Digital differences

14,776 views
14,673 views

Published on

At a Spectrum Leadership Institute session at ALA's annual conference in Anaheim, CA, research specialist Kathryn Zickuhr will discuss trends in technology access and use among various demographic groups, and what these changes might mean for libraries.

Published in: Technology, News & Politics

Digital differences

  1. 1. DigitaldifferencesNew data and trendsKathryn Zickuhr, Research SpecialistPew Research Center’s Internet & American Life ProjectAmerican Library Association Spectrum Leadership InstituteAnaheim, CA - June 25, 2012
  2. 2. Kathryn ZickuhrResearch SpecialistPew Internet & American Life Projectkzickuhr@pewinternet.org@kzickuhr@pewinternet@pewresearch
  3. 3. About Pew Internet•  Part of the Pew Research Center, a non-partisan “fact tank” in Washington, DC•  Studies how people use digital technologies•  Does not promote specific technologies or make policy recommendations•  Data for this talk is from nationally representative telephone surveys of U.S. adults and teens (on landlines and cell phones)All slides and reports are available atpewinternet.org
  4. 4. PewResearchCenter•  Public opinion attitudes toward the press, politics and public policy issues (people-press.org)•  The performance of the U.S. press (journalism.org)•  The impact of technology (pewinternet.org)•  Worldwide public opinion (pewglobal.org)•  Religion and public life (pewforum.org)•  The U.S. Hispanic population (pewhispanic.org)•  Social and demographic trends (pewsocialtrends.org)More: pewresearch.org
  5. 5. Factors•  Age group•  Race/ethnicity•  Household income•  Educational attainment•  Quality of access
  6. 6. Internet
  7. 7. Internet use over time (1995-2012)% of adults ages 18+ who go online 90% 82%   80% (April   70% 2012)   60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 14%  (June  1995)   0%Source: Pew Internet surveys
  8. 8. Almost two-thirds of adults have home broadband% of adults ages 18+ who go online at home via dial-up or broadband Dial-up Broadband 80% 70% 66% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 3% 0% June April March March April March March March April April May Aug April 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012Source: Pew Internet surveys@kzickuhr  @pewinternet   pewinternet.org  
  9. 9. Internet use vs home broadband by age Use  Internet   Have  home  broadband   100   97   91   90   80   75   77   77   70   62   60   53   50   39   40   30   20   10   0   18-­‐29   30-­‐49   50-­‐64   65+  % of all adults 18+ @kzickuhr  @pewinternet  Source: Pew Internet April 2012 survey. pewinternet.org  
  10. 10. Internet use vs home broadband byrace/ethnicity Use  Internet   Have  home  broadband   100   90   84   80   77   75   71   70   60   54   51   50   40   30   20   10   0   White,  Non-­‐Hispanic   Black,  Non-­‐Hispanic   Hispanic  (English-­‐  and   Spanish-­‐speaking)  % of all adults 18+ @kzickuhr  @pewinternet  Source: Pew Internet April 2012 survey. pewinternet.org  
  11. 11. Internet use vs home broadband byyearly household income Use  Internet   Have  home  broadband   100   97   93   90   87   85   87   80   71   68   70   60   50   46   40   30   20   10   0   Less  than  $30,000   $30k-­‐$49,999   $50k-­‐$74,999   $75,000+  % of all adults 18+ @kzickuhr  @pewinternet  Source: Pew Internet April 2012 survey. pewinternet.org  
  12. 12. Internet use vs home broadband byeducational attainment Use  Internet   Have  home  broadband   100   95   90   87   90   80   75   74   70   58   55   60   50   40   34   30   20   10   0   No  high  school   High  school  grad   Some  College   College  +   diploma   % of all adults 18+@kzickuhr  @pewinternet   Source: Pew Internet April 2012 survey.
  13. 13. What is the MAIN reason you do not usethe internet? (asked of non-users) Just not interested 31%   Dont have a computer 12%   Too expensive 10%   Too difficult 9%   Its a waste of time 7%   Dont have time to learn 6%   Dont have a access 6%   Don’t want/need it 4%   Too old to learn 4%   Physically unable 2%   Just dont know how 2%  Worried about viruses/spam/etc 1%   0%   5%   10%   15%   20%   25%   30%   35%  Source: Pew Internet May 2010 survey.@kzickuhr  @pewinternet   pewinternet.org  
  14. 14. Gadgets
  15. 15. Adult gadget ownership, 2006-2012100%   88%   Cell  phone   80%   (total)   73%   Desktop   60%   68%   57%   computer   55%   Laptop   40%   computer   30%   e-­‐Book   19%   reader   20%   19%   Tablet   2%   3%   0%   computer   Apr-­‐06  Dec-­‐07  Apr-­‐08  Apr-­‐09  Sep-­‐09  May-­‐10  Sep-­‐10  May-­‐11  Aug-­‐11  Jan-­‐12  Feb-­‐12  Source: Pew Internet surveys. Data is for adults age 18+. pewinternet.org
  16. 16. Gadget ownership by age group Ages 18-29 Age 30-49 Ages 50-64 Age 65+ 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Cell phones Desktops Laptops E-readers TabletsSource: Pew Internet surveys. Data is for adults age 18+. pewinternet.org
  17. 17. Amost nine in ten adults (and three-quarters of teens) have a cell phone 100% 90% 80% 88% 70% 77% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Teens (12-17) Adults (18+) Teen data: July 2011 Adult data: Feb 2012Source: Pew Internet surveys. pewinternet.org
  18. 18. Cell phones by age group 100   95%   94%   86%   80   77%   67%   60   40   20   0   12-­‐17   18-­‐29   30-­‐49   50-­‐64   65+   Teen data: July 2011 Adult data: Feb 2012Source: Pew Internet surveys. pewinternet.org
  19. 19. Gadgets by household income < $30k/yr $30k-$49,999 $50k-$74,999 $75k+ 120% 100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% Cell phones Desktops Laptops E-readers TabletsSource: Pew Internet surveys. Data is for adults age 18+. pewinternet.org
  20. 20. Gadget ownership by education No high school diploma High school grad Some college College + 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Cell phones Desktops Laptops E-readers TabletsSource: Pew Internet surveys. Data is for adults age 18+. pewinternet.org
  21. 21. Gadget ownership by race/ethnicity White Black Hispanic* 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Cell phones Desktops Laptops E-readers TabletsSource: Pew Internet surveys. Data is for adults age 18+. *  English-­‐  and  Spanish-­‐speaking  
  22. 22. Cell phone ownership (total) by race/ethnicity 100%   90%   80%   70%   60%   50%   87%   88%   88%   40%   Cell  phone  (total)   30%   20%   10%   0%   White   Black   Hispanic                                                             (English-­‐  and  % of all adults 18+ Spanish-­‐speaking)  Source: Pew Internet February 2012 survey.
  23. 23. Cell phone activities by race/ethnicity% of adult cell phone owners 18+ within each group who do the following activities with their cell phone White, non- Black, non- Hispanic Hispanic Hispanic (n=196)Send or receive text messages 70 76 83*Take a picture 71 70 79*Access the internet 39 56* 51*Send a photo or video to someone 52 58 61*Send or receive email 34 46* 43*Download an app 28 36* 36*Play a game 31 43* 40*Play music 27 45* 47*Record a video 30 41* 42*Access a social networking site 25 39* 35*Watch a video 21 33* 39*Post a photo or video online 18 30* 28*Check bank balance or do online banking 15 27* 25**indicates statistically significant differences compared with whites.Source: Pew Internet May 2011 survey
  24. 24. About half of adults (and almost aquarter of teens) have a smartphone 50% 45% 40% 46% 35% 30% 25% 20% 15% 23% 10% 5% 0% Teens (12-17) Adults (18+) Teen data: July 2011 Adult data: Feb 2012Source: Pew Internet surveys. pewinternet.org
  25. 25. Smartphones by age group 80%   70%   66%   59%   60%   50%   40%   34%   30%   23%   20%   13%   10%   0%   12-­‐17   18-­‐29   30-­‐49   50-­‐64   65+   Teen data: July 2011 Adult data: Feb 2012Source: Pew Internet surveys. pewinternet.org
  26. 26. Smartphone ownership by age and income/education % of adults within each group who own a smartphone 18-29 30-49 50-64 65+ (n=336) (n=601) (n=639) (n=626) All adults 66% 59% 34% 13% Household Income Less than $30,000/yr 58 42 16 5 $30,000 or more/yr 72 69 44 27 Educational Attainment High school grad or less 63 43 22 8 Some college or college grad 70 71 44 20 Adult data: Feb 2012@kzickuhr  @pewinternet   pewinternet.org  
  27. 27. Cell phone ownership (total) by race/ethnicity 100%   90%   80%   70%   60%   50%   87%   88%   88%   40%   Cell  phone  (total)   30%   20%   10%   0%   White   Black   Hispanic                                                             (English-­‐  and  % of all adults 18+ Spanish-­‐speaking)  Source: Pew Internet February 2012 survey.
  28. 28. Smartphone ownership by race/ethnicity 100%   90%   80%   70%   40%   42%   39%   60%   50%   40%   Other  cell  phone   30%   Smartphone   44%   45%   49%   20%   10%   0%   White   Black   Hispanic                                                             (English-­‐  and  % of all adults 18+ Spanish-­‐speaking)  Source: Pew Internet February 2012 survey.
  29. 29. 25% of smartphone owners saythey mostly go online with theirsmartphone.About one third of them do not have a traditionalhigh-speed broadband connection at home. Groups that are more likely to say their phone is their main source of internet access: •  Young adults •  Minorities •  Those with no college experience •  Those in lower-income households
  30. 30. Twitter use by race/ethnicity 30%   25%   28% 20%   15%   14% 10%   12% 5%   0%   White Black Hispanic*% of internet users ages 18+Source: Pew Internet February 2012 survey. *  English-­‐  and  Spanish-­‐speaking  
  31. 31. Questions?@kzickuhr@pewinternet@pewresearch
  32. 32. Librariesof today and tomorrow
  33. 33. About our libraries research•  Goal: To study the changing role of public libraries and library users in the digital age•  Funded by a three-year, $1.4 million grant from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation libraries.pewinternet.org
  34. 34. RESEARCH TIMELINEStage I (August 2011-July 2012)Libraries + new technologies •  The rise of e-reading (April 2012) •  E-books, patrons, and libraries – JUST PUBLISHED –  Includes quotes from librarians and patrons –  Available online at libraries.pewinternet.org •  Library use in different community types (summer) •  The habits of younger library users (summer)
  35. 35. The rise of e-reading
  36. 36. Report: The rise of e-readingOne in five adults has read an e-book in the past year 80% 70% 68%   60% 50% 40% 30% 21%   19%   20% 11%   10% 0% Print book E-book Audiobook No bookNote: Due to multiple responses, categories do not add up to 100%
  37. 37. Book reading by age group  % of each age group who have read a book (in any format) in whole or in partin the past 12 months 100% 80% 86% 82% 81% 77% 60% 68% 40% 20% 0% Ages 16-17 Ages 18-29 Ages 30-49 Ages 50-64 Age 65+Source: Pew Internet December 2011 survey. libraries.pewinternet.org
  38. 38. The book format used by readers on any given day is changing % of adult book readers (age 18+) using this format on an average day, as of June 2010 and December 2011 100% 95% 90% 84% 80% 70% 60% 50% Jun-10 40% Dec-11 30% 20% 15% 10% 4% 4% 4% 0% Print  book   E-­‐book   Audiobook  Source: Pew Internet December 2011 survey. libraries.pewinternet.org
  39. 39. Who reads e-books?E-book readers are more likely thanother readers to be:•  Under age 50•  College educated•  Living in households earning $50K+Other key characteristics:•  They read more books, more often•  More likely to buy their books than borrowSource: Pew Internet December 2011 survey. libraries.pewinternet.org
  40. 40. How e-readers read their e-books % of all Americans age 16 and older who read an e-book in the past 12 months, as of December 2011 50% 40% 42% 41% 30% 29% 20% 23% 10% 0% On a cell phone On a computer On an e-reader On a tabletSource: Pew Internet December 2011 survey. libraries.pewinternet.org
  41. 41. Who owns tablets and e-readers?   29%  of  US  adults  own  a   specialized  e-­‐reading   device  (either  a  tablet  or   an  e-­‐reader)   19%  of  adults  own  an   e-­‐reader   19%  of  adults  own  a   tablet  computer  
  42. 42. Who owns tablets and e-readers? E-reader and tablet ownership are strongly correlated with income & education, as well as age— both devices are most popular with adults under 50. Women are more likely than men to own e-readers Parents are more likely than non-parents to own tablets
  43. 43. How device owners read their e-books% of owners of each device who read e-books on that devicewhoread an e-book in the past 12 months, as of December 2011100% 90% 93% 80% 70% 81% 60% 50% 40% 46% 30% 20% 29% 10% 0% On a cell phone* On a desktop or On an e-reader* On a tablet* laptop* * = among people who own that device
  44. 44. Which is better for these purposes, a printedbook or an e-book?Among people ages 16+ who read both an e-book & a print book in the past year Printed books E-books100% 81% 83%80% 73% 69%60% 53% 43% 45%40% 35% 25% 19%20% 13% 9% 0% Reading with Sharing Reading Having a wide Reading while Being able to a child books with books in bed selection to traveling or get a book other people choose from commuting quickly
  45. 45. “My Kindle fits in my purse, so Ican carry my Kindle places Iwouldn’t carry a book. I findmyself taking it almosteverywhere I go so if I findmyself with a free couple ofminutes, I can read a couple ofpages.” – E-book borrower
  46. 46. E-books atlibraries
  47. 47. How people used the library inthe past yearThe % of Americans ages 16+ who used the library for the followingpurposes in the past year 60% 50% 56% 40% 40% 30% 36% 20% 22% 10% 0% For research (all) To borrow books To borrow Total used the newspapers / library magazines
  48. 48. 12% of e-book readers borrow e-books from the librarySource: Pew Internet December 2011 survey. libraries.pewinternet.org
  49. 49. When you want to read a particulare-book, where do you look first?Among all people ages 16+ who read an e-book in the past year80%   75%  70%  60%  50%  40%  30%  20%   12%  10%   5%   5%   0%   At  an  online   At  your  public   Someplace  else   Don’t  know   bookstore/website   library  
  50. 50. When you want to read a particulare-book, where do you look first?Among people who borrowed an e-book from the library in the past year n=111  80%  70%  60%  50%   47%   41%  40%  30%  20%  10%   7%   4%   0%   At  an  online   At  your  public   Someplace  else   Don’t  know   bookstore/website   library  
  51. 51. Have you ever wanted to borrow a particulare-book from the library and found that...Among e-book borrowers Yes No Don’t know It was not compatible 18% 80% 3% with your e-reader There was a waiting list 52% 46% 3% The library did not carry it 56% 39% 5% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100%Source: Pew Internet December 2011 survey. libraries.pewinternet.org
  52. 52. “Fast, easy, plentiful.” – E-book-borrowing patron
  53. 53. 62% of all Americans ages16 and older, including 58%of library card holders, saythey do not know if theirlibrary lends e-books.
  54. 54. What is the main reason you do not borrowe-books from your public library?Among  e-­‐book  readers  who  do  not  get  e-­‐books  at  the  public  library   % of e-book readers whoReason do not get e-books at the public libraryInconvenient / easier to get another way 22%Didn’t know I could / didn’t know library offered e-books 19Don’t use library / no library nearby 8No interest / no real need 7Just found out about it / haven’t had a chance to try it yet 6E-books still new to me / no time to learn 5Just never thought to 5Don’t read a lot / don’t use e-reader much 4Prefer to own my own copy 4My library doesn’t offer e-books 4Prefer print books 3Poor e-book selection at library 2Do not have format I need 2Cumbersome process / wait list / short borrowing period 2Other 6
  55. 55. Among those who do not currently borrow e-booksfrom libraries, the % who say they would be likely to… ...take a class on how to use an e-reader or 32% tablet ...take a class on how 32% to download e-books...borrow a pre-loaded 46% e-reader 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50%
  56. 56. Among those who do not currently borrow e-booksfrom libraries, the % who say they would be likely to… ...take a class on how All three ideas to use an e-reader or 32% tablet are most popular with: African-Americans and ...take a class on how Hispanics 32% to download e-books Those under age 65 Those in households making less than $30k per year...borrow a pre-loaded 46% Those who had not e-reader completed high school Parents of minor 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% children
  57. 57. What thesechanges[could] meanfor libraries
  58. 58. “Our customers are still usingthe library but in different ways.They browse our catalog online,place reserves on the items theywant, then pick them up at theirlocation of choice. Many fewerbrowse the collection in person,” – E-book-borrowing patron
  59. 59. “People are asking for digitalcontent. Anything digital. Theyare hungry for it.” – Library staff member
  60. 60. “We spend a significant part ofour day explaining how to getlibrary books onto e-bookreaders.” – Library staff member
  61. 61. “The greatest change hasbeen the need not only forcomputer access, butcomputer assistance.” – Library staff member
  62. 62. “It all feels pretty murky. Someclarity and good advice wouldbe nice. It’s OK for libraries withbig budgets to plunge into e-book readers. As a small librarywith limited collection funds, wehave to be more careful.” – Library staff member
  63. 63. Imagining the “librarian of the future”  Aggregator/   Organizer   Network  node   Facilitator  Synthesizer  
  64. 64. “Our library is a criticallink in our community.It provides access tobooks, computers,[and] knowledge, and isa critical social center.” – E-book-borrowing patron
  65. 65. RESEARCH TIMELINEStage II (May-November 2012) The changing world of library services •  The evolving role of libraries in communities –  New library services –  People’s expectations of libraries –  “The library of the future” •  The role of libraries in the life of special populations –  Lower-income users, minorities, rural residents, senior citizens
  66. 66. RESEARCH TIMELINEStage III (Sept. 2012–April 2013) A closer analysis of who does – and does not – use libraries •  A “library user” typology –  Different user “types” based on: •  What their local libraries are like •  How they use libraries •  Attitudes about libraries in general •  An updated, in-depth portrait of how teens & young adults use libraries
  67. 67. Thank you!Kathryn ZickuhrResearch SpecialistPew Internet & American Life Projectkzickuhr@pewinternet.org@kzickuhr @pewinternet @pewresearchAll data, slides, and reports available atpewinternet.org

×