Channels of communication


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Channels of communication

  1. 1. Channels of communication Presented by:- • Nirbhey Singh Pahwa
  2. 2. Communication to begin with. • The word communication gets its origin from the Latin word “communis”. • It literally means “to make common”. • So when we communicate, we create a common bridge to exchange our thoughts, ideas, feelings, etc. • “Communication is the transmission and reception of ideas, feelings and attitudes both verbally and non-verbally eliciting a response. It is a dynamic concept underlying all kinds of living systems” ~Norman B Sigband.
  3. 3. FORMAL AND INFORMAL CHANNELS OF COMMUNICATION  There are precisely these two forms of communications in every organisation.  Formal communications are those which are bound with all rules and regulations, Ex. Orders, notices, etc.  Informal communication includes the non official or un-regulated communications, Ex. Rumours, un-verified information  They both exist simultaneously in an organisation.
  4. 4. FORMAL CHANNELS OF COMMUNICATIONS  Every organisation has a formal set-up which they follow.  The actual and valid information to be passed on.  All formal communications are broadly classified as: 1)Horizontal communication. 2)Vertical communication: (a)Downward communication. (b)Upward communication.
  5. 5. COMMUNICATION CHANNELS Workers/Clerks M.D. Managers Officers Supervisors Directors down Up
  6. 6. HORIZONTAL COMMUNICATION  The communication of same level.  Uses both oral and written.
  7. 7.  Advantages of horizontal communication: 1. Horizontal communication improves the quality of team work. 2. Since horizontal communication means better co-ordination of individual effort, it ensures greater efficiency and better results. 3. Effective horizontal communication helps to eliminate misunderstanding, envy, and petty jealousies among people of equal status.  Disadvantages of horizontal communication: 1. There may be a conflict between horizontal and vertical communication. Horizontal communication takes place more frequently than communication between seniors and juniors. So, a decision taken horizontally may go against some instructions given by senior. 2. At higher managerial levels horizontal communication becomes difficult when people engaged in specialised jobs use technical languages (Jargons). 3. Unless horizontal communication is tightly controlled and each person is made actually aware of his responsibilities, a great deal of time may be wasted
  8. 8. VERTICAL COMMUNICATION  Communication among different levels on the line of authority.  Ex. A sectional manager speaking to general manager.
  9. 9. • Downward communication: 1. Traditional type of corporate communication. 2. Downward communication takes place whenever a person belonging to a higher position om=n the line of authority communicates with a person belonging to the lower levels of the hierarchy. 3. Ex. Staff meetings, interviews, circular or notices, etc. M.D. Director Managers Officers Supervisors Workers
  10. 10.  Advantages of downward communication: 1. It helps to maintain discipline within an organisation. Since the levels of authority are determined and clear-cut, each person knows that he is accountable to his immediate senior. 2. The seniors also know exactly the amount of authority they wield, and so they are confident while issuing instructions and orders to juniors.  Disadvantages of downward communication: 1. In downward communication the lines of communication are often too long. 2. Message gets distorted sometimes. 3. Some information is confidential and cannot be communicated downwards.
  11. 11. • Upward communication: 1. Flow of communication from lower levels to higher levels. 2. Upward communication is essential to managers informed about the progress of the work. 3. Ex. Supervisors advising officers. 4. In some organisations ‘open door’ policy is followed. M.D. Director Managers Officers Supervisors Workers
  12. 12.  Advantages of upward communication: 1. It is a part of a two-way process which promotes better understanding between management and employees. 2. Upward communication develops ‘employer-employee’ relations.  Disadvantages of upward communication: 1. Only agreeable information is communicated upwards. 2. Upwards communication tends to travel slowly as it is diluted or edited at each level before it is sent.
  13. 13. INFORMAL COMMUNICATION  The rumour and random information.
  14. 14. • Grapevine Communication 1. Here the information flows in any order i.e. , no horizontal or vertical flow of communication. 2. Spreads very rapidly in all channels of communications. 3. It provides feedback to the organisation, reaches everyone. 4. It can be harmful as information can be baseless. 5. It is mostly incomplete.
  15. 15. • Consensus: 1. Consensus means a common agreement of options. 2. However, a consensus decision doesn't mean that every member of a group in his individual capacity agree with the decision. 3. Consensus help to project the image of a united organisation. 4. But a consensus only puts a lid on different of opinions. It does not remove differences altogether. 5. At best, it is a ‘tool of convenience’.
  16. 16. DIFFERENCE BETWEEN FORMAL AND INFORMAL COMMUNICATION. Sr. No. Formal communication Informal communication 1. Formal communication is that which takes place within the line of authority. Observing the norms ad conditions necessary to the hierarchy. Informal communication, too , operates in every organisation and carries communication which doesn't arise out of the formal channels of communication. Informal discussion about rumours an un-verified information. 2. Formal communication, in whichever direction its movers are always planed, dictated and guided. Today this type of communication is recognized as integral part of the communication structure of every organization. This is known as grapevine communication.
  17. 17. Any Questions Anyone? • Still stuck in informal and formal channels of communications? Don’t worry we are there to help.