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Communication channels.ppt

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Communication channels.ppt

  1. 1. Starting in the Name of Allah, The Most Beneficent, The Most Merciful
  2. 2. Channel  A channel is a path between two communication devices
  3. 3. Characteristics  Signaling transmission method  Medium used  Bandwidth: amount of data transmitted in a fixed amount of time  Direction(s) in which signal can flow  Noise, attenuation, and distortion characteristics
  4. 4. Signaling transmission method Analog: continuous varying waveforms to carry data Digital: a.Two different values of electrical voltage or current b.On/off light source c.Frequently preferred because less susceptible to noise and interference
  5. 5. Directions  Point to point channels a. Simplex: channel passes data in one direction only b. Half-duplex: transmits data one direction at a time (walkie-talkie) c. Full-duplex: transmits data in both directions simultaneously (telephone)
  6. 6. Channel Organization  Multipoint: broadcasts messages to all connected receivers larger number of recievers
  7. 7. Transmission medium  Mediaz Materials carrying the signal a.Consists of two types: i. Physical: wire cable ii. Wireless: Air
  8. 8. Physical Transmission Media  Twisted-pair cable  Coaxial cable  Fiber-optics
  9. 9. Twisted-pair cable  Cabling is a type of wiring in which two conductors of a single circuit are twisted together for the purposes of canceling out electromagnetic interference (EMI) from external sources
  10. 10. Twisted-pair cable c twisted-pair cable twisted-pair wire
  11. 11. Coaxial cable  A type of cable that has an inner conductor surrounded by a tubular insulating layer, surrounded by a tubular conducting shield. Many coaxial cables also have an insulating outer sheath or jacket.
  12. 12. Fiber-optics  Its a flexible, transparent fiber made of high quality glass (silica) or plastic, slightly thicker than a human hair. It can function as a waveguide, or “light pipe”, to transmit light between the two ends of the fiber
  13. 13. Fiber-optics
  14. 14. Fiber-optics  Optical fibers are widely used in fiberoptic communications, which permits transmission over longer distances and at higher bandwidths (data rates) than other forms of communication. Fibers are used instead of metalwires because signals travel along them with less loss and are also immune to electromagnetic interference.
  15. 15. Fiber-optics
  16. 16. Wireless Transmission Media  Broadcast Radio a. Distribute signals through the air over long distance b. Uses an antenna c. Typically for stationary locations d. Can be short range
  17. 17. Wireless Transmission Media  Cellular Radio a. A form of broadcast radio used for mobile communication b. High frequency radio waves to transmit voice or data
  18. 18. Wireless Transmission Media  Microwaves a. Radio waves providing high speed transmission b. They are point-to-point (can’t be obstructed) c. Used for satellite communication
  19. 19. Wireless Transmission Media  Infrared (IR) a. Wireless transmission media that sends signals using infrared lightwaves
  20. 20. Wireless Transmission Media  Infrared (IR) a. Wireless transmission media that sends signals using infrared lightwaves

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