and synchronized clocks to all the circuits becomes increasingly difficult. The preeminent example of such complex chips is the microprocessor, the central component of modern computers, which relies on a clock from a crystal oscillator. The only exceptions are asynchronous circuits such as asynchronous CPUs. A clock signal might also be gated, that is, combined with a controlling signal that enables or disables the clock signal for a certain part of a circuit. This technique is often used to save power by effectively shutting down portions of a digital circuit when they are not in use, but comes at a cost of increased complexity in timing analysis. Based on the number of phases, clock signals could be divided as single-phase clock and multi phase clock (two-phase clock or four-phase clock). Single-phase clock: Most modern synchronous circuits use only a "single phase clock" -- in other words, they transmit all clock signals on (effectively) 1 wire. Dept of ECE, S.D.M.C.E.T, Dharwad Page 3 3
  • 4. TWO-PHASE NON OVERLAPPING CLOCK GENERATOR WITH BUFFERED OUTPUT Two-phase clock: In synchronous circuits, a "two-phase clock" refers to clock signals distributed on 2 wires, each with non-overlapping pulses. Traditionally one wire is called "phase 1" or "phi1", the other wire carries the "phase 2" or "phi2" signal. Two-phase clock finds itself a great importance in sequential circuits. Certain ICs requires two-phase clock signals to be generated externally, whereas some ICs incorporated the two-phase clock generation on chip so only a single phase clock input was required, simplifying system design. The Difference in the phase angle between the two clock signals depends on the particular application. In this project the circuit is designed to maintain a phase difference between two clock signals is 180° as shown in fig 1.1. Figure 1.1 Typical two-phase non overlapping clock signals with 180° phase shift. Over the years researchers have proposed different circuits for the implementation of two-phase clock non overlapping clock generator to operate under different frequencies and capacitive load. Each circuit design has its own advantages and short comings. All the circuits shown below are represented in their basic form (not improved to operate for capacitive load) and are included only for indicative purpose. 1. Using Inverters: Dept of ECE, S.D.M.C.E.T, Dharwad Page 4 4
  • 5. TWO-PHASE NON OVERLAPPING CLOCK GENERATOR WITH BUFFERED OUTPUT 2. Using AND gates and divide-by-two circuit: & & ɸ ɸ1 ɸ2 DIV2 1 3. Using NOR gates and inverters with feedback: 4. Using NOR gates and inverters with feedback and buffers: Dept of ECE, S.D.M.C.E.T, Dharwad Page 5 5
  • 6. TWO-PHASE NON OVERLAPPING CLOCK GENERATOR WITH BUFFERED OUTPUT 5. Using NAND gates and inverters with feedback: All the above mentioned above circuit designs (except (1) and (2)) share similarity with Kevin Karplus’s circuit designs [1]. Several researchers have even proposed robust design which incorporates adjustable duty cycle [2] and programmable two phase non overlapping clock generators [3]. The amount of research work done on this particular topic clearly shows the importance of two-phase clocking circuits. In this mini project the focus is laid on designing a simple two-phase non overlapping circuit generating clock signals, which performs reasonably well with relatively large capacitive load at frequencies up to 100MHz. Dept of ECE, S.D.M.C.E.T, Dharwad Page 6 6
  • 7. TWO-PHASE NON OVERLAPPING CLOCK GENERATOR WITH BUFFERED OUTPUT Chapter 3 CAD TOOLS FOR VLSI 2.1 VLSI Design Design Flow: It provides a description of the ASIC design flow adopted and the tools used during the process. Cell Libraries: It provides necessary information regarding our cell libraries such as how to receive and use our cell libraries. CAD Tools: It provides necessary information to receive source for our CAD tools (two automatic test pattern generators and two fault simulators) along with some benchmark circuits. Figure 2.1 Bottom-up design flow for a transistor-level circuit Dept of ECE, S.D.M.C.E.T, Dharwad Page 7 7
  • 8. TWO-PHASE NON OVERLAPPING CLOCK GENERATOR WITH BUFFERED OUTPUT The bottom-up design flow for a transistor-level circuit layout always starts with a set of design specifications. The "specs" typically describe the expected functionality (Boolean operations) of the designed block, as well as the maximum allowable delay times, the silicon area and other properties such as power dissipation. Usually, the design specifications allow considerable freedom to the circuit designer on issues concerning the choice of a specific circuit topology, individual placement of the devices, the locations of input and output pins, and the overall aspect ratio (width-to-height ratio) of the final design. Note that the limitations spelled out in the initial design specs typically require certain design trade-offs, such as increasing the dimensions of the transistors in order to reduce the delay times. In a large-scale design, the initial design specifications may also evolve during the design process to accommodate other specs or limitations. This implies that the designer(s) of individual blocks or modules must communicate clearly and frequently about the spec updates, in order to avoid later inconsistencies. The traditional method for capturing (i.e. describing) transistor-level or gate-level design is via the schematic editor. Schematic editors provide simple, intuitive means to draw, to place and to connect individual components that make up the design. The resulting schematic drawing must accurately describe the main electrical properties of all components and their interconnections. Also included in the schematic are the power supply and ground connections, as well as all "pins" for the input and output signals of the circuit. This information is crucial for generating the corresponding netlist, which is used in later stages of the design. The generation of a complete circuit schematic is therefore the first important step of the transistor-level design flow. Usually, some properties of the components (e.g. transistor dimensions) and/or the interconnections between the devices are subsequently modified as a result of iterative optimization steps. These later modifications and improvements on the circuit structure must also be accurately reflected in the most current version of the corresponding schematic. If a certain circuit design consists of smaller hierarchical components (or modules), it is usually very beneficial to identify such modules early in the design process and to assign each such module a corresponding symbol (or icon) to represent that circuit module. This step largely simplifies the schematic representation of the overall system. The "symbol" view Dept of ECE, S.D.M.C.E.T, Dharwad Page 8 8
  • 9. TWO-PHASE NON OVERLAPPING CLOCK GENERATOR WITH BUFFERED OUTPUT of a circuit module is an icon that stands for the collection of all components within the module. Figure 2.2 Sample schematic editing A symbol view of the circuit is also required for some of the subsequent simulation steps, thus, the schematic capture of the circuit topology is usually followed by the creation of a symbol to represent the entire circuit. The shape of the icon to be used for the symbol may suggest the function of the module (e.g. logic gates - AND, OR, NAND, NOR), but the default symbol icon is a simple rectangular box with input and output pins. Note that this icon can now be used as the building block of another module, and so on, allowing the circuit designer to create a system-level design consisting of multiple hierarchy levels. After the transistor-level description of a circuit is completed using the Schematic Editor, the electrical performance and the functionality of the circuit must be verified using a Simulation tool. The detailed transistor-level simulation of the design will be the first indepth validation of its operation, hence, it is extremely important to complete this step before proceeding with the subsequent design optimization steps. Based on simulation results, the designer usually modifies some of the device properties (such as transistor width-to-length ratio) in order to optimize the performance. Dept of ECE, S.D.M.C.E.T, Dharwad Page 9 9
  • 10. TWO-PHASE NON OVERLAPPING CLOCK GENERATOR WITH BUFFERED OUTPUT The creation of the mask layout is one of the most important steps in the full-custom (bottom-up) design flow, where the designer describes the detailed geometries and the relative positioning of each mask layer to be used in actual fabrication, using a Layout Editor. Physical layout design is very tightly linked to overall circuit performance (area, speed and power dissipation) since the physical structure determines the transconductances of the transistors, the parasitic capacitances and resistances, and obviously, the silicon area which is used to realize a certain function. On the other hand, the detailed mask layout of logic gates requires a very intensive and time-consuming design effort. Figure 2.3 Symbol The physical (mask layout) design of CMOS logic gates is an iterative process which starts with the circuit topology and the initial sizing of the transistors. It is extremely important that the layout design must not violate any of the Layout Design Rules, in order to ensure a high probability of defect-free fabrication of all features described in the mask layout. The created mask layout must conform to a complex set of design rules, in order to ensure a lower probability of fabrication defects. A tool built into the Layout Editor, called Design Rule Checker, is used to detect any design rule violations during and after the mask layout design. The detected errors are displayed on the layout editor window as error markers, and the corresponding rule is also displayed in a separate window. The designer must perform DRC (in a large design, DRC is usually performed frequently - before the entire design is completed), and make sure that all layout errors are eventually removed from the mask layout, before the final design is saved. Dept of ECE, S.D.M.C.E.T, Dharwad Page 10 10
  • 11. TWO-PHASE NON OVERLAPPING CLOCK GENERATOR WITH BUFFERED OUTPUT After the mask layout design of the circuit is completed, the design should be checked against the schematic circuit description created earlier. The design called "Layout-versusSchematic (LVS) Check" will compare the original network with the one extracted from the mask layout, and prove that the two networks are indeed equivalent. The LVS step provides an additional level of confidence for the integrity of the design, and ensures that the mask layout is a correct realization of the intended circuit topology Figure 2.4 Sample layout The electrical performance of a full-custom design can be best analyzed by performing a post-layout simulation on the extracted circuit net-list. At this point, the designer should have a complete mask layout of the intended circuit/system, and should have passed the DRC and LVS steps with no violations. The detailed (transistor-level) simulation performed using the extracted net-list will provide a clear assessment of the circuit speed, the influence of circuit parasitics (such as parasitic capacitances and resistances), and any glitches that may occur due to signal delay mismatches. Finally, note that a satisfactory result in post-layout simulation is still no guarantee for a completely successful product; the actual performance of the chip can only be verified by testing the fabricated prototype. Even though the parasitic extraction step is used to identify the realistic circuit conditions to a large degree from the actual mask layout, most of the extraction routines and the simulation models used in modern design tools have inevitable numerical limitations. This should always be one of the main design considerations, from the very beginning. Dept of ECE, S.D.M.C.E.T, Dharwad Page 11 11
  • 12. TWO-PHASE NON OVERLAPPING CLOCK GENERATOR WITH BUFFERED OUTPUT Chapter 4 BASIC CONCEPTS 4.1 Two-Phase Clocking A two-phase clock offers a great deal of freedom in sequential circuit design if the clock period and the duration of the signals ɸ1 and ɸ2 are correctly chosen. If this is the case, data is allowed to become stable before and further transfer takes place and there is no chance of race condition occurring. Clocked circuitry is considerably easier to design than to corresponding asynchronous sequential circuitry. It does, however, usually pay the penalty of being slower. It is necessary to recognize the fact that ɸ1 and ɸ2 need not be symmetrical always. For a given clock period, each clock phase period and its associated underlap period can be varied if the need arises in optimizing a design. A very simple arrangement using combinational logic generating a two-phase clock at the frequency of a single phase input clock is set out in fig 4.1. The input clock signal C is used to provide a delayed version of it (CD) by passing through an even number of inverters. The delay thus produced determines the underlap period for the two-phase clock. The phase 1 signal ɸ1 is generated by ANDing C with CD whilst the phase 2 ɸ2 is produced by NORing C with CD. Clearly the minimum underlap period will be that generated by the delayed through two inverters and this is also the increment by which the delay may be increased by adding further inverter pairs. C ɸ1 CD ɸ2 Figure 4.1 Simple two-phase clock generator circuit — basic form Dept of ECE, S.D.M.C.E.T, Dharwad Page 12 12
  • 13. TWO-PHASE NON OVERLAPPING CLOCK GENERATOR WITH BUFFERED OUTPUT Since clock lines often feed many stages and are associated with long bus lines, they often present quite considerable capacitance to the clock line drivers. The circuit shown in fig 4.1 operates very well at low frequencies with limited fan-out and short bus lines. It also offers very less under-lap, in other words the clock signals ɸ1 and ɸ2 overlap. Simple way out of overlapping problem is addition of one more pair of inverters. These inverter buffers add to the overall propagation delay providing sufficient under-lap required by the clock signals. The circuit shown in fig 4.2 is the improved version of the basic form and performs reasonably well under relatively high frequency and capacitive load. ɸ C ɸ1 CD ɸ2 Figure 4.2 Simple two-phase clock generator circuit — additional buffers 4.2 Driving Large capacitive loads The problem of driving comparatively large capacitance arises when signals must be propagated from the chip to off chip destinations. Generally, typical off chip capacitances may be several orders higher than on chip □Cg values. For example, if the off chip load is denoted by CL then CL ≥ 104 □Cg The capacitances which of this order must be driven through low resistances, otherwise excessively long delays will occur. Large capacitance is presented at the input, which in turn slows down the rate of change of voltage at input. Dept of ECE, S.D.M.C.E.T, Dharwad Page 13 13
  • 14. TWO-PHASE NON OVERLAPPING CLOCK GENERATOR WITH BUFFERED OUTPUT Similar condition arises when the fan-out of the device is more. The value of the capacitive load increases. One of the best possible way to overcome such a problem of high capacitive load is use of inverters as drivers. 4.3 Standard unit for capacitance □Cg It is convenient to employ a standard unit of capacitance that can be given a value appropriate to the technology but can also be used in calculations without associating it with an absolute value. The unit is denoted □Cg and is defined the gate-to-channel capacitance of a MOS transistor having W = L = feature size for lambda based design rules. 4.4 Cascaded Inverters as drivers Inverters intended to drive large capacitive loads must be present low pull-up and pull down resistance. Obviously, for MOS circuits low resistance values of Zpd and Zpu imply low L:W ratio; in other words, channels must be made very wide to reduce resistance value and, in consequence, an inverter to meet this need occupies large area. Moreover, because of the large L: W ratio and since length L cannot be reduced below the minimum feature size, the gate region area L×W becomes significant and a comparatively large capacitance is presented at the input, which in turn slows down the rates of change of voltage can take place at the input. The remedy is to use N cascaded inverters each one of which is larger than the preceding stage by a width factor of ‘f’ as shown in figure. Figure 4.3 Driving large capacitive loads Dept of ECE, S.D.M.C.E.T, Dharwad Page 14 14
  • 15. TWO-PHASE NON OVERLAPPING CLOCK GENERATOR WITH BUFFERED OUTPUT Clearly as the width factor increases, so the capacitive load presented at the inverter input increases and the area occupied increases also. Equally clearly, the rate at which width increases will influence the number N of stages which must be cascaded to drive a particular value of CL. Thus with large f, N decreases but delay per stage increases. Delay per CMOS pair = 7fτ. y = CL/□Cg = fN Therefore the choice of f and N are interdependent. Determine the value of f which will minimize the overall delay for a given value of y. Apply logarithms on both side of the equation ln(y) = N ln(f) i.e. N = ln(y)/ln(f) For N even (CMOS) Total delay = N/2 (7fτ) = 3.5Nfτ From above relations, we can write Delay α Nfτ = [ln(y)/ln(f)] fτ It can be shown that total delay is minimized if f assumes the value of e for CMOS inverters. Assume f = e, we have N = ln(y)/ln(e) i.e. N = ln(y) Overall delay td td = 3.5 eNτ (CMOS) N even: N odd: ( for logical transition 0 to 1) Dept of ECE, S.D.M.C.E.T, Dharwad td = [3.5(N-1)+2] eτ (CMOS) Page 15 15
  • 16. TWO-PHASE NON OVERLAPPING CLOCK GENERATOR WITH BUFFERED OUTPUT (for logical transition 1 to 0) td = [3.5(N-1) +5] eτ (CMOS) 4.5 Race conditions In general, race condition refers to a situation in which the result depends upon the sequence in which events happen. In particular, a race condition occurs when a system/device is designed assuming a particular sequence of events without taking steps to ensure it. In logic gates, it happens when the inputs arrive at the gate in a sequence not assumed while deriving the function. This results, sometimes, in the anomalous behavior of the logic gate because of the unexpected dependence on the sequence of arrival of inputs. Since, the function of the logic gate is calculated assuming static inputs; the order of arrival may have impact on the output. We can consider race condition as a situation in which two or more signals are racing to have their effect on the output. This is how; race condition derives its name. For a very simple example, consider the following logic function: Z = A˖A’ Figure 4.4 Circuit having race condition Theoretically, the output will always be ‘0’. However, this is true only if the noninverted portion of the signal has greater delay in reaching the AND gate (we have considered ‘0’ -> ‘1’ transition of the input signal ‘A’). As shown in the figure above, the signal passing through inverter will have some delay of its own. If the signal through inverter reaches the AND gate later than the one without inverter, there will be a glitch as shown in the figure 2. For ‘1’ -> ‘0’ transition, the opposite will happen. If the condition for race is violated, as shown in fig 4.5, the design may enter an undefined state, the one which might not have been considered while designing. Hence, the whole system will malfunction in such a scenario leading to failure. It might be the case that some elements in the design enter metastable state, which can further cause problems. Hence, it is very important to give proper consideration to race conditions. Dept of ECE, S.D.M.C.E.T, Dharwad Page 16 16
  • 17. TWO-PHASE NON OVERLAPPING CLOCK GENERATOR WITH BUFFERED OUTPUT Figure 4.5 Glitch caused at the output of AND gate due to inverted signal being delayed than non-inverted signal Dept of ECE, S.D.M.C.E.T, Dharwad Page 17 17
  • 18. TWO-PHASE NON OVERLAPPING CLOCK GENERATOR WITH BUFFERED OUTPUT Chapter 5 IMPLEMENTATION AND RESULTS 5.1 Circuit Description The circuit is required to accept a single phase input clock signal of 10 MHz (minimum) – 100 MHz (maximum) frequency and, from this, generate two-phase non overlapping clock signals at the same input clock frequency. The two-phase clock signals are to be good, clean ‘square’ waves, and each phase should be capable of driving a load capacitance of 0.33 pF without undue waveform degradation. The approach taken is one of the circuit developments through the design schematic, simulation of performance, improvement where necessary, modified schematic, simulation of modified schematic, and so on. 5.2 Design Process Version 1: In order to achieve the waveform requirements, first the complete the schematic for the basic arrangement without output buffers was created in virtuoso schematic editor. All the transistors were taken from the GPDK 180 nm technology library. The symbol for the schematic is created. In a new schematic window the symbol is placed along with the voltage source and input clock pulse. The symbol is simulated using ADE-L before proceeding further. The circuit realized is shown in fig 5.1 and is a straight forward translation of the logic diagram shown in fig 4.1. Circuit realized to test the symbol of the two-phase clock is shown in the fig 5.2. The circuit is tested for different input clock frequency: 10 MHz, 12.5 MHz, 25 MHz, 50 MHz and 100 MHz. The need to uses different input clock frequency is to show the response of the circuit at different frequencies. Table 5.1 shows the W : L ratio of all the transistors. In version 1 design all the transistors (both p-type and n-type) have a uniform W : L ratio of 1 : 1. Dept of ECE, S.D.M.C.E.T, Dharwad Page 18 18
  • 19. TWO-PHASE NON OVERLAPPING CLOCK GENERATOR WITH BUFFERED OUTPUT Table 5.1 W : L ratio of transistors for version 1 Two-phase clock generator Transistors T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8 T9 T10 T11 T12 T13 T14 W:L ratio 1:1 1:1 1:1 1:1 1:1 1:1 1:1 1:1 1:1 1:1 1:1 1:1 1:1 1:1 The simulated transient analysis output waveforms for 10 MHz and 100 MHz input clock frequency are shown in fig 5.3 and fig 5.4 respectively. As expected the circuit performs very well for the lower end frequencies. As the input clock frequency is increased the output phase signals start to degrade. Schematic Diagram T5 T11 T13 T1 T6 T10 T3 T7 T9 T14 T13 T2 T4 T8 Fig 5.1 Schematic Diagram of Version 1 Two-phase clock generator Fig 5.2 Test symbol circuit of Version 1 Two-phase clock generator Dept of ECE, S.D.M.C.E.T, Dharwad Page 19 19
  • 20. TWO-PHASE NON OVERLAPPING CLOCK GENERATOR WITH BUFFERED OUTPUT Table 5.2 Values of different parameters Instance Parameters Vdc Vin = 1.8 V Vpulse V1 = 0 V V2 = 1.8 V Rise time = 1 ps Fall time = 1ps The total period and pulse period was varied according to frequency under test For 100 MHz test simulation: Total Period = 10 ns Pulse Period = 5 ns Simulation Results: Fig 5.3 Transient response of Version 1 Two-phase clock generator (12.5 MHz Input clock) Dept of ECE, S.D.M.C.E.T, Dharwad Page 20 20
  • 21. TWO-PHASE NON OVERLAPPING CLOCK GENERATOR WITH BUFFERED OUTPUT Fig 5.4 Transient response of Version 1 Two-phase clock generator (100 MHz Input clock) Result analysis of version 1 circuit: 1. The amount of underlap between phase 1 (ɸ1) and phase 2 (ɸ2) waveforms is barely adequate. 2. Phase 1 (ɸ1) output rises faster than the phase 2 (ɸ2) owing to the time required for the NOR gate output to rise. 3. The square waves produced at each output are not particularly good at higher frequencies (50 MHz and100 MHz). Version 2 Clearly, all the performance shortcomings of version 1 could be improved by 1. Increasing the delay presently introduced by the two inverters in series. 2. Reducing the output resistance of the final delay generating inverter so that the gate capacitance of the NOR gate will be charged faster, and also reducing the output resistance by widening the channels of the two p-type pullup transistors of the NOR gate. Dept of ECE, S.D.M.C.E.T, Dharwad Page 21 21
  • 22. TWO-PHASE NON OVERLAPPING CLOCK GENERATOR WITH BUFFERED OUTPUT All the above points have been taken into account in version 2, noting that (1) the delayed clock waveform is now generated by dour inverters in series and (2) that the driving capability has been improved by progressively decreasing the L:W ratio for the transistor channel in the inverter. The circuit implementation now appears as fig 4.2, the revised schematic diagram looks as shown in fig 5.5 and the corresponding simulation results as fig 5.6 and fig 5.7. Schematic Diagram T15 T16 T17 T18 Fig 5.5 Schematic Diagram of Version 2 Two-phase clock generator Table 5.3 W : L ratio of transistors for Version 2 Two-phase clock generator Transistors T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8 T9 T10 W:L ratio 1:1 1:1 1:2 1:2 1:1 1:1 1:1 1:1 1:1 1:1 Transistors T11 T12 T13 T14 T15 T16 T17 T18 W:L ratio 1:2 1:2 1:1 1:1 1:3 1:3 1:4 1:4 Dept of ECE, S.D.M.C.E.T, Dharwad Page 22 22
  • 23. TWO-PHASE NON OVERLAPPING CLOCK GENERATOR WITH BUFFERED OUTPUT Fig 5.6 Transient response of Version 2 Two-phase clock generator (12.5 MHz Input clock) Fig 5.7 Transient response of Version 2 Two-phase clock generator (100 MHz Input clock) Dept of ECE, S.D.M.C.E.T, Dharwad Page 23 23
  • 24. TWO-PHASE NON OVERLAPPING CLOCK GENERATOR WITH BUFFERED OUTPUT Version 3: Waveforms and delay are now predicted to be within acceptable limits and it now remains to add the output buffer at each output. An acceptable approach is to cascade inverters of increasing channel width. The number of cascaded stages is given by N = ln(y). Thus in this case for 0.33 pF: y = CL/□Cg □Cg = 20000 aF/µm2 = 0.02 pF/µm2 i.e y = (0.33/0.02) = 16.5 Therefore, N= ln(16.5) = 2.80 ≈ 3 Thus, we need 3 inverters in series, each one being 2.7 times (say 2.5) its predecessor’s width. Noting the existing output inverter for phase 1, we need two additional buffer inverter stages to provide the phase 1 output. Three will be needed for phase 2 but a fourth is added to maintain the original phase relationship. The circuit is shown in fig 5.8. Table 5.4 W : L ratio of transistors for version 3 Two-phase clock generator Transistors T1 W:L ratio T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8 T9 T10 1:1 1:1 1:2 1:2 1:1 1:1 1:1 1:1 1:1 1:1 Transistors T11 T12 T13 T14 T15 T16 T17 T18 T19 W:L ratio 1:2 1:2 1:1 1:1 1:3 1:3 1:4 1:4 1:2.5 1:2.5 Transistors T21 W:L ratio T20 T22 T23 T24 T25 T26 T27 T28 T29 T30 1:6.5 1:6.5 1:1 1:1 1:2.5 1:2.5 1:6.5 1:6.5 1:6.5 1:6.5 Dept of ECE, S.D.M.C.E.T, Dharwad Page 24 24
  • 25. TWO-PHASE NON OVERLAPPING CLOCK GENERATOR WITH BUFFERED OUTPUT Schematic Diagram T29 T27 T25 T23 T19 T21 T22 T30 T28 T26 T24 T20 Fig 5.8 Schematic Diagram of Version 3 Two-phase clock generator Fig 5.9 Test symbol circuit of Version 3 Two-phase clock generator The version 3 of the two-phase non overlapping clock generator schematic is first simulated on no external capacitive load. The waveforms generated at 10 MHz clock frequency were recorded. Near ideal non overlapping square waves were observed with 1ns under-lap as shown in fig 5.10. In order to assess the effect of increasing this maximum operating frequency, the input clock rate was increased till 100 MHz input clock and resulting waveforms were observed as in fig 5.11. It will be seen that the performance of the circuit is still excellent with proper non overlapping phases. Finally the outputs were loaded with load capacitance CL and resulting waveforms were observed as in fig 5.12. Dept of ECE, S.D.M.C.E.T, Dharwad Page 25 25
  • 26. TWO-PHASE NON OVERLAPPING CLOCK GENERATOR WITH BUFFERED OUTPUT Fig 5.10 Transient response of Version 3 Two-phase clock generator with no load capacitor (12.5 MHz Input clock) Fig 5.11 Transient response of Version 3 Two-phase clock generator with no load capacitor (100 MHz Input clock) Dept of ECE, S.D.M.C.E.T, Dharwad Page 26 26
  • 27. TWO-PHASE NON OVERLAPPING CLOCK GENERATOR WITH BUFFERED OUTPUT Fig 5.11 Transient response of Version 3 Two-phase clock generator with 0.33 pF load capacitor (10 MHz Input clock) Fig 5.11 Transient response of Version 3 Two-phase clock generator with 0.33 pF load capacitor (100 MHz Input clock) Dept of ECE, S.D.M.C.E.T, Dharwad Page 27 27
  • 28. TWO-PHASE NON OVERLAPPING CLOCK GENERATOR WITH BUFFERED OUTPUT Chapter 6 CONCLUSION The two-phase non-overlapping clock generator with reasonably good performance over a wide frequency range and different load capacitance is designed. GPDK 180nm technology library was used in designing the schematic of the two-phase non-overlapping clock generator in the Cadence Virtuoso schematic editor environment. All the objectives were successfully covered by the version 3 of the design. The design generates true non overlapping two-phase clock signals with adequate under-lap. Circuit operates reasonably well over the frequency range 10 MHz – 100 MHz. The circuit is capable of driving reasonable load capacitance without undue distorted waveforms, which was one of the major concerns while taking up this mini project in the first place. The circuit is simulated with different input conditions to demonstrate the robustness of the circuit. It was a great experience working in the cadence environment and getting familiarized with the industry standard CAD tool. Dept of ECE, S.D.M.C.E.T, Dharwad Page 28 28
  • 29. TWO-PHASE NON OVERLAPPING CLOCK GENERATOR WITH BUFFERED OUTPUT REFERENCES [1] “A programmable clock oscillator for integrated sensor applications”, Electron Devices Meeting, 1998. Proceedings. 1998 IEEE Hong Kong. [2] Magnus Karlsso, Mark Vesterbacka and Wlodek Kulesza, “A non-overlapping two-phase clock generator With adjustable duty cycle” [3] R. Długosz, K. Iniewski, T. Talaśka3, “0.35 μm 22μW Multiphase Programmable Clock Generator for Circular Memory SC FIR Filter For Wireless Sensor Applications”, Published in IEEE Workshop on Signal Processing Systems (SIPS) IM3, M3-5, 157-160, 2006. [4] Douglas A. Pucknell and Kamran Eshraghian , “Basic Vlsi Design”, Third edition, PHI Private Limited, 1994. [5] Rajalaxmi Das, Ghanshyam Kumar Singh & Ram Mohan Mehra, “Two-Phase Clocking Scheme for Low-Power and High-Speed VLSI”, International Journal of Advances in Engineering & Technology, Volume 2, issue 1, 2011 Dept of ECE, S.D.M.C.E.T, Dharwad Page 29 29

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