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Coordination And Communication

tarun chauhan
tarun chauhan
tarun chauhanSoftware Developer at InfoTrellis Inc

How people should coordinate with the other employees of the organisation. How communication is a key factor in any organisation.

Coordination And Communication

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Coordination and
Communication
Presented by:-
• Parvej Alam
• Prashant Dey
• Prathama Singh
• Prranata Aishwarya
• Puja Upadhyay
• R. K. Adarsh
• Rakesh Kumar Singh
Coordination And Communication
Communication
Communication is defined as sharing of message,
facts, opinions, ideas/attitude and emotions
between sender and receiver .
American Management Association defines,
‘Communication is any behaviour that results in an
exchange of meaning’.
Peter Little defines communication as,
‘Communication is the process by which
information is transmitted between individuals
and/or organizations so that an understanding
response result’.
Elements In The
Communication Process
Message Encoding Medium
Decoding By
Receiver
ReceiverFeedback
NoiseSender
Sender: The party sending the message to
other party. The sender initiates the
communication. In an organization, the sender will
be a person ,with information, needs, or desires
and a purpose for communicating them to one or
more other people.
Medium: The communication channel through
which the message pass from the sender to the
receiver.
Message: The set of symbols that sender
transmits.
Ad

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Coordination And Communication

  • 2. Presented by:- • Parvej Alam • Prashant Dey • Prathama Singh • Prranata Aishwarya • Puja Upadhyay • R. K. Adarsh • Rakesh Kumar Singh
  • 4. Communication Communication is defined as sharing of message, facts, opinions, ideas/attitude and emotions between sender and receiver . American Management Association defines, ‘Communication is any behaviour that results in an exchange of meaning’. Peter Little defines communication as, ‘Communication is the process by which information is transmitted between individuals and/or organizations so that an understanding response result’.
  • 5. Elements In The Communication Process Message Encoding Medium Decoding By Receiver ReceiverFeedback NoiseSender
  • 6. Sender: The party sending the message to other party. The sender initiates the communication. In an organization, the sender will be a person ,with information, needs, or desires and a purpose for communicating them to one or more other people. Medium: The communication channel through which the message pass from the sender to the receiver. Message: The set of symbols that sender transmits.
  • 7. Encoding: Since communication is the object of encoding, the sender attempts to establish “mutuality” of meaning with the receiver by choosing symbol , usually in the form of words and gestures , that the sender believes to have same meaning for the receiver.
  • 8. Decoding: The process by which the receiver interprets the message and translate it into meaningful information. The receiver must first perceive the message and then interpret it. Receiver: The person or group of person whose senses perceive the sender’s message. The message must be crafted with the receiver’s background in mind . If the message has not reached the receiver then communication has not taken place.
  • 9. Noise: Factor that disturbs, confuses, or otherwise interferes with communication. Noise can arise along communication channel/ medium. Noise can be internal(when the receiver is not paying attention) or external(when the message is distorted by other sound in the environment).Noise can occur at any stage in the communication medium . It is particularly troublesome in the encoding or decoding stage. Feedback: The part of the receiver response communicated back to the sender.
  • 11. Formal Oral Upward Informal Written Downward ExpressionStructure Direction Horizontal Diagonal
  • 12. According to Structure communication can be divided into – 1. Formal Communication 2. Informal communication
  • 14. Formal Communication Formal communication is that which takes place within line of authority. Observing the norms and conditions is necessary to the hierarchy. In whichever direction this communication flows, its movers are always planned ,dictated and guided. E.g. Formal meetings, formal letters
  • 15. Informal Communication Informal communication occurs when people come together and talk about their working conditions , family and co-workers etc. May be conveyed by gesture, nod, smile etc. E.g. Talking with friends, gossips, rumours
  • 16. Difference between Formal and Informal communication FORMAL COMMUNICATION INFORMAL COMMUNICATION Its slow because it has a prescribed path Has no particular path. It serves organizational needs Its serves both social and organizational needs Status or position of parties are important Status or position is irrelevant Precise and pronounce words correctly, No slangs Contains shorten version of words or slang words Too rigid Its too flexible
  • 17. According to Expression communication can be divided into : 1.Oral communication 2.Written communication
  • 18. Oral Communication • Everything is oral. It is quick, simple and comparatively more effective.It involves exchange of messages with the help of spoken words. • Oral communication may take place : i) By face to face contacts ii)Through mechanical devices
  • 19. Oral communication can be seen in : • Interviews • Negotiation
  • 21. • Written communication is transmitted by words in the form of letters, memos, circulars, bulletins, reports, iinstruction card, manuals, magazines, handbooks etc. • Written communication generally moves downward. • It’s a record of spoken words.
  • 22. Difference between Oral and Written communication: ORAL COMMUNICATION WRITTEN COMMUNICATION Feedback is quick and instantaneous Feedback is delayed Flexible and faster Rigid slow and elaborate No Permanent Record Authentic and credible records Economical Expensive and stable For shorter messages For long messages Ex. Face to face group meetings Ex. Letters ,memo,reports, manuals etc.
  • 23. According to direction , communication is divided into: 1.Upward communication 2.Downward communication 3.Horizontal communication 4.Diagonal communication
  • 24. G.M. Manager Manager Manager Workers Workers Workers Horizontal Upward Downward
  • 25. Upward Communication It is a communication from the subordinates to their seniors in an organization.
  • 26. Downward Communication It is a communication from the senior level employees to their subordinates in an a organization.
  • 28. Horizontal Communication It is a communication between the subordinates who are working at same level of organization. More informal than either downward and upward.
  • 29. Advantages: • Improves quality of team work. • Ensures greater efficiency and better results • Eliminate misunderstanding, envy, pretty jealousies among people of equal status.
  • 30. Disadvantages: • Horizontal communication takes place so frequently than communication between supervisor and subordinates. • There may be conflicts between horizontal and vertical communication.
  • 31. Diagonal Communication It is a communication between people who are neither in the same department nor at same level of hierarchy.
  • 33. Barriers to effective communication i) Differences in perceptions: People who have different backgrounds of knowledge and experience often perceive the same phenomenon from different perspective. ii) Language Differences : Language difference are often related to differences in individual perceptions. Differences in symbolic meanings and meaning of the words used in communication.
  • 34. iii) Inadequate Information : Managers do not provide enough information to decode. iv)Noise : Noise is any factor that disturbs , intrudes or interferes with the communication. v) Inconsistent non-verbal communication : Body movement, gestures, clothing, distance, primary medium of communication etc are all factors that influence communication.
  • 35. vi)Distrust : The credibility of a message, is to a large extent, a function of the credibility of the sender in the mind of the receiver. vii) Technological barriers Receiver does not have the ability or technological capability to decode the message.
  • 40. Co-ordination Co-ordination involves the development of units of purpose and the harmonious implementation of plans for the achievement of desired ends. A group action under team spirit and proper integration can provide creative force ensuring success. Considered as the essence of management of interdependent activities in work situation. Management has to secure effective coordination of human efforts and non human resources.
  • 41. Orderly synchronization of fitting together of the interdependent efforts of individuals in order to attain a common goal. Similarly modern enterprises consists of a number of departments such as production, purchase, sales, finance, personnel etc. There is a need for all of them to properly time their interdependent activities and to work effectively For e.g., In a hospital, the activities of doctors, nurses, work attendants and lab technicians must be synchronized if the patient is to receive good care.
  • 42. Principles/Requisites for Effective Co-Ordination 1. Early Start : There should be coordination even in the early stages of planning and policy making . for e.g. there should be mutual consultation among the concerned officials while preparing the plan itself.
  • 43. 2. Direct Contact : • Coordination is easier by direct personnel contact among the people concerned. One special advantage of a direct personnel contact is that the concerned persons can discuss among themselves the ideas, ideal goals and views and avoid misunderstandings.
  • 44. 3. Continuity: Coordination is the basis of an organization structure; as long as the enterprise continues to function, coordination is a must. Coordination must start from the stage of planning and should go on all the time as it is a continuous process.
  • 45. 4.Dynamism: Coordination should not be rigid. Achievement of coordination itself modifies the strength of the contending forces and will create new conditions.
  • 46. 5.Simplified Organization: Principle which facilities effective coordination is the simplified organization structure The operations and functions which are closely related and connected may be put under the charge of one executive.
  • 47. 6.Clear – Cut Objective: Another requisite for securing effective coordination in an enterprise is a clear – cut objective. The managers of different departments should be clearly aware of the objective of the enterprise.
  • 48. 7. Clear Definition of Authority and responsibility: Clear-cut authority helps in reducing conflicts among the different officers and also helps in carrying out their job with unity of purpose.
  • 49. 8. Effective Communication: Through communication, individual and department differences can be resolved. Effective communication helps in discussing changes ,adjustments in the programm and the future. For proper coordination, here is also a need for effective communication.
  • 50. 9.Effective Leadership: By effective leadership , coordination of the activities of the people at all stages is ensured. Creates confidence in the subordinates and enhances their morale.
  • 51. 10. Effective Supervision: Effective supervision is required in coordination because supervisor can easily detect the deviation from planned course of action and immediate corrective steps may be taken.
  • 52. Features/Characteristics of coordination 1. Coordination is an orderly arrangement of group efforts. 2. Provides unity of action in pursuit of common purpose. 3. Unity of action is considered to be the heart of coordination process.
  • 53. 4.Aims at achieving the common purpose of the orderly synchronisation of the efforts of the subordinates. 5.Is a process ,where by, an executive develops an orderly pattern of group effort for accomplishing the common objectives of the enterprise.
  • 54. Types Of Coordination 1. I – Type (a) Internal (b) External 2. II – Type (a) Vertical (b)Horizontal
  • 55. 1. I – Type a) Internal Coordination :- Coordination among the employees in the same department/section, among workers and managers at different levels, among branch offices, plants is called internal coordination. b)External Coordination :- Coordination with customers ,suppliers, governments and outsiders with whom the enterprise has business connections is called external coordination.
  • 56. 2. II – Type: a)Vertical Coordination:- Coordination of the activities of manager ,deputy manager , superintendent and below him is called vertical coordination. b) Horizontal Coordination:- Coordination among different departments of the enterprise such as production, sales purchasing, finance, personnel etc., is horizontal coordination.
  • 57. Importance of Coordination It expresses the principle of organization. It is a key function . It is regarded as the essence of managerial function. It is the end result of managerial function.
  • 58. All departments , sections etc. , are duly welded into one united and integrated whole , working to achieve common goals. Thus we have unity of direction and unity of objective. Coordination tones up general level of employee morale and job satisfaction .
  • 59. Problems Involved in Coordination Difficulties of Coordination Large business enterprises which consist of number of departments find hard to collaborate with each other due to the differences in their attitudes.
  • 60. Differences in orientation towards particular goals: i)Member of different departments develop their views about how best to advance towards the goal in the interest of the organization . ii)To sales people , product variety may take precedence over product quality . iii) Marketing managers may regard design as the most important for organization’s success , while accountants may see cost control as most essential.
  • 61. Differences in time orientation: i) Some members of an organization ,such as production managers will be more concerned with problems that have to be solved immediately within a short period of time . ii) Others , like members of research and development teams may be concerned with problems that may take years to solved.
  • 62. Differences in interpersonal orientation: i) In some activities of orientation ,such as production , there may be relatively more formal ways of communication and decision making. ii) In other activities such as R&D , communication and decision making may be informal.
  • 63. Differences in formality of structure: i) Each unit in the organization may have different methods and standards for evaluating progress towards for evaluating progress towards objectives as rewarding employees. For e.g., In a production department, where quality and are rigidly controlled , the evaluation and reward process might be quite formal, while in the personnel department , standard of performance may be much loosely defined.
  • 64. SummaryWe studied the following topics in these slides: What is Communication? Elements of Communication Methods/Types of Communication Barriers in Communication Advantages and disadvantages of communication What is meant by co-ordination ? Tools/Prerequisite of co-ordination. Types of co-ordination. Need for and problems in co-ordination