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UNDERGROUND CABLE FAULT DISTANCE IDENTIFIER
OVER INTERNET OF THINGS(IOT) PLATFORM
1
SUBMITTED BY
Under the Guidance of
 ABSTRACT
 PROBLEM
STATEMENT
 INTRODUCTION
 LITERATURE REVIEW
 SPECIFICATION
 BLOCK DIAGRAM
 WORKING
 CIRCUIT DIAGRAM
 METHODOLOGY
 ADVANTAGE
 APPLICATIONS
 CONCLUSION
 WORK PLAN
2
The electrical cables run in underground instead of overhead lines in
Urban areas.
The main purpose of the project is to detect the location of fault in the
underground cable .
This project uses the standard concept of Ohms law.
In case of short circuit (Line to Ground), the voltage across series resistors
changes accordingly, which is then fed to an ADC to develop precise digital
data to a programmed Renesas board that further displays fault location.
Location of fault is detected by using IOT.
3
 A variety of technologies and tests are currently available to evaluate
underground cable faults.
 There is often little correlation between the diagnostic results and the
actual deterioration.
 The failures of underground power distribution cables represent a serious
threat.
 Presently diagnostic techniques require cable to be disconnected from
the grid, causing service interrupted during locating thefault.
 The proposed system, help us to detect the exact fault location of the
cable and fix by providing instant information aboutfault.
4
 Mr. M.R. Hans, Ms. Snehal C. Kor, Ms. A.S. Patil et.al Identification of
Underground cable fault location and development determining the exact
distance from the base station.
 Md Fakrul Islam, Amanullah M T Oo, Salahuddin A. Azad et.al
Occurence of underground cable fault in the power transmission and
distribution system. In this paper presents some compact and light weight
high voltage machines are used to make the task easier and faster.
 Dushyant Chandra, Prabhat Singh, Pravash Pratik Rajguru, Mr.
Swapnil. A. Namekar et.al Detection of short circuit fault inunderground
cable using microcontroller. This paper propose that real time calculation
of underground distribution system.
 C.E.T.G Parker et.al high voltage non persistent fault finding cableand
cable fault locating part.
 Qinghai Shi. Troeltzsch U, Kanoun O et.al Detection and localization of
cable faults by time and frequency domain measurements.
5
SPECIFICATION
Hardware specification:
oAT-MEGA328
oIOT MODULE(ESP8266)
oRELAY
oBUZZER
oLCD DISPLAY
oSWITCHES
oREGULATOR
Software specification:
ARDUINO
PROTEUS
ESP FIRMWARE FLASHER
7
WORKING:
 The objective of this project is to determine the distance of underground cable
fault from base station in kilometers. The underground cable system is a
common practice followed in many urban areas. While a fault occurs for some
reason, at that time the repairing process related to that particular cable is
difficult due to not knowing the exact location of the cable fault.
 The proposed system is to find the exact location of the fault. The project uses
the standard concept of Ohms law i.e., when a low DC voltage is applied at the
feeder end through a series resistor (Cable lines), then current would vary
depending upon
 the location of fault in the cable.
 In case there is a short circuit (Line to Ground), the voltage across series
resistors changes accordingly, which is then fed to an ADC to develop precise
digital data which the programmed microcontroller of 8051 family would display
in kilometers.
 The project is assembled with a set of resistors representing
cable length in KM’s and fault creation is made by a set of
switches at every known KM to cross check the accuracy of
the same. The fault occurring at a particular distance and the
respective phase is displayed on a LCD interfaced to the
microcontroller.
 Further this project can be enhanced by using capacitor in an
ac circuit to measure the impedance which can even locate
the open circuited cable, unlike the short circuited fault only
using resistors in DC circuit as followed in the above proposed
project.
10
ATAT-
Mega
328
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM
AT-MEGA 328
 The ATmega328/P is a low-power CMOS 8-bit
microcontroller based on the AVR® enhanced
RISC (reduced instruction set computer)
architecture. In Order to maximize performance
and parallelism, the AVR uses Harvard architecture
– with separate memories and buses for program
and data.
 28-pin AVR Microcontroller
 Flash Program Memory: 32 kbytes
 EEPROM Data Memory: 1 kbytes
 SRAM Data Memory: 2 kbytes
 I/O Pins: 23
 Timers: Two 8-bit / One 16-bit
 A/D Converter: 10-bit Six Channel
 PWM: Six Channels
 RTC: Yes with Separate Oscillator
 MSSP: SPI and I²C Master and Slave Support
 USART: Yes
 External Oscillator: up to 20MHz
ESP8266
 802.11 b / g / n
 Wi-Fi Direct (P2P), soft-AP
 Built-in TCP / IP protocol stack
 Built-in TR switch, balun, LNA, power amplifier and
matching network
 Built-in PLL, voltage regulator and power management
components
 802.11b mode + 19.5dBm output power
 Built-in temperature sensor
 Support antenna diversity
 off leakage current is less than 10uA
 Built-in low-power 32-bit CPU: can double as an application
processor
 SDIO 2.0, SPI, UART
 STBC, 1×1 MIMO, 2×1 MIMO
 A-MPDU, A-MSDU aggregation and the 0.4 Within wake
 2ms, connect and transfer data packets
 standby power consumption of less than 1.0mW (DTIM3)
POWER SUPPLY
 The input to the circuit is applied from the regulated power
supply. The a.c. input i.e., 230V from the mains supply is
step down by the transformer to 12V and is fed to a rectifier.
The output obtained from the rectifier is a pulsating d.c
voltage. So in order to get a pure d.c voltage, the output
voltage from the rectifier is fed to a filter to remove any a.c
components present even after rectification. Now, this
voltage is given to a voltage regulator to obtain a pure
constant dc voltage.
SWITCH INTERFACING:
 CPU accesses the switches through ports. Therefore
these switches are connected to a microcontroller. This
switch is connected between the supply and ground
terminals. A single microcontroller (consisting of a
microprocessor, RAM and EEPROM and several ports
all on a single chip) takes care of hardware and software
interfacing of the switch.
 These switches are connected to an input port. When no
switch is pressed, reading the input port will yield 1s
since they are all connected to high (Vcc). But if any
switch is pressed, one of the input port pins will have 0
since the switch pressed provides the path to ground. It
is the function of the microcontroller to scan the
switches continuously to detect and identify the switch
pressed.
RELAYS
 A relay is an electrically
controllable switch widely used
in industrial controls,
automobiles and appliances.
 The relay allows the isolation of
two separate sections of a
system with two different
voltage sources i.e., a small
amount of voltage/current on
one side can handle a large
amount of voltage/current on
the other side but there is no
chance that these two voltages
mix up
LCD (LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY)
Specification :
•Operating Voltage is 4.7V to 5.3V.
•Current consumption is 1mA without
backlight.
•Alphanumeric LCD display module,
meaning can display alphabets and
numbers.
•Consists of two rows and each row can
print 16 characters.
•Each character is build by a 5×8 pixel
box.
•Can work on both 8-bit and 4-bit mode.
 Installation and Maintenance cost is less
 Economically viable
 Times Spent for searching damaged point in cables are reduced.
 Easy to find the cable faults.
18
 Used in Industrial Hubs inside Metropolitan Cities.
19
 Used by Electric Power Supply Industries / CompanyAll
 The project is designed using structured modelling and is able toprovide
the desired results.
 It can be successfully implemented as a Real Time System.
 Science is discovering or creating major breakthrough in variousfields,
and hence technology keeps changing from time to time.
 Going further, most of the units can be fabricated on a single alongwith
microcontroller thus making the system compact thereby making the
existing system more effective.
 To make the system applicable for real time purposes components with
greater range needs to be implemented.
20
21
22

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under grund fault ppt (1).pptx

  • 1. UNDERGROUND CABLE FAULT DISTANCE IDENTIFIER OVER INTERNET OF THINGS(IOT) PLATFORM 1 SUBMITTED BY Under the Guidance of
  • 2.  ABSTRACT  PROBLEM STATEMENT  INTRODUCTION  LITERATURE REVIEW  SPECIFICATION  BLOCK DIAGRAM  WORKING  CIRCUIT DIAGRAM  METHODOLOGY  ADVANTAGE  APPLICATIONS  CONCLUSION  WORK PLAN 2
  • 3. The electrical cables run in underground instead of overhead lines in Urban areas. The main purpose of the project is to detect the location of fault in the underground cable . This project uses the standard concept of Ohms law. In case of short circuit (Line to Ground), the voltage across series resistors changes accordingly, which is then fed to an ADC to develop precise digital data to a programmed Renesas board that further displays fault location. Location of fault is detected by using IOT. 3
  • 4.  A variety of technologies and tests are currently available to evaluate underground cable faults.  There is often little correlation between the diagnostic results and the actual deterioration.  The failures of underground power distribution cables represent a serious threat.  Presently diagnostic techniques require cable to be disconnected from the grid, causing service interrupted during locating thefault.  The proposed system, help us to detect the exact fault location of the cable and fix by providing instant information aboutfault. 4
  • 5.  Mr. M.R. Hans, Ms. Snehal C. Kor, Ms. A.S. Patil et.al Identification of Underground cable fault location and development determining the exact distance from the base station.  Md Fakrul Islam, Amanullah M T Oo, Salahuddin A. Azad et.al Occurence of underground cable fault in the power transmission and distribution system. In this paper presents some compact and light weight high voltage machines are used to make the task easier and faster.  Dushyant Chandra, Prabhat Singh, Pravash Pratik Rajguru, Mr. Swapnil. A. Namekar et.al Detection of short circuit fault inunderground cable using microcontroller. This paper propose that real time calculation of underground distribution system.  C.E.T.G Parker et.al high voltage non persistent fault finding cableand cable fault locating part.  Qinghai Shi. Troeltzsch U, Kanoun O et.al Detection and localization of cable faults by time and frequency domain measurements. 5
  • 6. SPECIFICATION Hardware specification: oAT-MEGA328 oIOT MODULE(ESP8266) oRELAY oBUZZER oLCD DISPLAY oSWITCHES oREGULATOR Software specification: ARDUINO PROTEUS ESP FIRMWARE FLASHER
  • 7. 7
  • 8. WORKING:  The objective of this project is to determine the distance of underground cable fault from base station in kilometers. The underground cable system is a common practice followed in many urban areas. While a fault occurs for some reason, at that time the repairing process related to that particular cable is difficult due to not knowing the exact location of the cable fault.  The proposed system is to find the exact location of the fault. The project uses the standard concept of Ohms law i.e., when a low DC voltage is applied at the feeder end through a series resistor (Cable lines), then current would vary depending upon  the location of fault in the cable.  In case there is a short circuit (Line to Ground), the voltage across series resistors changes accordingly, which is then fed to an ADC to develop precise digital data which the programmed microcontroller of 8051 family would display in kilometers.
  • 9.  The project is assembled with a set of resistors representing cable length in KM’s and fault creation is made by a set of switches at every known KM to cross check the accuracy of the same. The fault occurring at a particular distance and the respective phase is displayed on a LCD interfaced to the microcontroller.  Further this project can be enhanced by using capacitor in an ac circuit to measure the impedance which can even locate the open circuited cable, unlike the short circuited fault only using resistors in DC circuit as followed in the above proposed project.
  • 12. AT-MEGA 328  The ATmega328/P is a low-power CMOS 8-bit microcontroller based on the AVR® enhanced RISC (reduced instruction set computer) architecture. In Order to maximize performance and parallelism, the AVR uses Harvard architecture – with separate memories and buses for program and data.  28-pin AVR Microcontroller  Flash Program Memory: 32 kbytes  EEPROM Data Memory: 1 kbytes  SRAM Data Memory: 2 kbytes  I/O Pins: 23  Timers: Two 8-bit / One 16-bit  A/D Converter: 10-bit Six Channel  PWM: Six Channels  RTC: Yes with Separate Oscillator  MSSP: SPI and I²C Master and Slave Support  USART: Yes  External Oscillator: up to 20MHz
  • 13. ESP8266  802.11 b / g / n  Wi-Fi Direct (P2P), soft-AP  Built-in TCP / IP protocol stack  Built-in TR switch, balun, LNA, power amplifier and matching network  Built-in PLL, voltage regulator and power management components  802.11b mode + 19.5dBm output power  Built-in temperature sensor  Support antenna diversity  off leakage current is less than 10uA  Built-in low-power 32-bit CPU: can double as an application processor  SDIO 2.0, SPI, UART  STBC, 1×1 MIMO, 2×1 MIMO  A-MPDU, A-MSDU aggregation and the 0.4 Within wake  2ms, connect and transfer data packets  standby power consumption of less than 1.0mW (DTIM3)
  • 14. POWER SUPPLY  The input to the circuit is applied from the regulated power supply. The a.c. input i.e., 230V from the mains supply is step down by the transformer to 12V and is fed to a rectifier. The output obtained from the rectifier is a pulsating d.c voltage. So in order to get a pure d.c voltage, the output voltage from the rectifier is fed to a filter to remove any a.c components present even after rectification. Now, this voltage is given to a voltage regulator to obtain a pure constant dc voltage.
  • 15. SWITCH INTERFACING:  CPU accesses the switches through ports. Therefore these switches are connected to a microcontroller. This switch is connected between the supply and ground terminals. A single microcontroller (consisting of a microprocessor, RAM and EEPROM and several ports all on a single chip) takes care of hardware and software interfacing of the switch.  These switches are connected to an input port. When no switch is pressed, reading the input port will yield 1s since they are all connected to high (Vcc). But if any switch is pressed, one of the input port pins will have 0 since the switch pressed provides the path to ground. It is the function of the microcontroller to scan the switches continuously to detect and identify the switch pressed.
  • 16. RELAYS  A relay is an electrically controllable switch widely used in industrial controls, automobiles and appliances.  The relay allows the isolation of two separate sections of a system with two different voltage sources i.e., a small amount of voltage/current on one side can handle a large amount of voltage/current on the other side but there is no chance that these two voltages mix up
  • 17. LCD (LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY) Specification : •Operating Voltage is 4.7V to 5.3V. •Current consumption is 1mA without backlight. •Alphanumeric LCD display module, meaning can display alphabets and numbers. •Consists of two rows and each row can print 16 characters. •Each character is build by a 5×8 pixel box. •Can work on both 8-bit and 4-bit mode.
  • 18.  Installation and Maintenance cost is less  Economically viable  Times Spent for searching damaged point in cables are reduced.  Easy to find the cable faults. 18
  • 19.  Used in Industrial Hubs inside Metropolitan Cities. 19  Used by Electric Power Supply Industries / CompanyAll
  • 20.  The project is designed using structured modelling and is able toprovide the desired results.  It can be successfully implemented as a Real Time System.  Science is discovering or creating major breakthrough in variousfields, and hence technology keeps changing from time to time.  Going further, most of the units can be fabricated on a single alongwith microcontroller thus making the system compact thereby making the existing system more effective.  To make the system applicable for real time purposes components with greater range needs to be implemented. 20
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