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# Divide by N clock

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this presentation is based to construct different frequency divide by clock with reference to the system clock.

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• thank u, its very useful my project

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• can you tell about frequency multipliers and universal frequency dividers if any available

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• can u tell how to divide 100 mhz clock to 80 mhz clock

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• @akshaychauhan07 Hi. Were you able to figure out the answer ?

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• When we use Ripple Counter Each Flip used as Multiplier Like 1FF= Div/2, 2FF=Div/4, 3FF=Div/8.... But When you use Johnson Counter Each Flip used As Adder Like 1FF=Div/2, 2FF=Div/4, 3FF=Div/6, 4FF=Div/8..........

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### Divide by N clock

1. 1. Divide by clock Deepak Floria deepakfloria@gmail.com
2. 2. Clock • Clock refers to any device for measuring and displaying the time. • Clock is repetitive in nature after some time period.
3. 3. • Every modern PC has multiple system clocks. • Each of these vibrates at a specific frequency, normally measured in MHz . • A clock "tick" is the smallest unit of time in which processing happens, and is sometimes called a cycle. System Clock clock
4. 4. • Some types of work can be done in one cycle while others require many. • The ticking of these clocks is what drives the various circuits in the PC, and the faster they tick, the more performance you get from your machine. System Clock
5. 5. Clock Period clock Off Time= tOn Time = t On Time On TimeOff Time Off Time 2t • On time = off time • Total time = T = 2t Duty Cycle = [(On Time/Total time) * 100 ]% Duty Cycle = t /T * 100 % = t/2t *100 % = 50%
6. 6. ` Positive Level Negative Level Positive Edge Negative Edge Clock Parameters Posedge to negedge => posLevel => On time => High Level Negedge to posedge => neg level => Off time => Low Level Clock Period => Posedge To Posedge or Negedge to Negedge
7. 7. Divide by Clock • In SOC some type of job done in one clock and others in multiple cycle. • There are many types of Buses inside SOC system. • These buses works at different clock signal but take reference from the main system clock. • Taking Reference as the main System clock we perform the Divide by Clock operations. Reference clock
8. 8. Divide by 2N • Freq divide By 2N • N=1 => Divide By 2 T = 2t F = 1/T T = 2t F = 1/2T Reference Clock Derived Clock
9. 9. • Counter: A counter is a device which works on each edge of the clock and count the number of clock pulses. • Mod 2 Counter: Mod 2 counter will count two clock pulses of the clock signal. • A mod 2 counter is exactly working for two clock cycle. Divide by 2 Clk Count Clock pulses X X 0 0 0 1 1 1 2
10. 10. Q D-FF d Q’ Reference Clock Reset Divide by 2 Mod 2 Counter T = 2t T = 2T Reference Clock Q = Div/2 Clk Div/2 Clock
11. 11. Divide by 4 • Freq divide By 2N • N=2 => Divide By 4 Reference Clock Derived Clock Clk period T = 4T Freq F= 1/T ‘=> 1/4T
12. 12. • Mod 4 Counter: Mod 4 Johnson counter will count Four clock pulses of the clock signal. • Consider the second FF Q1 output which is high for two Clock & low For Two Clock Cycle Divide by 4 Clk Count Q1 Q0 Clock pulses X X X 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 2 1 1 1 3 1 1 0 4
13. 13. Divide by 4 D-FF d0 Q0’ d1 D-FFClock Reset Reference Clock Reset Q0 Q1 Clock Q1’
14. 14. Divide by 4 • Freq divide By 2N • N=2 => Divide By 4 Reference Clock Q1 Derived Clock Q0 T = 2t F = 1/T T = 4T F = 1/4T 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1
15. 15. D-FF d0 Q0’ d1 D-FFClock Reset Reference Clock Reset Q0 Q1 Clock Q1’ Alternative way to Div/4 Pass the O/P of the 1st FF to the next FF as Clk signal
16. 16. Alternative way to Div/4 Q1 = Div/4 Clk T = 2t T’ = 4T Reference Clock Q0 = Div/2 Clk Ref clk to 2nd FF
17. 17. Divide by 8 counter • Freq divide By 2N • N=3 => Divide By 8 • A divide by 8 counter requires three flip flops • It has 8 possible states • The Q’ output of the third FF is given as an input to the first flip flop clk Count Q2 Q1 Q0 Clock Cycle X X X X 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 2 1 0 1 0 3 1 0 1 1 4 1 1 0 0 5 1 1 0 1 6 1 1 1 0 7 1 1 1 1 8 O/P of the 3rd FF is high for 3 clk cycle & low for 3 clk Cycle. This is the required Div/8 Clk signal
18. 18. Waveform for Divide by 8 clock T=2t T’ = 8T CLK Q
19. 19. Divide by 8 counter Logic Diagram DFF DFFDFF CLK DA QA DB DC QB QC Div/8
20. 20. Alternative way to Div/8 D-FF d0 Q0’ d1 D-FFClock Reset Reference Clock Reset Q0 Q1 Clock Q1’ D-FF Clock Reset Div/8 Pass the O/P of the one FF to the next FF as Clk signal
21. 21. Alternative way to Div/8 Q2 = Div/8 Clk T = 2t T’ = 8T Reference Clock Q0 = Div/2 Clk
22. 22. Divide by 16 counter • Freq divide By 2N • N=4 => Divide By 16 • A divide by 16 counter requires 4 flip flops • It has 16 possible states. • The Q’ output of the last flip flop is connected to input to the first flip flop
23. 23. clk Count Q3 Q2 Q1 Q0 Clock Cycle X X X X X 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 2 1 0 0 1 0 3 1 0 0 1 1 4 1 0 1 0 0 5 1 0 1 0 1 6 1 0 1 1 0 7 1 0 1 1 1 8 1 1 0 0 0 9 1 1 0 0 1 10 1 1 0 1 0 11 1 1 0 1 1 12 1 1 1 0 0 13 1 1 1 0 1 14 1 1 1 1 0 15 1 1 1 1 1 16 The last FF O/P value is low for 8 clk cycle & high for 8 clk cycle. This O/P is the required Div/16 clk signal.
24. 24. Divide by 16 counter CLK Q T= 2t 8T T ‘ = 16 T F = 1/16T
25. 25. Divide by 16 counter Logic Diagram DFF DFF DFFDFF CLK DA QA DB DC DD QB QC QD QD Div/16
26. 26. Divide by 2N • Freq divide By 2N • N=N => Divide By N T = 2t F = 1/T T = NT F = 1/NT Reference Clock Derived Clock
27. 27. Divide by 2N Q2 D-FF d0 Q0’ d1 D-FF Clock Reset Reference Clock Reset Q0 Q1 Clock Q1’ D-FF Clock Reset Div/N D-FF Reset Clock Q2’ QN’ d2 dN
28. 28. • A divide by 3 clock requires A mod 3 Counter. • It can be constructed using 2 FF. • It has 4 possible states and it needs only 3 states Divide by 3 Clk Count Q1 Q0 Clock pulses X X X 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 2 1 1 0 3 Observe the OP of 2nd FF
29. 29. Div/ 3 clk D-FFD-FF d0 Q0’ d1 D-FF Clock Reset Reference Clock Reset Q0 Q1 Clock Q1’ d Q Q’ Divide by 3 • Pass the second FF O/P to one more FF which is triggered as negedge of clk. • Make ORing of Q1 & Q. • This is the require Div/3 50 % duty cycle Clk circuit.
30. 30. Waveform for Divide by 3 • Freq divide By3 Reference Clock Q1 Q0 T = 2t F = 1/T T = 3T 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 Q Div/3 clk
31. 31. • A divide by 5 counter requires can be developed using Mod 5 Counter in similar method. • To get 50% duty cycle output one more flip flop is added and it is negative edge triggered. • Pass the output of the second Divide by 5 clock Clk Count Q2 Q1 Q0 cycle X X X X 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 2 1 0 1 0 3 1 0 1 1 4 1 1 0 0 5 Observe the output of second FF. It is High for 2 cycle & low for 3 cycle. • Pass the output of the second FF to one more FF which is triggered with negedge of clk then make ORing of these two.
32. 32. 2T Waveform for Divide by 5 T =2t t’= 2+1/2 T T’=5T CLK QB QD QB + QD
33. 33. QA QA QB QB QC QC QDDA DB DC DD . . CLK Y . Divide by 5 Clock Logic Diagram
34. 34. Divide by 6 counter • Div/6 can be constructed by johnson counter. • A Div/6 Johnson counter requires 3 bit FF. Clk Count Q2 Q1 Q0 cycle X X X X 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 2 1 1 1 0 3 1 1 1 1 4 1 0 1 1 5 1 0 0 1 6 The O/P of the 1st FF is high for 3 clk cycle & low for 3 clk cycle. This is the Required Div/6 clk signal.
35. 35. Wavaeform for Divide by 6 counter T=2t 3T T’ = 6T Clk Q
36. 36. Divide by 7 counter • A divide by 7 counter requires Mod 7 counter. • It has 8 possible states and it needs only 7 states. Clk Count Q2 Q1 Q0 cycle X X X X 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 2 1 0 1 0 3 1 0 1 1 4 1 1 0 0 5 1 1 0 1 6 1 1 1 0 7 The O/P of the 3rd FF is High for 3 clk cycle & low for 3 clk cycle. Pass this O/P to one more FF which will work negedge of Clk then make ORing of these two O/P.
37. 37. Divide by 7 counter 2t 6T 7T T’=7T CLK QA QD QA + QD 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6
38. 38. Divide by 7 counter Logic Diagram . QA QA QB QB QC QC QDDA DB DC DD . . CLK Y
39. 39. Divide by 9 counter • A divide by 9 counter requires Mod 9 counter. • It has 16 possible states and it needs only 9 states clk Count Q3 Q2 Q1 Q0 Clock Cycle X X X X X 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 2 1 0 0 1 0 3 1 0 0 1 1 4 1 0 1 0 0 5 1 0 1 0 1 6 1 0 1 1 0 7 1 0 1 1 1 8 1 1 0 0 0 9 1 1 0 0 1 10 The 3rd FF O/P value is low for 5 clk cycle & high for 4 clk cycle. This O/P is the required Div/9 clk signal but not 50% duty cycle. Pass this O/P to one more FF triggered with negedge clk and then make Oring fo these two signal to 50% duty cycle.
40. 40. Divide by 9 counter 2T 4T 4+1/2T T’=9T CLK QB QE QB + QE 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 2 3 4 5 6
41. 41. Div/9 counter Logic Diagram DA DB DC DD DEQA QA QB QB QC QC QD QD QE CLK Y . . . . . .
42. 42. ThankYou Deepak floria