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Formal communicaton

Defination,characteristics,advantages-limitations and methods....and examples of formal communication

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Formal Communication
PRESENTED BY
ATIQA QURESHI
Defination
Formal communication refers to interchange of
information officially. The flow of communication is
controlled and is a deliberate effort. This makes it
possible for the information to reach the desired
place without any hindrance, at a little cost and in a
proper way. This is also known as ‘Through Proper
Channel Communication.’
The communications are orderly and follow set rules,
procedures or standards. Formal communications are very
common in educational settings, workplace settings and
business settings. Formal communications are mostly
written, but can be oral. Formal communications
are not personal communications.
Characteristics
Following are the chief characteristics of the formal communication:
(1) Written and Oral:
Formal communication can both be written and oral. Daily
works are handled through oral communication, while the
policy matters require written communication.
(2) Formal Relations:
This communication is adopted among those employees where
formal relations have been established by the organisation. The
sender and the receiver have some sort of organisational
relations.
(3) Prescribed Path:
The communication has to pass through a definite channel while
moving from one person to another. For example, to convey the feelings
of a worker to the manager, the foreman’s help has to be sought.
(4) Organisational Message:
This channel is concerned with the authorised organisational messages
only and the personal messages are out of its jurisdiction.
(5) Deliberate Effort:
This channel of communication is not established automatically but
effort has to be made for its creation. It is decided keeping in view the
objectives of the organisation.
Types of Formal Communication
Formal communication is of two types:
(1) Vertical Communication:
Downward Communication
Upward Communication
(2) Horizontal Communication.
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Formal communicaton

  • 2. Defination Formal communication refers to interchange of information officially. The flow of communication is controlled and is a deliberate effort. This makes it possible for the information to reach the desired place without any hindrance, at a little cost and in a proper way. This is also known as ‘Through Proper Channel Communication.’
  • 3. The communications are orderly and follow set rules, procedures or standards. Formal communications are very common in educational settings, workplace settings and business settings. Formal communications are mostly written, but can be oral. Formal communications are not personal communications.
  • 4. Characteristics Following are the chief characteristics of the formal communication: (1) Written and Oral: Formal communication can both be written and oral. Daily works are handled through oral communication, while the policy matters require written communication. (2) Formal Relations: This communication is adopted among those employees where formal relations have been established by the organisation. The sender and the receiver have some sort of organisational relations.
  • 5. (3) Prescribed Path: The communication has to pass through a definite channel while moving from one person to another. For example, to convey the feelings of a worker to the manager, the foreman’s help has to be sought. (4) Organisational Message: This channel is concerned with the authorised organisational messages only and the personal messages are out of its jurisdiction. (5) Deliberate Effort: This channel of communication is not established automatically but effort has to be made for its creation. It is decided keeping in view the objectives of the organisation.
  • 6. Types of Formal Communication Formal communication is of two types: (1) Vertical Communication: Downward Communication Upward Communication (2) Horizontal Communication.
  • 7. Vertical Communication Vertical communication is of the following two types: (i) Downward Communication: The communication by top hierarchy with their subordinates is called downward communication. This communication includes orders, rules, information, policies, instructions, etc. The chief advantage of the downward communication is that the subordinates get useful timely information which helps them in their work performance.
  • 8. (ii) Upward Communication: This is quite the reverse of the downward communication. This flows from the subordinates to the superiors. The subject-matter of this communication includes suggestions, reactions, reports, complaints, etc. This sort of communication helps the superiors in taking decisions.
  • 9. (2) Horizontal Communication Horizontal communication takes place when two individuals of the same level exchange information. Horizontal communication is used by the same level officers to solve the problems of similar nature and profit by the experience of other people. The subject-matter of horizontal communication includes information, requests, suggestions, mutual problems and coordination-related information.
  • 10. Advantages The formal communication has the following advantages: (1) Maintenance of Authority of the Officers: Formal communication maintains constant relations among the superiors and the subordinates as a result of whom the dignity of the line superiors is maintained. Consequently, it is convenient to control the subordinates and fix their responsibility which is absolutely needed for effective and successful control.
  • 11. (2) Clear and Effective Communication: In formal communication, there is a direct contact among the managers and the subordinates. Both understand the capability, habits, feelings, etc. of one another. Managers know as to when and under which conditions their subordinates need information. In this way, this communication is capable of making available timely information. Hence, it is clear and effective. (3) Orderly Flow of Information: The information has to pass through a definite route from one person to another. Hence, the flow of information is systematic. (4) Easy Knowledge of Source of Information: In this type of communication, the source of each information can be easily located.
  • 12. Limitations or Disadvantages Following are the disadvantages or limitations of the formal communication: (1) Overload of Work: In a modern business organisation much information, many messages and other things have to be communicated. Under formal communication, they are routed through a definite channel and this consumes much of the time of the superiors and thus some other important works are left unattended.
  • 13. (2) Distortion of Information: This method can be a hindrance in the flow of information. Sometimes the distance between the sender and the receiver is so big that the information has to pass through many hands and by the time it reaches the receiver it is distorted. Thus it fails to serve its purpose. (3) Indifferent Officers: The officers do not pay much attention to the suggestions and complaints of the subordinates. In such a case a subordinate may come lose his faith in the effectiveness of communication.
  • 14. A written job description that details your duties, your pay rate, and the rules of the company when you start a new job. Advice of money owing, like your electricity bill. An invitation to an event that asks you to confirm whether or not you will attend a written notice that is hand delivered to your office or home. A bank statement that provides information about your savings account. A job application you write. An invitation to tender or quote for work. Different Methods of formal communication
  • 15. Business emails, letters (posted, faxed or attached to emails.) Internal memoranda of a business or organisation. Official telephone calls .(such as to discuss business issues) Speaking to colleagues or clients at a formal meeting, or having a formal discussion with one or more people in your office. A written note from your doctor to your employer, advising your absence due to illness.
  • 16. Examples of Formal Communication The following are illustrative examples of formal communication: Meetings: Scheduled meetings. Unscheduled conversations are sometimes formal, particularly if they occur on the premises of a firm and are related to work. Legal & Commercial Notices: Notices that are of legal and/or commercial relevance. In some cases, this requires an audit trail to show that a notice was received. For example, a performance review may be signed by a manager and employee and retained as a record.
  • 17. Documents: Documents that are released to their intended audience. It is common to use version numbers and comments such as "draft" to indicate an unreleased document. Reports: Reports such as a dashboard that is published to stakeholders. Publications: Information that is published with wide distribution such as a press release, blog entry or white paper. This can include internal publications such as an intranet.
  • 18. Social Media: Information posted to social media accounts officially or commonly associated with an organization. Graphics: Graphics such as signs, posters, slides and handouts that are displayed in public locations or an office. Messages: Messages such as emails that are sent in an official capacity. It is common to keep professional and private messaging accounts separated.