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COMMUNICATION.pdf

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COMMUNICATION.pdf
No business organization can work without
effective communication network. It is an important
human skill. No manager can be successful unless he
communicates effectively with his subordinates,
superiors and outsiders. Persons at the managerial or
supervisory positions in an industrial undertaking
spend most of their time in communication as
compare to workers. The face-to-face communication
place a vital role in managerial decision making.
Communication is the process through which
two or more persons exchange ideas among
themselves. The word “communication” is derived
from the Latin word ‘communis’ which means
‘common’. Thus communication stands for sharing
of ideas in common.
Some of the important definitions of communication given by various
authorities on management are discussed below:
“Communication is the sum of all the things one person does when he
wants to create understanding in the mind of another. Communication
is a bridge of meaning. It involves a systematic and continuous process
of telling, listening and understanding”.
- Allen Louis A.
“The word communication describes the process of conveying
messages(facts , ideas , attitudes and opinions)from one person to
another so that they are understood”.
- Cummin M.W.
“Communication is an exchange of facts , ideas , opinions or emotions
by two or more persons”.
- Newman & Summer.
continue……..
 1. It is a two - way process, viz., transmission of
message by one and the receiving of the message by
another.
 2. It is an attempt to effect a transfer of message,
ideas, opinions, etc. between two persons.
 3. It involves the co-operation of two persons, viz.,
the communicator (i.e., the sender of the message)
and the communicatee (i.e., the receiver of the
message).
 4. Proper understanding of the message by the
communicatee is an important feature of
communication.
 5. It travels up and down, and also from
side to side.
 6. Its primary purpose is to motivate a
response.
 7. Effective communication is dependent
on ability to speak as well as to listen.
 8. It is the basis for action and co-
operation.
 9. It is universal in the organisation.

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COMMUNICATION.pdf

  • 2. No business organization can work without effective communication network. It is an important human skill. No manager can be successful unless he communicates effectively with his subordinates, superiors and outsiders. Persons at the managerial or supervisory positions in an industrial undertaking spend most of their time in communication as compare to workers. The face-to-face communication place a vital role in managerial decision making.
  • 3. Communication is the process through which two or more persons exchange ideas among themselves. The word “communication” is derived from the Latin word ‘communis’ which means ‘common’. Thus communication stands for sharing of ideas in common.
  • 4. Some of the important definitions of communication given by various authorities on management are discussed below: “Communication is the sum of all the things one person does when he wants to create understanding in the mind of another. Communication is a bridge of meaning. It involves a systematic and continuous process of telling, listening and understanding”. - Allen Louis A. “The word communication describes the process of conveying messages(facts , ideas , attitudes and opinions)from one person to another so that they are understood”. - Cummin M.W. “Communication is an exchange of facts , ideas , opinions or emotions by two or more persons”. - Newman & Summer. continue……..
  • 5.  1. It is a two - way process, viz., transmission of message by one and the receiving of the message by another.  2. It is an attempt to effect a transfer of message, ideas, opinions, etc. between two persons.  3. It involves the co-operation of two persons, viz., the communicator (i.e., the sender of the message) and the communicatee (i.e., the receiver of the message).  4. Proper understanding of the message by the communicatee is an important feature of communication.
  • 6.  5. It travels up and down, and also from side to side.  6. Its primary purpose is to motivate a response.  7. Effective communication is dependent on ability to speak as well as to listen.  8. It is the basis for action and co- operation.  9. It is universal in the organisation.
  • 7. 1. Basis of co. ordination: The work of the organization can be carried out without interruption only through co- ordination. Co- ordination is a must for the efficient functioning of an enterprise. 2. Smooth working of an enterprise: Communication makes possible the smooth and unrestricted running of the enterprise. All the organizational interactions depend upon communication. 3. Basis of Decision-Making: Communication is essential for quick and systematic performance of managerial functions. The management conveys through communication only the goals and targets, issues, instructions, allocates jobs and responsibility and looks after the performance of subordinates.
  • 8. 4. Promotion of Co-operation and Industrial Peace: It can be possible only when there is industrial harmony between management and workers. The two way communication promotes co-operation and mutual understanding between the parties. 5. Establishment of Effective Leadership: It can be possible only when there is industrial harmony between management and workers. The two way communication promotes co-operation and mutual understanding between the parties. 6. Morale-Building and Motivation: An efficient system of communication enables the management to mould the attitude of the subordinate. Most of the conflict in business are not basic but are caused by misunderstood motives and ignorance of the facts.
  • 9. Communication may be defined as a process concerning exchange of facts or ideas between persons holding different positions in an organizations to achieve mutual harmony. The communication process is dynamic in nature rather than a static phenomenon. Communication process as such must be considered a continuous and dynamic inter- action, both affecting and being affected by many variables.
  • 11. A communication process involves the following elements: 1. Sender: The person who intends to convey the message with the intention of passing information and ideas to others is known as sender or communicator. In an organisation the sender may be a superior, subordinate or any other person. 2. Ideas/Message: This is the subject matter or content of the communication. This may be an opinion, attitude, feelings, views. orders, or suggestions. A message make take three forms: oral, written or gestural.
  • 12. 3. Encoding: Since the subject matter of communication is theoretical and intangible, its further passing requires use of certain symbols such as words, actions, or pictures etc. conversion of subject matter into these symbols is the process of encoding. The symbols or codes selected must bear in mind the decoding skills of the receiver. 4. Communication Channel: The person who is interested in communicating has to choose the channel for sending the required information, ideas etc. This information is transmitted to the receiver through certain channels which may be either formal or informal. The communication channel influences the quantity and quality of information that is conveyed to the receiver. 5. Noise: Noise is any disturbance that disrupts communication effectiveness and interferes with the transference of messages within the communication process.
  • 13. 6. Receiver: Receiver is the person who receives the message or for whom the message is meant for. It is the receiver who tries to understand the message in the best possible manner in achieving the desired objectives. 7. Decoding: The person who receives the message or symbol from the communicator tries to convert the same in such a way so that he may extract its meaning to his complete understanding. The decoding process may result in misunderstandings if the receiver does not decode the message as the sender intended. 8. Feedback: Feedback is the receivers response to the senders message. It is the process of ensuring that the receiver has received the message and understood in the same sense as sender meant it.
  • 14. A. According to organizational structure 1. Formal Communication : Formal communication is a deliberate attempt to regulate the flow of communication so as to ensure that information flow smoothly, accurately and timely. Eg: when general manager issues instructions ( because of his senior position in the organization, it is formal communication. 2. Informal Communication : Informal communication is based on informal relationship between the parties, such as friendship, membership in the same club or association. It is also called as grapevine communication.
  • 15. B. According to direction 1. Downward communication Communication which flows from the superiors to subordinates in the form of orders, instructions, directives, plans and decisions is referred to as downward communication. 2. Upward communication Communication which flows from subordinates to superiors in the form of reports, difficulties and suggestions is known as upward communications. 3. Horizontal communication Horizontal communication takes place between two or more persons working on the same level of organisation. 4. Diagonal communication Diagonal communication cuts across the line of authority for sending messages.
  • 17. C. According to way of expression 1. Oral or verbal communication Oral communication is a direct communication between two individuals. Two individuals exchange their ideas through oral words either in face to face conversation or through any mechanical or electrical device such as telephone, teleconference etc.. 2. Written communication Written communication refers to the message conveyed in writing and includes letters, circulars , memoranda, magazines, notes and manuals. It provides a record and ready reference to the message communicated.
  • 19.  Miscommunication: it is a ruined form of communication. What is to be communicated does not get communicated and an obstructed form of the message is transmitted.  Barriers to Communication: the sum total of all the factors that can distort or prevent communication.
  • 20.  Linguistic/ Semantic barriers  Personal barriers  Psychological & Emotional barriers  Physical barriers  Cultural and Social barriers  Organisational structure barriers  Attitude barriers  Physiological barriers  Technological barriers
  • 21.  Wrongly expressed message  Faulty translation  UnclarifiedAssumption  Use of technical language 2. Organizational Barrier: Prevention of effective communication due to organizational structure.  Organizational policies  Organizational rules  Status relationship  Complexity in structure  Organizational facilities
  • 22. 1) Barriers related to superiors:  Attitude  Fear of position  Lack of ability to communicate  Shortage of time  Lack of attention 2) Barriers related to subordinates:  Unwillingness to communicate  Lack of proper incentive  Lack of effective listening
  • 23.  Premature evaluation  Emotional attitude  Poor retention of information  Inattention
  • 24. 1.NOISE There is a possibility of noise interruption while communicating information. The noise may produced by the conversation of somebody-else nearly or by the machine operation and the like. 2.MISSING INFORMATION The communicator may miss some of the information. sometimes The communicator may fail to supply the required information if he communicates the information in a hurried manner. 3.ALTERATION OF INFORMATION The information is altered if the communicator sends the information through a third party. The third party may twist or alter the information according to his convenience. 4.OVERLOADING This barrier arises due to an increase in the number of messages to be sent. There is a need for the introduction of communication channel to reduce workload.
  • 25. The receiver does not pay any attention in grasping the information. This attitude of the receiver may be caused by the receiver’s immersion in his own thoughts, his difficulty understanding the information or his having no belief in the information. For a message to be properly communicated ,the words used must convey the same meaning to the sender and the receiver. Lack of clarity, lack of coherence and other deficiencies may possibly result in language differences. Traditional organisational structures that are based upon authority relationship restrict free and frequent information. It occurs when gestures or symbols used by the sender to code a message may not be understood in the same way and given the same interpretation by the receiver.
  • 26. How to make communication effective:  Clarity in idea  Purpose of communication  Empathy in communication
  • 27.  Clarify ideas/ thoughts before communication  Communicate according to the need of the receiver/audience  Consult others before communication  Be aware of language, tone and content of message  Ensure proper feedback  Consistency of message  Follow-up communication  Be a good listener
  • 28.  Employee orientation  Use of proper body language and gesture  Use of latest technology  Precise the message  Emotional stability  Objectivity  Timeliness  Adaptability
  • 29. 1.The management should clearly define its policy to the employees. It should encourage the free flow of information. 2.To reduce and remove the perception barrier, the sender of a message Should attempt to know the background knowledge of those with whom he is communicating. 3.Language differences can be handled by explaining the meaning of unconventional or technical terms in simple language. 4.The management sets up a system through which only essential information could be supplied. 5.An atmosphere of mutual trust and goodwill is to be created 6.Every person in the management shares the responsibility of good communication. 7.In a modern organisation, to become a good communicator, the manager has to learn the three important skills namely skills of learning , talking , writing and conducting a meeting. 8.Emotional reactions can be tackled by accepting them as a part of the communication process. These should be analysed properly when they create problems.