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Ethics and Data
Lee Rainie
Director, Internet, Science, and Technology Research
Pew Research Center
Lrainie@pewresearch.or...
Digital life in 2025 - Metaverse
The internet will become ‘like electricity’ —
less visible, yet more deeply embedded in
p...
Theme 1) Information sharing over the internet will be
effortlessly interwoven into daily life making us smarter,
safer, m...
Theme 2) Artificial intelligence, augmented reality, wearable
devices, and big data will make people more aware of
their w...
Theme 3) Social and business encounters will be shaped by
virtual reality and telepresence. Interfaces with data and
objec...
Why big data are different and need fresh
attention from ethics perspectives
• Volume (organic)
• Velocity (real-time)
• V...
How ethics enters the picture
Privacy = control of access
Freedom from intrusion—into the body, home, protected space
Phys...
1. The balance of
forces has shifted in
the networked
age. People are
now “public by
default and
private by effort.”
-- da...
• Half of internet users say they worry
about the amount of information
available about them online – up from
30% in 20
• ...
Implications for big data
• Americans want data-sharing arrangements to be
secure
• If security is breached, Americans wou...
2. Privacy is not binary / context matters and
many are in transactional frame of mind
Implications for big data
• Americans are not instinctively opposed to
data collection and use. They want to
understand th...
3. Personal control / agency matters
Implications for big data
• Consent is so context specific, it is hard to
know for certain how to apply it for non-
obviou...
4. Many know they do not
know what is going on ….
Those who know the most
are more worried
and wary
Implications for big data
• People do not like surprises and will be
unhappy if their data were used in ways they
did not ...
5. Many are resigned – some are even hopeless –
and their trust is fading
How confident are you that your records at
these places will remain private and secure?
76%
69%
66%
61%
57%
56%
55%
54%
50...
Implications for big data
• Transparency (including about data transfers)
• Consider new, networked trust-building
mechani...
(1) Consumer Privacy Bill of Rights (2) OECD Fair Information Practice Principles
2013
Transparency: easily understandable...
Security: users have right to secure and
responsible handling of personal data
Security Safeguards Principle: personal dat...
New Deal on Data
MIT’s Sandy Pentland
1. You have the right to possess data about
yourself
2. You have the right to full c...
Thank you!
Lee Rainie
lrainie@pewresearch.org
@lrainie
@pewinternet
@pewresearch
Sources
• The State of Privacy in America: What we learned
http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2016/01/20/the-state-of-pr...
Ethics and Big Data
Ethics and Big Data
Ethics and Big Data
Ethics and Big Data
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Ethics and Big Data

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Lee Rainie, Director of Internet, Science, and Technology research at the Pew Research Center, presented this material on December 12, 2016 to a working group at the National Academy of Sciences. The group is exploring how to think about creating an academic discipline around "data science."

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Ethics and Big Data

  1. 1. Ethics and Data Lee Rainie Director, Internet, Science, and Technology Research Pew Research Center Lrainie@pewresearch.org 12.12.16
  2. 2. Digital life in 2025 - Metaverse The internet will become ‘like electricity’ — less visible, yet more deeply embedded in people’s lives for good and ill
  3. 3. Theme 1) Information sharing over the internet will be effortlessly interwoven into daily life making us smarter, safer, more efficient. ‘Computication’ involving ‘smart agents’ will be commonplace.
  4. 4. Theme 2) Artificial intelligence, augmented reality, wearable devices, and big data will make people more aware of their world and their own behavior – which will especially aid in health care.
  5. 5. Theme 3) Social and business encounters will be shaped by virtual reality and telepresence. Interfaces with data and objects will change and become easier. Speech and gesture interaction will matter more
  6. 6. Why big data are different and need fresh attention from ethics perspectives • Volume (organic) • Velocity (real-time) • Variety (Internet of Things) • Valence (give analysts more insight) – Longitudinal – Location specific – Combinatorial & searchable – “Understood” by algorithms • Variable valuation over time (in ways not fully known at time of collection)
  7. 7. How ethics enters the picture Privacy = control of access Freedom from intrusion—into the body, home, protected space Physical security—protection from bodily harm done by intrusion Dignity—not being subject to contacts regarded as degrading Intimacy—the role of controlling access to the person in creating intimate relationships Autonomy—controlling access to the person is important to the individual’s ability to make central choices about his/her life Identity—protecting access is critical to individual or group identity Equality—ease of access to some but not to others may affect social positions (e.g. equality of women, racial/ethnic minorities)
  8. 8. 1. The balance of forces has shifted in the networked age. People are now “public by default and private by effort.” -- danah boyd
  9. 9. • Half of internet users say they worry about the amount of information available about them online – up from 30% in 20 • Considering the Future of Privacy, experts argue that privacy is no longer a “condition” of American life. Rather, it is becoming a commodity that would be purchased.
  10. 10. Implications for big data • Americans want data-sharing arrangements to be secure • If security is breached, Americans would like disclosure mechanisms to be clear and swift • Americans would like to know if re-identification processes have compromised their identities • They would appreciate a process to gain redress from harms caused by data breaches or re- identification efforts
  11. 11. 2. Privacy is not binary / context matters and many are in transactional frame of mind
  12. 12. Implications for big data • Americans are not instinctively opposed to data collection and use. They want to understand the tradeoffs. • This puts some burden on big data analysts to make the case for their work and the benefits that will emerge from it.
  13. 13. 3. Personal control / agency matters
  14. 14. Implications for big data • Consent is so context specific, it is hard to know for certain how to apply it for non- obvious uses of the data post facto • Would “due process” mechanisms be better suited? • Would “participatory consent” be possible?
  15. 15. 4. Many know they do not know what is going on …. Those who know the most are more worried and wary
  16. 16. Implications for big data • People do not like surprises and will be unhappy if their data were used in ways they did not anticipate or that seem “out of the blue” • Is a re-consent process possible?
  17. 17. 5. Many are resigned – some are even hopeless – and their trust is fading
  18. 18. How confident are you that your records at these places will remain private and secure? 76% 69% 66% 61% 57% 56% 55% 54% 50% 46% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% Online advertisers Social media Search engines Retailers Email provider Cell telephone Government agencies Cable TV Landline telephone Credit card Not too confident / Not at all confident
  19. 19. Implications for big data • Transparency (including about data transfers) • Consider new, networked trust-building mechanisms – Third party validation – Updated ethics codes – “Hold harmless” mechanisms? • Algorithmic validation / replication
  20. 20. (1) Consumer Privacy Bill of Rights (2) OECD Fair Information Practice Principles 2013 Transparency: easily understandable and accessible information about privacy and security practices Openness Principle: companies should be open about their practices and policies related to personal data Individual Control: consumers have a right to exercise control over what personal data companies collect from them and how they use it Use Limitation Principle: personal data should not be disclosed without consumer consent except when authorized by law Respect for Context: users have a right to expect that companies will collect, use, and disclose personal data in ways that are consistent with the context in which consumers provide the data Purpose Specification Principle: companies should specify the reasons why data are collected no later than the time of collection, and the uses of data should be compatible with the stated reason for data collection Focused Collection: users have a right to reasonable limits on the personal data that companies collect and retain Collection Limitation Principle: there should be limits on the amount of personal data collected and, where appropriate, the company should receive consumer consent
  21. 21. Security: users have right to secure and responsible handling of personal data Security Safeguards Principle: personal data should be reasonably protected against risks such as loss or unauthorized access, destruction, use, modification, or disclosure of data Access and Accuracy: user have right to access and correct personal data in usable formats, in a manner that is appropriate to the sensitivity of the data and the risk of adverse consequences to consumers if the data are inaccurate Individual Participation Principle: consumers should be able to receive confirmation that an entity controls their personal data, and they should be able to access their data within a reasonable time, in a practical manner, and in an intelligible form Data Quality Principle: personal data should be relevant to the purposes for which they are used, and, to the extent necessary for those purposes, the data should be accurate and kept up-to-date Accountability: users can expect that their personal data will be handled only by companies with appropriate measures in place to ensure they follow the Consumer Bill of Rights Accountability Principle: entities that control data should ensure the compliance the other principles (1) Consumer Privacy Bill of Rights (continued) (2) OECD Fair Information Practice Principles 2013 (continued)
  22. 22. New Deal on Data MIT’s Sandy Pentland 1. You have the right to possess data about yourself 2. You have the right to full control over your data 3. You have the right to dispose of or distribute your data
  23. 23. Thank you! Lee Rainie lrainie@pewresearch.org @lrainie @pewinternet @pewresearch
  24. 24. Sources • The State of Privacy in America: What we learned http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2016/01/20/the-state-of-privacy-in-america/ • Privacy and Information Sharing http://www.pewinternet.org/2016/01/14/privacy-and-information-sharing/ • Americans’ Attitudes About Privacy, Security and Surveillance http://www.pewinternet.org/2015/05/20/americans-attitudes-about-privacy-security-and-surveillance/ • Americans’ Privacy Strategies Post-Snowden http://www.pewinternet.org/2015/03/16/americans-privacy-strategies-post-snowden/ • Public Perceptions of Privacy and Security in the Post-Snowden Era http://www.pewinternet.org/2014/11/12/public-privacy-perceptions/ • The Future of Privacy http://www.pewinternet.org/2014/12/18/future-of-privacy/ • Anonymity, Privacy, and Security Online http://www.pewinternet.org/2013/09/05/anonymity-privacy-and-security-online/ • More Support for Justice Department Than for Apple in Dispute Over Unlocking iPhone http://www.people-press.org/2016/02/22/more-support-for-justice-department-than-for-apple-in-dispute-over-unlocking-iphone/

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