0
created by the National Association of State Boating Law Administrators produced under a grant from The Sport Fish Restora...
Navigation Rules Every Marine Law Enforcement Officer should have a copy of  this book.
Navigation Rules <ul><li>The Navigation Rules or Rules of the Road  exist to prevent collisions between vessels. </li></ul...
Navigation Rules <ul><li>Due regard shall be had to all dangers of navigation and collision.  (Rule 2 b) </li></ul><ul><li...
Definitions <ul><li>Vessel:  Any craft used as a means of transportation on the water  (Rule 3 a) </li></ul><ul><li>Underw...
Definitions <ul><li>Power-driven:  Propelled by machine  (Rule 3 b) </li></ul><ul><li>Sailing:  Under sail power alone - n...
Definitions: <ul><li>Vessel engaged in fishing:  Use of nets, trawls, or other apparatus which reduces maneuverability  (R...
Western Rivers Great Lakes Demarcation Line Definitions: Inland Waters ( Rule  3 l, m, o)
Other Terms: <ul><li>Give way:  Avoid a collision  </li></ul><ul><li>Take early and substantial action to keep well clear ...
Other Terms: <ul><li>Stand on:  Avoid a collision  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MUST , at first, keep course and speed; </li></ul...
Navigation Rules Definitions may be cited under state law, rule, regulation, code, etc <ul><li>Pause presentation to discu...
Rule 2: Rule of Responsibility   <ul><li>Comply with the Rules at all times, as would an ordinary seaman  (Rule 2 a) </li>...
Video 1
<ul><li>Rule 5: Proper Lookout </li></ul><ul><li>Each vessel shall maintain a proper look-out by sight and hearing   (Rule...
<ul><li>Rule 6 : Safe Speed </li></ul><ul><li>Every vessel shall at all times proceed at a speed so that it can take prope...
<ul><li>Visibility and traffic density; </li></ul><ul><li>A vessel’s maneuverability; </li></ul><ul><li>Presence of backgr...
Lights
Rule 20:  Application of Lighting Rules <ul><li>Lighting rules apply: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>from sunset to sunrise </li></...
Lighting Rules: <ul><li>No other lights shall be displayed except lights that: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>cannot be mistaken fo...
Rule 21: Light Definitions <ul><li>Sidelights   - green to starboard  and red to port, visible from dead ahead to 22.5° ab...
Masthead light  for power-driven vessels - 225°  white light visible from dead ahead to 22.5° abaft the beam on both sides...
Type of Light  Type of Vessel     Sidelights  Power-driven <12 m   Masthead light      Power-driven >12 m Stern light     ...
Rule 22: Visibility of Lights  (Rule   22 a-c) Type of light   < 12 meter     Sidelights   1 mile   Masthead light   2 mil...
Power-Driven Vessel All-round light Sidelights
Sailing Vessel Sidelights* Stern light *Note: Sailing vessels may opt to display red, green and white lights on the top of...
Video 2
View of lights when looking at the side of another vessel underway Power-driven vessel Sailing vessel Port  side Starboard...
View of lights when looking at the bow of another vessel underway Power-driven vessel Sailing vessel
Additional lighting options for sailing vessels
View of lights when looking at any vessel at anchor or the stern light of any vessel underway
Lighting requirements Engaged in  fishing Not under  command Restricted in  ability to  maneuver
Day shape requirements Engaged in fishing Not under command Restricted in ability to maneuver
Sound Signals
Rule 33: Sound Signal Devices <ul><li>Vessels 12 meters (39.4 feet) or more in length shall carry a whistle  and  a bell. ...
Rule 33: Sound Signal Devices <ul><li>Vessels less than 12 meters (39.4 feet) in length shall carry a “means of making an ...
Rules 32 and 34: Sound Signals <ul><li>Within ½ mile of each other  (Rule 34 a) </li></ul><ul><li>Short Blast – about 1 se...
How to Remember Sound Signals: <ul><li>Leave the other boat on your port side  (1 short blast)  </li></ul><ul><li>Leave th...
Rule 34: Sound Signals <ul><li>Danger signal - at least 5 short & rapid blasts if: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>not in agreement ...
One Prolonged Blast shall be sounded when: <ul><li>Nearing a bend or area where other vessels may be obscured by an obstru...
Rule 35: Sounds Signals <ul><li>Anchor in restricted visibility -  Ring the bell rapidly for about 5 seconds  (Rule 35 f) ...
Rule 36: Signals to Attract Attention <ul><li>Sound or light signals may be used to attract the attention of another vesse...
Rule 37: Distress Signals  High Intensity White  Flashing Light
State requirements for lights and sound signals <ul><li>Pause presentation to discuss </li></ul><ul><li>state-specific inf...
The Steering and Sailing Rules
Rule 7 : Risk of Collision <ul><li>Every vessel shall use all appropriate means to determine if risk of collision exists. ...
Rule 7: Risk of Collision <ul><li>Risk of collision exists if the compass bearing of an approaching vessel does not apprec...
Rule 8: Action To Avoid a Collision <ul><li>Any action taken to avoid collision shall be:  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Positive,...
Rule 8:  Action to Avoid Collision <ul><li>Effectiveness of the action shall be carefully checked until both vessels are c...
Rule 9: Narrow Channels <ul><li>Vessels shall keep as close as possible to the right side of the channel.  (Rule 9 a i) </...
Narrow Channels Steering Rules for Great Lakes & Western Rivers <ul><li>A power-driven vessel going downstream has the “ri...
Rule 9: Narrow Channels <ul><li>Vessels less than 20 meters, sailing vessels, and all vessels crossing a channel must stay...
Rule 13: Overtaking <ul><li>Any vessel overtaking any other is the give-way vessel.  (Rule 13 a) </li></ul><ul><li>When a ...
Rule 13: Overtaking Two Short Blasts – “I intend to overtake you on my starboard side” One Short Blast – “I intend to over...
Video 3
Video 4
Video 5
Video 6
Rule 14: Head-on Situation <ul><li>When two power-driven vessels are meeting on reciprocal courses so as to involve risk o...
Rule 14: Head-on Situation One Short Blast – “I intend to leave you on my port side” TOOT TOOT Whistle signals are found i...
Rule 14 d: Head-on Situation for Great Lakes and Western Rivers <ul><li>A power-driven vessel proceeding downbound with a ...
Video 7
Video 8
Video 9
Rule 15: Crossing Situation <ul><li>When two power driven vessels are crossing so as to involve risk of collision:  </li><...
Rule 15: Crossing Situation TOOT TOOT AVOID CROSSING AHEAD OF STAND-ON VESSEL GIVE-WAY STAND-ON Whistle signals are found ...
Rule 15 b: Crossing Situation for Great Lakes and Western Rivers <ul><li>A  power-driven vessel crossing a river gives way...
Video 10
Video 11
Video 12
Video 13
Video 14
Rule 12: Sailing Vessels   ( Rule  12 a i) WIND STAND-ON GIVE-WAY
Rule 12: Sailing Vessels   ( Rule  12 a ii) WIND Keep out of the way of the stand-on vessel STAND-ON GIVE-WAY
Rule 18: Responsibilities between Vessels STAND-ON GIVE-WAY
Video 15
Video 16
Video 17
Rule 19: Restricted Visibility <ul><li>This Rule applies to vessels not in sight of one another when navigating in or near...
Rule 35: Signals in Restricted Visibility <ul><li>Power-driven vessel making way -  1 prolonged blast every 2 minutes  ( R...
Rule 35: Signals in Restricted Visibility <ul><li>Any of the following vessels must sound  1 prolonged & 2 short blasts ev...
Rule 35: Signals in Restricted Visibility <ul><li>A vessel at anchor shall: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ring a bell for 5 second...
Rule 19: Restricted Visibility <ul><li>Every vessel which hears the fog signal of another vessel, or which cannot avoid a ...
Additional State Information: Pause presentation to discuss state-specific information here
Additional Training Opportunities <ul><li>Lighting Scenarios </li></ul><ul><li>Steering & Sailing Rules Scenarios </li></u...
<ul><li>We would like to thank the following states and organizations that have graciously allowed the use of their existi...
<ul><li>Idaho Department of Parks & Recreation </li></ul><ul><li>Montana Fish, Wildlife & Parks Law Enforcement Division <...
<ul><li>Florida Fish & Wildlife Conservation Commission </li></ul><ul><li>The National Safe Boating Council  </li></ul><ul...
Credits <ul><li>Consultation on the Navigation Rules provided by Captain Jim Battye and Captain Alan Richard </li></ul><ul...
Credits <ul><li>Boating footage was filmed by Jason Harmon’s Audio/Video Production Company (outside of Nashville, TN) </l...
Credits <ul><li>Final production and digital duplication was completed by Palmer Multimedia Imaging (www.palmermultimedia....
 
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Navigation Rules (Basic)

10,933

Published on

A training session designed to teach the basic Navigation Rules to Marine Law Enforcement Officers

Published in: Education, Sports, Business
3 Comments
16 Likes
Statistics
Notes
No Downloads
Views
Total Views
10,933
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
552
Comments
3
Likes
16
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • Navigation Rules for Marine Law Enforcement Officers Hello and welcome to a training session designed to teach the basic Navigation Rules to Marine Law Enforcement Officers located throughout the country. Because of the differences in state and local laws, there will be many times throughout this presentation when you will be asked to pause the presentation to allow time for your own discussion of state-specific laws and regulations as they pertain to the Navigation Rules. After your discussion has taken place, you may again press play to continue with the presentation.
  • Navigation Rules for Marine Law Enforcement Officers The purpose of this training program is to provide basic knowledge of the Navigation Rules for the Marine Law Enforcement Officer. Make certain that you have the right Navigation Rules book and that it is up to date. The book shown has a blue stripe in the lower right corner with update information. Although this training program follows the Navigation Rules closely, it does not cover every single Rule that is listed in this book nor does it cover the Rules in the same order as they are found in the book. Additional time should be spent on learning the Navigation Rules by reading through this book and taking additional training courses. During this training program, whenever a Navigation Rule is described, the Rule number will be listed on the screen so that you may follow along or make notes. A booklet is available that can be taken into the field and used as a Navigation Rules guide. It will provide an easy-to-access reference for the basic Navigation Rules taught in this program and will also serve as an educational tool for the boating public as you interact with them. .
  • Navigation Rules for Marine Law Enforcement Officers The Navigation Rules, or Rules of the Road, exist to prevent collisions between vessels. Rule 2 states “Nothing in these Rules shall exonerate any vessel, or the owner, master, or crew thereof, from the consequences of any neglect to comply with these Rules or of the neglect of any precaution which may be required by the ordinary practice of seaman, or by the special circumstances of the case.” The Navigation Rules apply to ALL vessels, and their operators. All vessels operating on the water must obey the Navigation Rules at all times as well as use good seamanship by putting safety first. Generally, the Navigation Rules grant no rights, or priority, to any vessel, in any instance. The Navigation Rules assign tasks that must be carried out in various situations in order to avoid collision.
  • Navigation Rules for Marine Law Enforcement Officers Rule 2 goes on to state “Due regard shall be had to all dangers of navigation and collision.” Again, the entire purpose of the Navigation Rules is to avoid a collision. The last part of Rule 2 states that a vessel “may make a departure from these Rules (if) necessary to avoid immediate danger.” Observance of the Navigation Rules will produce a high degree of safety. Departure from these Rules is only permitted if doing so is necessary to avoid immediate danger.
  • Navigation Rules for Marine Law Enforcement Officers A vessel is defined in Rule 3 to include “every description of water craft, including nondisplacement craft and seaplanes, used or capable of being used as a means of transportation on water.” From time to time, one of the states will request that the Coast Guard make a determination on whether or not a certain device or watercraft is considered a vessel based on this definition. One example of this happened in October of 2008. At that time, the Coast Guard determined that a paddleboard, when beyond the narrow limits of a swimming, surfing or bathing area, is considered a vessel. For those unfamiliar with the device, a paddleboard is a long surfboard on which the operator kneels or stands and propels the device forward with either the hands or a long paddle. Throughout this presentation, terms such as “boat” or “ship” may be used in place of “vessel” when appropriate. The term “underway” is defined by what it is not: The vessel isn’t at anchor, it isn’t made fast to the shore, and it isn’t aground. As long as the vessel is free to move with the wind or current, it is defined as being underway. Notice that there is no mention of the idea that an underway vessel is moving, under power, sail, or oars. A drifting vessel is also underway.
  • Navigation Rules for Marine Law Enforcement Officers A power-driven vessel is defined as “any vessel propelled by machinery” while a sailing vessel is defined as “any vessel under sail provided that propelling machinery, if fitted, is not being used.” Please note that “Power-driven” and “Sailing” are the correct terms for the activities of these vessels at a specific moment in time. “Under power” and “under sail” might be acceptable substitutes for these terms like in the case of “vessel under power” or “vessel under sail”. However, the terms “motorboat or powerboat” (which are boats with motors) and “sailboat” (which is a boat with a tall mast) are things, not activities. As such, they are not proper substitutes for these Rules terms. Also notice that there is no definition in the Navigation Rules for manually propelled vessels like canoes or kayaks. Despite this fact, these watercraft are still vessels and are subject to the Navigation Rules which apply to them. “ Sailing vessel” and “power-driven vessel” are two categories of vessel, according to their activity. The only way to identify the vessels in the next three categories is by observing their lights at night or day shapes during the day which they must prominently display. These lights and day shapes must correspond to the vessels’ definitions.
  • Navigation Rules for Marine Law Enforcement Officers A vessel engaged in fishing has apparatus like nets which make it unable to comply with the Rules. Fishing with rod and reel and fishing with trolling lines, does not suffice because these vessels can maneuver to get out of the way. A vessel not under command is unable to comply with the Rules because of some exceptional circumstance, such as a mechanical malfunction. It does not mean that the captain is missing. A vessel restricted in its ability to maneuver can not comply with the Rules because of the work that it is doing, such as laying cable, dredging, marine construction, or supporting tethered divers. Lights and day shapes are required for all of these vessels so that other boaters can identify them on sight.
  • Navigation Rules for Marine Law Enforcement Officers This training program covers inland waters only. In many cases, the Navigation Rules are different in International Rules Waters which are also referred to as the COLREGS. Therefore, the Navigation Rules discussed throughout the rest of this course will refer to the Inland Waters, Western Rivers, and Great Lakes. Inland Rules only apply on waters that are shoreward of the COLREGS Demarcation Lines along our coasts. Vessels seaward of the Demarcation Lines apply COLREGS which are somewhat different. COLREGS demarcation lines are printed on Navigation Charts and are also listed in the back of your Navigation Rules book. The Inland Rules include special Rules for the Great Lakes and Western Rivers. Western Rivers means the Mississippi River, its tributaries, and other waters designated by the Secretary. The Great Lakes refers to the five Great Lakes and their connecting and tributary waters.
  • Navigation Rules for Marine Law Enforcement Officers What is a give-way vessel? Any vessel told to “keep out of the way” is a give-way vessel. The Navigation Rules state that the give way vessel’s responsibility is to take early and substantial action to keep well clear. The general task for a give-way vessel is to take action to avoid a collision, but its specific task is to take early and substantial action to keep well clear of the stand-on vessel. A give-way vessel must avoid a collision by changing speed (Slowing down, speeding up or stopping), changing direction, or both. The give-way vessel must make these changes early and large enough to be very clear to the other vessel of its intent. Remember: When one vessel must give way, the other must stand-on.
  • Navigation Rules for Marine Law Enforcement Officers What is a stand-on vessel? When any vessel is told to “keep out of the way,” the other vessel is a stand-on vessel. The general task for a Stand-on vessel is the same as that for a give-way vessel: to avoid a collision. A Stand-on vessel’s specific task contains three parts: First, the stand-on vessel MUST initially keep course and speed, to be predictable. It does NOT have the right-of-way. Second, the stand-on vessel MAY take its own avoiding action the instant it decides that the give-way vessel’s action is not early enough, or large enough. Third, the stand-on vessel MUST take action to avoid a collision if both vessels get really close. Any stand-on vessel that maneuvers during stage 2 will not reach stage 3.
  • Navigation Rules for Marine Law Enforcement Officers Each state may have additional definitions in their laws, rules, regulations, or codes. At this time, please pause this presentation to discuss the state-specific information regarding the Navigation Rules. When your discussion is complete, please press play to continue the training program.
  • Navigation Rules for Marine Law Enforcement Officers Although we’ve already touched on the Rule of Responsibility, it is important to cover it again. This is the basis of all of the other Rules and sets the stage for everything else that will be covered in this training program. There is no excuse for any neglect to comply with these Rules. The Rules apply to all vessels, regardless of size, and to recreational and commercial vessels alike. Mere tonnage confers no rights. Since the purpose of the Rules is to avoid a collision, vessel operators are required to comply with the Rules at all times and to use good seamanship. The Rules do not define or give any examples of what “good seamanship” means. However, each boater is required to abide by the practices of a cautious and prudent mariner. Ignorance is not an excuse. Prudent mariners always have an attitude that puts safety first. The following video shows an example of a boater not complying with this Rule of Good Seamanship.
  • Navigation Rules for Marine Law Enforcement Officers [After the video clip:] Riding that close to another boat is an example of careless, reckless or dangerous action. The PWC operator is not complying with the Navigation Rules and using “good seamanship.” Depending on the state, the operator may be cited for careless or reckless operation rather than a Navigation Rules violation.
  • Navigation Rules for Marine Law Enforcement Officers All vessels are required to keep a proper 360 degree look-out using sight and hearing. Boat operators must constantly remain aware of the speed and direction of travel of all vessels in the vicinity. Hearing is an important part of keeping a proper look-out. Operators should listen for whistle signals, engine noises, water against a hull, and any other sound that indicates a vessel in the vicinity. If a vessel is equipped with operational radar, the operator must use it. However, radar can not be used to replace sight and hearing - many smaller vessels may not show up on the radar screen. “ All available means” includes using binoculars or spotlights if appropriate. A proper look-out allows vessel operators to appraise situations before they lead to collisions which would be a threat to the safety of the vessel and its passengers.
  • Navigation Rules for Marine Law Enforcement Officers Every vessel is required to operate at a safe speed. The Navigation Rules do not specify a particular speed limit, although some states impose speed limits in their laws or regulations. The Navigation Rules define a safe speed as going only as fast as you are able to react to avoid a collision. This means that vessel operators need to make sure they can maneuver or stop in time should a collision become imminent. As we will see in Rule 8, if there is any doubt, you must slow down or stop entirely.
  • Navigation Rules for Marine Law Enforcement Officers The Navigation Rules also state that safe speed will be different depending on the circumstances and conditions. Such conditions include the current level of visibility and how much other traffic is on the water. In addition, a vessel’s maneuverability should be taken into account , with reference to stopping distance, and turning ability. This means that a vessel which can not stop quickly or turn quickly should proceed at a slower speed than a highly maneuverable vessel might travel. A vessel operator should also reduce speed when traveling at night, especially in situations when background lights could interfere with the ability to see other vessel’s lights. These background lights could be shore lights or back scatter from its own lights. Masthead lights and all round lights must be screened to prevent lighting up the vessel in front of the operator’s position. The state of the wind, sea and currents will also affect how fast a vessel should go. This also means that a vessel should take into account the proximity of navigational hazards. And, finally, a vessel should be aware of its draft in relation to the depth of the water. For instance, while operating in channels or other areas where depth may be an issue, a vessel with a large draft would need to proceed at a slower speed to ensure that it stays in the deepest section.
  • Navigation Rules for Marine Law Enforcement Officers The Navigation Rules contain specific directions as to how vessels should display lights. These lights help vessels identify each other in the dark and, thus, avoid a collision.
  • Navigation Rules for Marine Law Enforcement Officers All vessels must show navigation lights from sunset to sunrise. During the daytime, vessels that have lights must show them in periods of restricted visibility, and may show them at any other time that the operator thinks it is necessary to exhibit them. Many states have lighting requirements for periods of time prior to sunset or shortly after sunrise. The most typical of these is often that lights are required one half hour before sunset and one half hour after sunrise. It is important to know the state requirements and be aware that the laws may be different in other states.
  • Navigation Rules for Marine Law Enforcement Officers Under the Navigation Rules, additional lights can not be displayed if they could be mistaken for the required lights, obscure the required lights or interfere with keeping a proper look-out. In addition, the use of blue lights is restricted to law enforcement vessels only and may not be used by any other boats on the water. Flashing yellow “tow truck” lights are used only by hovercraft and barges. Towing vessels should never use them, but vessels engaged in government sanctioned public safety activities may display an alternately flashing red and yellow light signal. Flashing red lights are reserved for WIG craft when taking off, landing, and in flight near the surface under Rule 23 c.
  • Navigation Rules for Marine Law Enforcement Officers Sidelights consist of a green light to starboard and a red light to port, both visible from dead ahead to 22.5° abaft the beam. The sidelights are usually separate lights, but vessels less than 20 meters in length may use a combination light. The required lights for all vessels underway include sidelights and, depending on the type of vessel, one or more of the following: masthead light, sternlight or all-round light.
  • Navigation Rules for Marine Law Enforcement Officers A masthead light is for power-driven vessels and shows 225° of white light visible from dead ahead to 22.5° abaft the beam on both sides of a vessel. A stern light shows 135° of white light filling the dark zone of the sidelights and masthead light, An all-round light shows 360° of light showing all around the horizon.
  • Navigation Rules for Marine Law Enforcement Officers A power-driven vessel underway shall exhibit sidelights, a masthead light, and a stern light. A power-driven vessel less than 12 meters in length may exhibit sidelights and a white all-round light in lieu of the lights required for larger power-driven vessels. A sailing vessel underway shall exhibit sidelights and a stern light. A sailing vessel less than 20 meters in length may exhibit a combination light which includes the red and green sidelights and the white sternlight at or near the top of its mast. The exception to this is for sailing vessels less than 7 meters in length or for a vessel under oars. Both of these vessels, if they are unable to exhibit the lights described on this screen, shall have an electric torch or lighted lantern showing a white light and use that light in plenty of time to prevent a collision. An electric torch is a flashlight.
  • Navigation Rules for Marine Law Enforcement Officers The chart on this screen shows the required minimum visibility of lights for vessels under 12 meters in length. Visibility requirements differ for vessels greater than 12 meters but less than 50 meters as well as for vessels greater than 50 meters in length. In addition, vessels greater than 50 meters in length must exhibit a second masthead light.
  • Navigation Rules for Marine Law Enforcement Officers Throughout the remainder of this training program, you will see a power-driven vessel depicted as shown, with the all-round light being higher than the sidelights. This assumes that the power-driven vessels in these examples are less than 12 meters in length. Any power-driven vessel less than 12 meters in length may substitute an all-round light for a masthead light and stern light. Regardless, both lighting displays will look the same to other vessels on the water. The masthead light or all-round light must be mounted high enough that nothing in the boat obstructs it. Common obstructions include an outboard motor, a center console, a cabin, or even the vessel’s operator.
  • Navigation Rules for Marine Law Enforcement Officers Throughout the remainder of this training program, you will see a sailing vessel depicted as shown. This assumes that the sailing vessels in these examples have chosen to display the stern light and sidelights separately. Sailing vessels less than 20 meters in length may combine these lights into one combination light shown at the top of the mast however the arcs of visibility would remain the same.
  • Navigation Rules for Marine Law Enforcement Officers No narration needed- video clip has sound included
  • Navigation Rules for Marine Law Enforcement Officers As the previous video clip mentioned, navigation lights help boaters know what type of vessel they are seeing and which way the other vessel is headed. Knowing the different lighting schemes for different boats is important for all boaters. When looking at both power-driven and sailing vessels from the side, notice that the lighting schemes are different. A power-driven vessel shows a red or green sidelight and a white light from the side while a sailing vessel only shows the red or green sidelight.
  • Navigation Rules for Marine Law Enforcement Officers When looking at the bow of another vessel from dead ahead, the lighting schemes for a power-driven and a sailing vessel are again, different. Notice that the power-driven vessel exhibits a white light above the side lights when viewed from dead ahead while the sailing vessel shows no white light. A sailing vessel has two options for displaying lights. The first is to mount the side lights on the bow of the vessel. The second option is to also display red and green colored lights vertically from the top of the mast with the red light showing above the green. These vertical lights are all-round lights as opposed to the sidelights below. The saying “Red over Green: Sailing Machine” helps many people remember this lighting scheme.
  • Navigation Rules for Marine Law Enforcement Officers Sailing vessels less than 20 meters in length can combine sidelights and stern light in a single unit carried at or near the top of the mast where it can best be seen. A sailing vessel may, in addition to regular sidelights and a regular stern light, exhibit at or near the top of the mast two all round lights in a vertical line, red over green. These optional “red over green sailing machine” lights can only be used with regular sidelights and stern light, not with the combination lantern shown in the left drawing.
  • Navigation Rules for Marine Law Enforcement Officers When viewing the stern of a vessel, a single white light denotes the presence of a power-driven vessel or a sailing vessel. Since all overtaken vessels are the stand-on vessel, the lighting scheme is the same for both power-driven and sailing vessels when viewed from behind. A sailing vessel may also choose to display red over green vertical lights on the mast with a white light below. In this instance, the sidelights will not be visible when viewed from behind. The optional red over green lights will be visible. When viewing any vessel that is anchored, a single all-round white light is all that will be seen. During the day time, a single black ball must be displayed by anchored vessels as the required day shape.
  • Navigation Rules for Marine Law Enforcement Officers Specific vessels are given specific definitions based on the work that they are doing or the situation that they are in. In these situations, the vessels are required to display additional lights as well as day shapes which identify them to other boaters. A vessel engaged in fishing has apparatus such as nets which make it unable to comply with the Rules. It must display red over white all-round lights or green over white all-round lights for night time visibility. An easy way to remember the lights is by using the saying: “Red over White, fishing at night” or “Green over White, trawling at night.” A vessel not under command is unable to comply with the Rules because of some exceptional circumstance, such as a mechanical malfunction. A vessel not under command must display red over red all-round lights. An easy way to remember the lights is with the phrase: “Red over Red, the steering is dead”. A vessel restricted in its ability to maneuver can not comply with the Rules because of the work that it is doing, such as laying cable, dredging, marine construction, or supporting tethered divers. It must display red over white over red all-round lights, vertically aligned. An easy way to remember these lights is: “Red, White, Red, workers ahead”.
  • Navigation Rules for Marine Law Enforcement Officers As mentioned a moment ago, day shapes are also required for these vessels. A vessel engaged in fishing must display a day shape consisting of two cones with vertiices joined together in a vertical line. A vessel not under command must display two balls, vertically aligned as its day shape. And a vessel restricted in its ability to maneuver must display a ball-diamond-ball, vertically aligned as its day shape. If a vessel is restricted in its ability to maneuver because it is engaged in diving operations and if it is too small to use the ball-diamond-ball day shape, it may display instead a rigid replica of the blue and white swallow-tailed Alpha flag. Please note that this does not take the place of a state-required diver down flag.
  • Navigation Rules for Marine Law Enforcement Officers The Navigation Rules contain specific directions as to how and when vessels should make sound signals. These signals help vessels avoid a collision by communicating their intentions regarding movement. All of the following sound signals are to be used on Inland Rules waters as part of the Inland Rules. Sound signals differ for the COLREGS.
  • Navigation Rules for Marine Law Enforcement Officers Vessels are required to carry equipment for making sound signals. A vessel measuring 12 meters in length or more must have a whistle and a bell. A vessel that is 100 meters or longer must also carry a gong whose tone is different from the bell.
  • Navigation Rules for Marine Law Enforcement Officers The Navigation Rules do not specify the equipment that must be carried by a vessel less than 12 meters in length. The Rules only state that they must be capable of making an efficient sound signal. Good examples of this include a whistle or an air horn, however, other devices may also be used.
  • Navigation Rules for Marine Law Enforcement Officers The Navigation Rules specify that power-driven vessels underway, when in sight of one another at a distance within a half mile, must use sound signals to communicate maneuvering intentions. A short blast must be about one second in length while a prolonged blast should last between 4 and 6 seconds. When vessels are on inland waters, they should use 1 short blast to mean “I intend to leave you on my port side”. 2 short blasts to mean “I intend to leave you on my starboard side” and 3 short blasts to mean that “I am operating astern propulsion” or “I am in reverse”. If the other vessel is in agreement, it shall sound the same signal. The Rules also allow vessels to use the radio to reach agreement with one another. In cases where the radio has been used, another sound signal does not need to be used. However, if there is no answer on the radio or if an agreement is not reached, then the sound signals must be exchanged in a timely manner. Remember that the sound signals for the COLREGS are different.
  • Navigation Rules for Marine Law Enforcement Officers An easy way to remember the sound signals is by linking the number of blasts to the number of syllables in a word. For instance, when leaving the other boat on your port side, one short blast should be used. An easy way to remember this is that the word port has one syllable and thus only needs one blast. Likewise, the word starboard has two syllables and would require two blasts signifying that you intend to leave the other boat on your starboard side. The phrase “In reverse” has three syllables, thus three blasts mean that you are operating in reverse or astern propulsion.
  • Navigation Rules for Marine Law Enforcement Officers If the second vessel is not in agreement with the maneuver proposed by the first vessel or does not understand the intentions of that vessel, it should sound the danger signal. This is at least 5 short and rapid blasts. The danger signal can also be used if there is any doubt of whether sufficient action is being taken to avoid a collision.
  • Navigation Rules for Marine Law Enforcement Officers A prolonged blast is used to alert and warn other vessels of your presence in situations where it is difficult or impossible to be seen by those other vessels. Examples include: approaching a blind corner, approaching a bridge or other structure which obstructs visibility, or when leaving a dock or berth. In restricted visibility, a power-driven vessel making way shall sound one prolonged blast. Other vessels (including sailing vessels, vessels engaged in fishing, and vessels restricted in their ability to maneuver) shall sound one prolonged blast followed by two short blasts. A power-driven vessel underway but stopped and drifting in restricted visibility shall sound 2 prolonged blasts. All restricted visibility signals are given at intervals of 2 minutes or less.
  • Navigation Rules for Marine Law Enforcement Officers The restricted visibility sound signal for a vessel at anchor is to rapidly ring a bell for a period of about 5 seconds in a series of intervals of not more than 1 minute. The sound signal for a vessel aground is the same as the signal for a vessel at anchor however, the vessel aground shall also sound 3 separate and distinct strokes of the bell immediately before and after the rapid ringing of the bell for 5 seconds. Any vessels 12 meters in length or less may choose to make some other efficient sound signal at intervals of not more than 2 minutes.
  • Navigation Rules for Marine Law Enforcement Officers Sound and light signals may be used to attract the attention of other vessels, but they can not be made in such a way as to be mistaken for any signals authorized elsewhere by the Navigation Rules. The pilot rules give us 2 examples of lights that are authorized for use by certain vessels: Law enforcement vessels are allowed to use a blue light flashing or revolving and vessels engaged in public safety activities may display an alternately flashing red and yellow light. A searchlight can be used to direct attention toward danger however, the searchlight may not be used in such a way as to embarrass any vessel. Additional distress signals are shown on the following slide.
  • Navigation Rules for Marine Law Enforcement Officers All of the signals shown on the chart on the left indicate that a vessel is in distress. These signals are used on Inland Rules and COLREGS waters. On Inland Rules waters only, a high intensity white light flashing 50-70 times per minute may also be used to indicate that the vessel is in distress. Using or showing any of these signals for any purpose other than indicating that the vessel is in distress and needs assistance is forbidden. Remember that these signals under the Navigation Rules do not necessarily meet the Coast Guard carriage requirement for visual distress signals. All vessels operating on the Great Lakes or coastal waters must be equipped with US Coast Guard Approved visual distress signals. Coastal waters include waters that connect to the ocean, to the Gulf of Mexico or to the Great Lakes up to the first point where the waterway is less than 2 miles wide. Most vessels are required to carry both day and night signals however power-driven vessels less than 16 feet in length, manually propelled boats, and open sailboats less than 26 feet in length which are not equipped with propulsion machinery are not required to carry day signals. If you choose to carry pyrotechnic visual distress signals that are used once and burned up in the process, a minimum of three is required. That means that three daytime signals and three nighttime signals, or three that meet both day and night requirements are needed. Each pyrotechnic device is marked with an expiration date and, although expired signals may be carried as spares, they may not be counted towards meeting the Coast Guard carriage requirements. Examples of day signals include the orange flag with black ball and square, orange smoke or dye markers. An example of a night signal is the use of a light that automatically flashes Morse code for SOS. Most visual distress signals meet both day and night time requirements. Examples of these include handheld flares, aerial flares, and parachute flares. All visual distress signals are required to be US Coast Guard approved, in serviceable condition, and readily accessible.
  • Navigation Rules for Marine Law Enforcement Officers Many states have additional regulations regarding the use of light and sound signals. Please pause the presentation at this point to discuss any state-specific light and sound signals that pertain to your jurisdiction.
  • Navigation Rules for Marine Law Enforcement Officers Now it is time to delve into the heart of the Navigation Rules - The Steering and Sailing Rules.
  • Navigation Rules for Marine Law Enforcement Officers Rule number 7 is the risk of collision rule. Vessel operators are required to use all means available to them in order to determine if a risk of collision exists. This is directly related to the proper lookout rule. Maintaining a proper lookout will alert the vessel operator to potential risks of collision in time to respond to them and avoid them. This lookout extends to the use of radar - boats equipped with radar must be using it at all times. In cases where the operator can not tell whether or not there is a risk of collision, that operator must assume that this risk exists and must take appropriate action. “I didn’t realize” is not an excuse.
  • Navigation Rules for Marine Law Enforcement Officers One way to determine if a risk of collision exists is by observing an approaching vessel and noticing that the compass bearing for that vessel does not change over time. Notice that the vessels are shown with a bearing of 350 degrees when they first see one another. After a period of time, the vessels are now much closer yet the bearing is still 350 degrees. These vessels are on a collision course with one another. Please note that this diagram as well as the remainder of the diagrams in this presentation are shown with the vessels much closer together than they would ever appear in real life. The vessels should always be much farther apart than they are shown here, however because of space limitations on the screen, the vessels are shown much closer. In the example shown here, the two vessels could initially be over a ½ mile apart when they first come into sight of one another.
  • Navigation Rules for Marine Law Enforcement Officers The Navigation Rules do not define or give any examples of what “good seamanship” means. As we discussed with Rule 2, good seamanship means the practices of a competent mariner, not those of a “landlubber” or novice boater. Each boater is required to abide by the practices of good seamanship. One interpretation of good seamanship is that it’s a manner of attitude and involves putting safety first. The Navigation Rules also explain that any alteration to course or speed that you take to avoid a collision must be large enough so that it is readily apparent to another vessel who is observing your movement either visually or by radar. Avoid making a succession of small alterations of course or speed. All actions taken to avoid collision must result in the ability for all vessels involved to pass at a safe distance.
  • Navigation Rules for Marine Law Enforcement Officers While taking action to avoid collisions, operators must carefully check the effectiveness of those actions until both vessels have passed one another and are safe from collision. In all cases, both vessels are responsible for avoiding collision. Rule 8 E is critically important. Investigations of boating collisions show this to be one of the most commonly violated Navigation Rules. Rule 8 E tells us “If necessary to avoid collision or to allow more time to assess the situation, a vessel must slacken her speed or take all way off by stopping or reversing her means of propulsion.” Let’s go through that. Pulling back on the throttle is the number one thing you should do in any situation that may develop into a collision. But pulling back on the throttle only partially is not enough. The Rules require that you stop your means of propulsion – put the engine in neutral or reverse or slack the sails in order to slow down or, if necessary, come to a complete stop. If you can’t tell whether a collision situation is developing, you need more time to assess the situation – slow down or stop. Collisions simply don’t occur when both operators stop or reverse their means of propulsion.
  • Navigation Rules for Marine Law Enforcement Officers When a vessel is operating in a narrow channel, it should keep as near to the outer limit of the channel which lies on its starboard side as is safe and practicable. This is more than simply “stay on your side”; you must move as far over to the right side as you can but remember to consider your draft and available water depth. This leaves room in the deeper part of the channel for those vessels that need the added depth because of having a greater draft. Every vessel should avoid anchoring in a narrow channel, except in an emergency. Some states prohibit all anchoring in or adjacent to channels.
  • Navigation Rules for Marine Law Enforcement Officers The second part of Rule 9A applies only on the Great Lakes, Western Rivers and other waters specified in 33 CFR part 89. This is in the back of the Navigation Rules book. The term “right of way” is not used anywhere else in the Navigation Rules. When a vessel is proceeding downstream, it is more difficult to control the path of its movement or come to a stop because the current is pushing it. The downbound vessel is often not able to stay to the right side of the channel. Therefore, a vessel proceeding upstream must obey the downstream vessel or stop and sound the danger signal. A common example is when a downbound tug with barges is rounding a bend.
  • Navigation Rules for Marine Law Enforcement Officers Rule 9 B states “A vessel of less than 20 meters in length or a sailing vessel shall not impede the passage of a vessel that can safely navigate only within a narrow channel or fairway.” Rule 9 D puts the same restriction on vessels crossing a channel. Note that these Rules do not apply if the vessel in the channel can safely maneuver outside the channel. Rule 9 C applies to vessels engaged in fishing. This does not include vessels that are trolling or simply using a rod and reel – it only applies to vessels whose maneuverability is hampered by the fishing gear. These vessels are forbidden to interfere with any vessel operating in a narrow channel, even if that vessel could safely leave the channel.
  • Navigation Rules for Marine Law Enforcement Officers The Overtaking Rule is universal. It applies to all vessels, regardless of either vessel’s size, maneuverability, propulsion, or category. In all cases, the overtaking vessel is the give-way vessel and the slower vessel being overtaken is the stand-on vessel. A vessel is deemed to be overtaking when it comes upon a slower vessel from more than 22.5 degrees abaft its beam. At night, the overtaking vessel would be able to see only the stern light of the slower vessel as it comes up behind it. The overtaking vessel is not relieved of its give-way duty until it is safely past and clear of the slower vessel, and they are moving apart. If there is any doubt as to whether your vessel is overtaking another vessel, the Rules require that you assume that you are overtaking and act as the give-way vessel in order to avoid a collision.
  • Navigation Rules for Marine Law Enforcement Officers Shown here is a graphic explaining the overtaking situation between two power-driven vessels. Although this graphic shows two power-driven vessels, the Overtaking Rule applies to all vessels overtaking or being overtaken, even if one is a canoe, kayak or a sailing vessel. The vessel doing the overtaking is the give-way vessel. The vessel being overtaken is, therefore, the stand-on vessel. Under the Inland Rules, whistle signals for overtaking are only required for power-driven vessels. Between two power-driven vessels, sound signals are as shown on the screen. One short blast indicates that the overtaking vessel intends to turn to the right and leave the other vessel on its port side. Two short blasts indicate that it intends to turn to the left and leave the other vessel on its starboard side. The vessel ahead returns the signal if in agreement. The following video clips show examples of overtaking situations from different angles.
  • Navigation Rules for Marine Law Enforcement Officers [No narration needed – video clip has own narration - After video runs, narration] You will now see a series of additional clips showing various overtaking situations.
  • Navigation Rules for Marine Law Enforcement Officers [After video runs first time] Did you notice how the give-way vessel approached the stand-on vessel and passed it on its starboard side? Let’s look at that again. (Replay video clip)
  • Navigation Rules for Marine Law Enforcement Officers [After video runs first time] In this scenario, the give-way vessel was seen approaching another vessel from behind. Although the other vessel does not appear to be moving, it is not anchored, not aground, and not tied up to anything. It is, therefore, underway. The give-way vessel chose to pass the other vessel on its port side. Let’s look at that again. (Replay video clip)
  • Navigation Rules for Marine Law Enforcement Officers [No narration needed- video clip has own sound]
  • Navigation Rules for Marine Law Enforcement Officers The Navigation Rules define a head-on situation as occurring when two power-driven vessels are meeting on reciprocal courses so as to involve risk of collision. The Navigation Rules goes further to say that such a situation shall be deemed to exist when a vessel sees the other vessel ahead or nearly ahead or by night sees both sidelights or, for vessels larger than 50 meters, both masthead lights in or nearly in a vertical line. The parameters for a head-on situation require that both vessels be power-driven, that they be heading in opposite directions, and that there is a risk of collision. When these parameters are met, both vessels must alter their courses to starboard to avoid collision unless another agreement is reached. When a vessel is in any doubt as to whether such a situation exists, the vessel shall assume that a head-on situation exists, and act accordingly. If three or more power-driven vessels are involved, this is a special circumstance under Navigation Rule 2 B and all vessels must have due regard for all dangers of navigation and risk of collision.
  • Navigation Rules for Marine Law Enforcement Officers This diagram applies only to situations involving two power-driven vessels meeting in a head-on situation. The Navigation Rules have different rules for when two sailing vessels meet or for situations when a power-driven vessel meets any other type of vessel. Note that neither of the power-driven vessels is listed as the give way vessel because their task is different from the give-way task. Likewise, there is no stand-on vessel listed. In a head-on situation, both power-driven vessels must turn right unless a different agreement is reached.
  • Navigation Rules for Marine Law Enforcement Officers This section of Rule 14 is very similar to Rule 9 A2 in that both Rules apply only on the Great Lakes, Western Rivers and other waters specified by the Secretary. These other waters specified in 33 CFR part 89 are in the back of the Navigation Rules book. The term “right of way” is not used anywhere else in the Navigation Rules. When a vessel is proceeding downstream, it is more difficult to control the path of its movement or come to a stop because the current is pushing it. The downbound vessel is often not able to stay to the right side of the channel. Therefore, a vessel proceeding upstream must obey the downstream vessel or stop and sound the danger signal. A common example is when a downbound tug with barges is rounding a bend. The following video clips show head-on situations from various angles and perspectives.
  • Navigation Rules for Marine Law Enforcement Officers [Replace sound from video clip with narration and play it over the clip:] In a situation in which both power-driven vessels are approaching one another head-on, neither boat is the stand-on or give-way vessel. Both vessels must turn to the starboard side and pass port to port to avoid a collision, unless a different agreement is reached.
  • Navigation Rules for Marine Law Enforcement Officers [After video runs first time] You can see from this clip that the boat that the camera was riding in actually became part of the scene when another boat maneuvered towards it head-on. Both vessels turned to the right, but it was a close call. You must take early action to avoid a collision – don’t wait until the last minute. Let’s look at that again. (Replay video clip)
  • Navigation Rules for Marine Law Enforcement Officers [After video runs first time] From the side, these two vessels looked as if they were involved in a head-on situation. Although perspective makes it tough to tell just how close vessels really are to each other, seeing how the wake of the boats affect each other after passing should give you a better idea of just how close they came. The Navigation Rules specify that any two power-driven vessels that are meeting or crossing within a half a mile of each other are required to use sound signals to indicate their intentions. Let’s look at that again. (Replay video clip)
  • Navigation Rules for Marine Law Enforcement Officers The parameters for a crossing situation require that it include two power-driven vessels in which the situation is neither head-on nor overtaking. There must also be a risk of collision involved. In this situation, the power-driven vessel to the right is the stand-on vessel and the power-driven vessel to the left is the give-way vessel. If either boat or both boats are something other than power-driven vessels, different Navigation Rules apply.
  • Navigation Rules for Marine Law Enforcement Officers This slide depicts two power-driven vessels crossing so as to involve risk of collision. The give-way vessel must not cross ahead of the stand-on vessel. Instead, the give-way vessel must take early action, large enough to be easily understood, and stay well clear of the stand-on vessel. Note that this does not require the give-way vessel to turn. It’s only task is to avoid crossing ahead of the stand-on vessel. Sometimes, the easiest way to do this is simply to slow down. Sound signals required for power-driven vessels are shown on the screen. One short blast indicates that the give-way vessel intends to turn to starboard and the stand-on vessel replies with one short blast if in agreement. At night, the power-driven vessel which sees a red sidelight and white masthead light of the other is a give-way vessel . At night, the power-driven vessel which sees a green sidelight and white masthead light of the other is a stand-on vessel.
  • Navigation Rules for Marine Law Enforcement Officers On the Great Lakes, Western Rivers, and other waters specified by the Secretary, the Crossing Rules differ slightly. In these cases, the power-driven vessel that is crossing the river is always the give-way vessel. The following video clips show some crossing situations that are not on the Great Lakes, Western Rivers, or the specified waters. Therefore, the typical Rule applies: When two power-driven vessels are approaching each other, the vessel which has the other on its starboard side must give way and avoid crossing in front of the other vessel.
  • Navigation Rules for Marine Law Enforcement Officers [No narration needed- video has sound]
  • Navigation Rules for Marine Law Enforcement Officers [After video runs first time] In this situation, the vessel coming in from the right side of the screen was the give-way vessel. It altered its course and speed in order to pass behind the stand-on vessel. Let’s look at that again. (Replay video clip)
  • Navigation Rules for Marine Law Enforcement Officers [After video runs first time] Again, the vessel to the right is the stand-on vessel and the give-way vessel chose to slow down rather than change course to avoid a collision. Let’s look at that again. (Replay video clip)
  • Navigation Rules for Marine Law Enforcement Officers [After the clip runs with its own narration:] The video clip called the white light a stern light. It is actually the vessel’s all-round light which combines a masthead light and a stern light in a single fixture.
  • Navigation Rules for Marine Law Enforcement Officers [No narration needed- video clip has sound]
  • Navigation Rules for Marine Law Enforcement Officers When two sailing vessels are approaching one another, so as to involve risk of collision, their tasks are determined by the wind direction. When each has the wind on a different side, the vessel which has the wind on the port side is the give-way vessel. It must avoid crossing ahead of the stand-on vessel. The arrow on the screen indicate that the give-ways vessel’s responsibility is to stay out of the way of the stand-on vessel traveling in a particular direction. The arrow does not indicate the only path that the give-way vessel may take. The give-way vessel may stop, change speed, change direction or do a combination of these tasks to stay out of the way of the stand-on vessel. Notice – sailing vessels are not required to give sound signals in this situation.
  • Navigation Rules for Marine Law Enforcement Officers When both sailing vessels have the wind on the same side, the vessel which is to windward is the give-way vessel. The stand-on vessel is to leeward. Again, please note that the arrows on the screen indicate that the give-way vessel’s responsibility is to stay out of the way of the stand-on vessel. The arrow does not indicate the only path that the give-way vessel may take nor would this path necessarily be feasible. The give-way vessel may stop, change speed, change direction or do a combination of these tasks to stay out of the way of the stand-on vessel.
  • Navigation Rules for Marine Law Enforcement Officers There are no priorities, rights, or pecking order written into the Navigation Rules. The Rules only list responsibilities of vessels which equate to the vessel’s task or duty to comply. When a power-driven vessel and a sailing vessel approach one another, the power-driven vessel gives way to the sailing vessel, which stands on. At night, the power-driven vessel sees a green side light and no masthead light, which makes this different from the situation involving two power-driven vessels. Because it involves a sailing vessel, the power-driven vessel must give-way to the sailing vessel. The following videos highlight the responsibilities between vessels when a power-driven vessel meets a sailing vessel.
  • Navigation Rules for Marine Law Enforcement Officers [No narration needed – video clip has sound]
  • Navigation Rules for Marine Law Enforcement Officers [After video runs first time] Notice that the power-driven vessel gave the sailing vessel plenty of space since the sailing vessel was the stand-on vessel. The power-driven vessel gave way and kept well clear.
  • Navigation Rules for Marine Law Enforcement Officers [No narration needed – video clip has sound - After the video clip:] Remember this is for meeting or crossing on open waters. It does not apply in narrow channels under Rule 9 or to situations where a sailing vessel is doing the overtaking under Rule 13.
  • Navigation Rules for Marine Law Enforcement Officers Restricted visibility means any condition in which visibility is restricted by fog, mist, falling snow, heavy rainstorms, sandstorms, or any other similar causes. Don ’ t confuse this with obstructed visibility, when a physical object is in the way and blocks your view of another vessel. Rule 19 only applies when vessels are not in sight of one another when they navigate in or near an area of restricted visibility. Vessels are considered “ in sight of one another ” only when it ’ s possible to actually see one vessel from the other. It doesn ’ t mean you have to see it, only that you could have seen it had you actually been looking in that direction. Remember that the look out must be particularly vigilant when operating in or near areas of restricted visibility. Rule 19 states that a power-driven vessel shall have its engines ready for immediate maneuver during periods of restricted visibility. Also, lighting rules apply and the required lights must be displayed even in daytime during periods of restricted visibility if the vessel is equipped with lights.
  • Navigation Rules for Marine Law Enforcement Officers The sound signals used in restricted visibility differ from the sound signals used for the steering and sailing rules. Specific sound signals depend on the type of boat and the current activity of the boat. For instance, a power-driven vessel making way must sound one prolonged blast every 2 minutes. In comparison, a power-driven vessel underway, but stopped and drifting must sound 2 prolonged blasts every two minutes.
  • Navigation Rules for Marine Law Enforcement Officers One prolonged blast and two short blasts must be sounded every two minutes by sailing vessels, vessels not under command, vessels restricted in their ability to maneuver, vessels engaged in fishing, or vessels towing or pushing another vessel.
  • Navigation Rules for Marine Law Enforcement Officers During restricted visibility, a vessel at anchor must ring a bell for 5 seconds at least every minute and it may also sound 1 short, 1 prolonged and 1 short blast. This requirement to signal during restricted visibility d oes not apply to vessels less than 20 meters in length which are anchored in a designated special anchorage area.
  • Navigation Rules for Marine Law Enforcement Officers Any vessel which hears one of the restricted visibility sound signals forward of its beam, or in front of it, must respond by reducing speed to the slowest speed at which the vessel can be kept on course. If necessary, the vessel should stop entirely. The vessel operator should then proceed with extreme caution until the danger of collision is over.
  • Navigation Rules for Marine Law Enforcement Officers States often have additional laws with regard to the Steering and Sailing Rules. Please take a moment to pause the presentation and discuss any specific regulations that may affect the waters of your state or region. When you have finished your discussion, please press play for the conclusion of the presentation.
  • Navigation Rules for Marine Law Enforcement Officers This training curriculum has been packaged with additional training opportunities that your agency may choose to use. The lighting scenarios and steering and sailing rules scenarios are presented as separate PowerPoint presentations. The PowerPoint presentations show various Steering and Sailing Rules scenarios as well as Lighting Scenarios that would be seen at night. These scenarios will help you apply what you have learned about the Navigation Rules through watching this video. Unlike this current presentation, these slides are not narrated or self-running. A moderator or instructor may run these presentations along with the notes provided. These notes explain the correct answers for each of the situations illustrated on the screen and allow for discussion. The on-water checklist is provided so that a new marine law enforcement officer’s recognition of Navigation Rules situations can be assessed while performing a ride-along with a senior officer. The checklist measures the ability of the officer to recognize Navigation Rules scenarios on the water, and to maneuver correctly and safely through specific Navigation Rules scenarios. While on the water, the Quick Reference Guide to the Navigation Rules will come in handy. It provides a brief description of the Steering &amp; Sailing Rules and can be used by marine law enforcement officers to refresh their own knowledge or to help educate the boating public when an officer issues a citation or a warning for violation of the Navigation Rules. The final piece of this training curriculum includes a final exam that assesses an officer’s knowledge of the Navigation Rules taught in this program.
  • Navigation Rules for Marine Law Enforcement Officers We would like to thank the following states and organizations that have graciously allowed the use of their existing training materials in the creation of this one.
  • Navigation Rules for Marine Law Enforcement Officers
  • Navigation Rules for Marine Law Enforcement Officers
  • Navigation Rules for Marine Law Enforcement Officers Consultation on the Navigation Rules and editing provided by Captain Jim Battye and Captain Alan Richard Narration voiced by Captain Alan Richard Narration recorded at the Florida Fish &amp; Wildlife Conservation Commission studios
  • Navigation Rules for Marine Law Enforcement Officers Boating footage was filmed by Jason Harmon’s Audio/Video Production Company (outside of Nashville, TN) Additional boating footage was provided by Boat Ed, Inc.
  • Navigation Rules for Marine Law Enforcement Officers Final production and digital duplication was completed by Palmer Multimedia Imaging
  • Navigation Rules for Marine Law Enforcement Officers This training program has been produced under a grant from the Sport Fish Restoration and Boating Trust Fund which is administered by the U.S. Coast Guard.
  • Transcript of "Navigation Rules (Basic)"

    1. 1. created by the National Association of State Boating Law Administrators produced under a grant from The Sport Fish Restoration & Boating Trust Fund administered by the U.S. Coast Guard The Navigation Rules for Marine Law Enforcement Officers
    2. 2. Navigation Rules Every Marine Law Enforcement Officer should have a copy of this book.
    3. 3. Navigation Rules <ul><li>The Navigation Rules or Rules of the Road exist to prevent collisions between vessels. </li></ul><ul><li>These rules apply to ALL vessels, and their operators. (Rule 2 a) </li></ul>
    4. 4. Navigation Rules <ul><li>Due regard shall be had to all dangers of navigation and collision. (Rule 2 b) </li></ul><ul><li>Vessels may depart from these Rules if necessary to avoid immediate danger. (Rule 2 b) </li></ul>
    5. 5. Definitions <ul><li>Vessel: Any craft used as a means of transportation on the water (Rule 3 a) </li></ul><ul><li>Underway: Not at anchor, made fast to the shore, or aground (Rule 3 h) </li></ul>
    6. 6. Definitions <ul><li>Power-driven: Propelled by machine (Rule 3 b) </li></ul><ul><li>Sailing: Under sail power alone - no propelling machinery is being used (Rule 3 c) </li></ul>
    7. 7. Definitions: <ul><li>Vessel engaged in fishing: Use of nets, trawls, or other apparatus which reduces maneuverability (Rule 3 d) </li></ul><ul><li>Vessel not under command: Exceptional circumstance makes unable to maneuver (Rule 3 f) </li></ul><ul><li>Vessel restricted in ability to maneuver: Nature of work limits maneuverability (Rule 3 g) </li></ul>
    8. 8. Western Rivers Great Lakes Demarcation Line Definitions: Inland Waters ( Rule 3 l, m, o)
    9. 9. Other Terms: <ul><li>Give way: Avoid a collision </li></ul><ul><li>Take early and substantial action to keep well clear of the stand-on vessel. (Rule 16) </li></ul>STOP SLOW
    10. 10. Other Terms: <ul><li>Stand on: Avoid a collision </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MUST , at first, keep course and speed; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MAY take avoiding action if the give- way vessel’s action is at all deficient </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MUST take avoiding action if the give-way vessel gets so close that it alone can not avoid a collision (Rule 17 a, b) </li></ul></ul>
    11. 11. Navigation Rules Definitions may be cited under state law, rule, regulation, code, etc <ul><li>Pause presentation to discuss </li></ul><ul><li>state-specific information </li></ul>
    12. 12. Rule 2: Rule of Responsibility <ul><li>Comply with the Rules at all times, as would an ordinary seaman (Rule 2 a) </li></ul><ul><li>Nothing shall exonerate any vessel from the consequences of any neglect to comply with these Rules (Rule 2 a) </li></ul>
    13. 13. Video 1
    14. 14. <ul><li>Rule 5: Proper Lookout </li></ul><ul><li>Each vessel shall maintain a proper look-out by sight and hearing (Rule 5) </li></ul><ul><li>Use all available means to assess the risk of collision (Rule 5) </li></ul>
    15. 15. <ul><li>Rule 6 : Safe Speed </li></ul><ul><li>Every vessel shall at all times proceed at a speed so that it can take proper and effective action to avoid collision ( Rule 6) </li></ul><ul><li>Be able to stop within a distance appropriate to the prevailing circumstances and conditions ( Rule 6) </li></ul>
    16. 16. <ul><li>Visibility and traffic density; </li></ul><ul><li>A vessel’s maneuverability; </li></ul><ul><li>Presence of background lights; </li></ul><ul><li>The state of the wind, sea and current; </li></ul><ul><li>The vessel’s draft in relation to the available depth of water. (Rule 6 a) </li></ul>In determining a safe speed, vessel operators should consider:
    17. 17. Lights
    18. 18. Rule 20: Application of Lighting Rules <ul><li>Lighting rules apply: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>from sunset to sunrise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>in restricted visibility (fog, rain, etc.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>all other times it is deemed necessary </li></ul></ul><ul><li>(Rule 20 c) </li></ul>
    19. 19. Lighting Rules: <ul><li>No other lights shall be displayed except lights that: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>cannot be mistaken for required lights </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>do not obscure required lights </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>do not interfere with keeping a proper look-out (Rule 20 b) </li></ul></ul>
    20. 20. Rule 21: Light Definitions <ul><li>Sidelights - green to starboard and red to port, visible from dead ahead to 22.5° abaft the beam </li></ul><ul><li>May be one (combination) light on vessels less than 20 meters (Rule 21 b) </li></ul>
    21. 21. Masthead light for power-driven vessels - 225° white light visible from dead ahead to 22.5° abaft the beam on both sides (Rule 21 a) Stern light - 135° white light showing aft (filling the dark zone of the sidelights) ( Rule 21 c) All-round light - 360° light showing all around the horizon (Rule 21 e)
    22. 22. Type of Light Type of Vessel Sidelights Power-driven <12 m Masthead light Power-driven >12 m Stern light All-round light Sailing
    23. 23. Rule 22: Visibility of Lights (Rule 22 a-c) Type of light < 12 meter Sidelights 1 mile Masthead light 2 miles Stern light 2 miles All-round light 2 miles
    24. 24. Power-Driven Vessel All-round light Sidelights
    25. 25. Sailing Vessel Sidelights* Stern light *Note: Sailing vessels may opt to display red, green and white lights on the top of the mast rather than at deck level.
    26. 26. Video 2
    27. 27. View of lights when looking at the side of another vessel underway Power-driven vessel Sailing vessel Port side Starboard side
    28. 28. View of lights when looking at the bow of another vessel underway Power-driven vessel Sailing vessel
    29. 29. Additional lighting options for sailing vessels
    30. 30. View of lights when looking at any vessel at anchor or the stern light of any vessel underway
    31. 31. Lighting requirements Engaged in fishing Not under command Restricted in ability to maneuver
    32. 32. Day shape requirements Engaged in fishing Not under command Restricted in ability to maneuver
    33. 33. Sound Signals
    34. 34. Rule 33: Sound Signal Devices <ul><li>Vessels 12 meters (39.4 feet) or more in length shall carry a whistle and a bell. (Rule 33 a) </li></ul>+
    35. 35. Rule 33: Sound Signal Devices <ul><li>Vessels less than 12 meters (39.4 feet) in length shall carry a “means of making an efficient sound signal.” (Rule 33 b) </li></ul>OR
    36. 36. Rules 32 and 34: Sound Signals <ul><li>Within ½ mile of each other (Rule 34 a) </li></ul><ul><li>Short Blast – about 1 second long (Rule 32 b) </li></ul><ul><li>Prolonged Blast – 4-6 seconds long (Rule 32 c) </li></ul><ul><li>Radio use (Rule 34 h) </li></ul>
    37. 37. How to Remember Sound Signals: <ul><li>Leave the other boat on your port side (1 short blast) </li></ul><ul><li>Leave the other boat on your starboard side (2 short blasts) </li></ul><ul><li>Operating astern propulsion (3 short blasts) </li></ul><ul><li>(Rule 34 a i) </li></ul>PORT TOOT STAR - BOARD TOOT - TOOT IN RE - VERSE TOOT-TOOT-TOOT
    38. 38. Rule 34: Sound Signals <ul><li>Danger signal - at least 5 short & rapid blasts if: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>not in agreement with proposed maneuver </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>fail to understand intentions of other vessel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>in doubt if sufficient action is being taken (Rule 34 d) </li></ul></ul>? TOOT TOOT TOOT TOOT TOOT
    39. 39. One Prolonged Blast shall be sounded when: <ul><li>Nearing a bend or area where other vessels may be obscured by an obstruction (Rule 34 e) </li></ul><ul><li>Leaving a dock or berth (Rule 34 g) </li></ul><ul><li>Making way during periods of restricted visibility (Rule 35 a) </li></ul>
    40. 40. Rule 35: Sounds Signals <ul><li>Anchor in restricted visibility - Ring the bell rapidly for about 5 seconds (Rule 35 f) </li></ul><ul><li>Aground in restricted visibility – 3 separate strokes of bell immediately before and after rapid ringing of bell for 5 seconds (Rule 35 g) </li></ul>
    41. 41. Rule 36: Signals to Attract Attention <ul><li>Sound or light signals may be used to attract the attention of another vessel. (Rule 36) </li></ul><ul><li>The beam of a searchlight may also be directed toward danger. (Rule 36) </li></ul>
    42. 42. Rule 37: Distress Signals High Intensity White Flashing Light
    43. 43. State requirements for lights and sound signals <ul><li>Pause presentation to discuss </li></ul><ul><li>state-specific information </li></ul>
    44. 44. The Steering and Sailing Rules
    45. 45. Rule 7 : Risk of Collision <ul><li>Every vessel shall use all appropriate means to determine if risk of collision exists. If there is any doubt, such risk shall be deemed to exist. ( Rule 7 a) </li></ul><ul><li>Proper use shall be made of radar equipment, if fitted and operational. ( Rule 7 b) </li></ul>
    46. 46. Rule 7: Risk of Collision <ul><li>Risk of collision exists if the compass bearing of an approaching vessel does not appreciably change. (Rule 7 d i) </li></ul>First Sighting A bit closer Still 350 ° 350 °
    47. 47. Rule 8: Action To Avoid a Collision <ul><li>Any action taken to avoid collision shall be: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Positive, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Made in ample time, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>With due regard to good seamanship. ( Rule 8 a) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Alteration of course or speed must be large enough to be obvious to another vessel ( Rule 8 b) </li></ul><ul><li>Action taken shall result in passing at a safe distance. (Rule 8 d) </li></ul>
    48. 48. Rule 8: Action to Avoid Collision <ul><li>Effectiveness of the action shall be carefully checked until both vessels are clear. (Rule 8 d) </li></ul><ul><li>If necessary to avoid collision or allow more time to assess the situation, a vessel must slow down or stop. (Rule 8 e) </li></ul>
    49. 49. Rule 9: Narrow Channels <ul><li>Vessels shall keep as close as possible to the right side of the channel. (Rule 9 a i) </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid anchoring in the channel. (Rule 9 g) </li></ul>
    50. 50. Narrow Channels Steering Rules for Great Lakes & Western Rivers <ul><li>A power-driven vessel going downstream has the “right-of-way” over a vessel going upstream and must propose the manner and place of passage using appropriate signals. The other vessel must stop and hold its position as necessary to permit safe passing. (Rule 9 a ii) </li></ul>
    51. 51. Rule 9: Narrow Channels <ul><li>Vessels less than 20 meters, sailing vessels, and all vessels crossing a channel must stay clear of vessels confined to the channel. (Rules 9 b and d) </li></ul><ul><li>Vessels engaged in fishing must not interfere with any other vessel using the channel. (Rule 9 c) </li></ul>
    52. 52. Rule 13: Overtaking <ul><li>Any vessel overtaking any other is the give-way vessel. (Rule 13 a) </li></ul><ul><li>When a vessel is in doubt as to whether it is overtaking, it shall assume that this is the case, and act accordingly. (Rule 13 c) </li></ul>
    53. 53. Rule 13: Overtaking Two Short Blasts – “I intend to overtake you on my starboard side” One Short Blast – “I intend to overtake you on my port side” Whistle signals are found in Rule 34 c If in agreement, the same signal shall be returned. GIVE-WAY STAND-ON TOOT TOOT TOOT OR
    54. 54. Video 3
    55. 55. Video 4
    56. 56. Video 5
    57. 57. Video 6
    58. 58. Rule 14: Head-on Situation <ul><li>When two power-driven vessels are meeting on reciprocal courses so as to involve risk of collision: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Each shall alter its course to starboard so as to pass on the port side of the other. ( Rule 14 a) </li></ul></ul>
    59. 59. Rule 14: Head-on Situation One Short Blast – “I intend to leave you on my port side” TOOT TOOT Whistle signals are found in Rule 34 a If in agreement, the same signal shall be returned.
    60. 60. Rule 14 d: Head-on Situation for Great Lakes and Western Rivers <ul><li>A power-driven vessel proceeding downbound with a following current shall have the right-of-way over an upbound vessel, and shall propose the manner of passage. (Rule 14 d) </li></ul>
    61. 61. Video 7
    62. 62. Video 8
    63. 63. Video 9
    64. 64. Rule 15: Crossing Situation <ul><li>When two power driven vessels are crossing so as to involve risk of collision: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The vessel which has the other on her starboard side gives way, and the other vessel stands on. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The give-way vessel must not cross ahead of the stand-on vessel. ( Rule 15 a) </li></ul></ul>
    65. 65. Rule 15: Crossing Situation TOOT TOOT AVOID CROSSING AHEAD OF STAND-ON VESSEL GIVE-WAY STAND-ON Whistle signals are found in Rule 34 a If in agreement, the same signal shall be returned. One Short Blast – “I intend to leave you on my port side”
    66. 66. Rule 15 b: Crossing Situation for Great Lakes and Western Rivers <ul><li>A power-driven vessel crossing a river gives way to a power-driven vessel ascending or descending, which stands on. ( Rule 15 b) </li></ul>
    67. 67. Video 10
    68. 68. Video 11
    69. 69. Video 12
    70. 70. Video 13
    71. 71. Video 14
    72. 72. Rule 12: Sailing Vessels ( Rule 12 a i) WIND STAND-ON GIVE-WAY
    73. 73. Rule 12: Sailing Vessels ( Rule 12 a ii) WIND Keep out of the way of the stand-on vessel STAND-ON GIVE-WAY
    74. 74. Rule 18: Responsibilities between Vessels STAND-ON GIVE-WAY
    75. 75. Video 15
    76. 76. Video 16
    77. 77. Video 17
    78. 78. Rule 19: Restricted Visibility <ul><li>This Rule applies to vessels not in sight of one another when navigating in or near an area of restricted visibility. ( Rule 19 a) </li></ul><ul><li>Every vessel must operate at a safe speed appropriate for the particular conditions of visibility. ( Rule 19 b) </li></ul>
    79. 79. Rule 35: Signals in Restricted Visibility <ul><li>Power-driven vessel making way - 1 prolonged blast every 2 minutes ( Rule 35 a) </li></ul><ul><li>Power-driven vessel underway but stopped and not making way - 2 prolonged blasts every 2 minutes ( Rule 35 b) </li></ul>
    80. 80. Rule 35: Signals in Restricted Visibility <ul><li>Any of the following vessels must sound 1 prolonged & 2 short blasts every 2 min: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>sailing vessel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>not under command </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>restricted in ability to maneuver </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>engaged in fishing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>towing or pushing another ( Rule 35 c) </li></ul></ul>This requirement does not apply to vessels under 12 meters
    81. 81. Rule 35: Signals in Restricted Visibility <ul><li>A vessel at anchor shall: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ring a bell for 5 seconds at least every minute </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>may also sound 1 short, 1 prolonged and 1 short blasts ( Rule 35 f) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Does not apply to vessels less than 20 meters anchored in a designated anchorage (Rule 35 h) </li></ul>
    82. 82. Rule 19: Restricted Visibility <ul><li>Every vessel which hears the fog signal of another vessel, or which cannot avoid a close-quarters situation, shall: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce speed to bare steerageway; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If necessary, stop; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Navigate with extreme caution until danger of collision is over. (Rule 19 e) </li></ul></ul>
    83. 83. Additional State Information: Pause presentation to discuss state-specific information here
    84. 84. Additional Training Opportunities <ul><li>Lighting Scenarios </li></ul><ul><li>Steering & Sailing Rules Scenarios </li></ul><ul><li>On-Water Checklist </li></ul><ul><li>Quick Reference Guide to the Navigation Rules </li></ul><ul><li>Final Exam </li></ul>
    85. 85. <ul><li>We would like to thank the following states and organizations that have graciously allowed the use of their existing training materials in the creation of this one. </li></ul>
    86. 86. <ul><li>Idaho Department of Parks & Recreation </li></ul><ul><li>Montana Fish, Wildlife & Parks Law Enforcement Division </li></ul><ul><li>Nevada Department of Wildlife </li></ul><ul><li>Ohio Department of Natural Resources Division of Watercraft </li></ul><ul><li>Tennessee Wildlife Resources Agency </li></ul>Credits
    87. 87. <ul><li>Florida Fish & Wildlife Conservation Commission </li></ul><ul><li>The National Safe Boating Council </li></ul><ul><li>Sea Tow Boating Safety and Education Foundation </li></ul><ul><li>USCG Quartermaster Training School </li></ul>Credits
    88. 88. Credits <ul><li>Consultation on the Navigation Rules provided by Captain Jim Battye and Captain Alan Richard </li></ul><ul><li>Narration voiced by Captain Alan Richard </li></ul><ul><li>Narration recorded at the Florida Fish & Wildlife Conservation Commission studios </li></ul>
    89. 89. Credits <ul><li>Boating footage was filmed by Jason Harmon’s Audio/Video Production Company (outside of Nashville, TN) </li></ul><ul><li>Boat provided by Ed Carter and operated by Betsy Woods </li></ul><ul><li>Additional boating footage was provided by Boat Ed, Inc. </li></ul>
    90. 90. Credits <ul><li>Final production and digital duplication was completed by Palmer Multimedia Imaging (www.palmermultimedia.com) </li></ul>
    1. A particular slide catching your eye?

      Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.

    ×