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CHAPTER 1
NAUTICAL RULES OF THE ROAD
Nautical traffic laws
are known as the
Nautical Rules of
of the Road.
International               Inland

Nautical Rules of the Road were first
established in 1897 by all maritime
nations of the world. The latest major
revision was in 1972.
International Rules of the Road




The official name is The International
Regulations for Preventing Collisions
at Sea, 1972, or ―the 72 COLREGS.‖
Convention on the International
Regulations for Preventing Collisions
      at Sea, 1972 (COLREGs)

The COLREGs include 38 rules divided
into five sections:

•   Part A - General
•   Part B - Steering and Sailing
•   Part C - Lights and Shapes
•   Part D - Sound and Light Signals
•   Part E - Exemptions
Inland Waters – Unified Rules
The inland rules for the U.S. were
established by Congress under The
Inland Navigational Rules Act of 1980.
Purpose of
              the Rules




 Prevent
Collisions
The rules govern all
waterborne traffic.
Power Vessel

Propelled by
machinery, even
if under sail


Sailing Vessel

Under sail alone,
even if machinery
is aboard
A vessel is underway
when not:

• Anchored
• Moored to a dock
  or buoy
• Aground
Underway

A vessel that is not anchored,
moored, or aground

It is not required that you are
moving or making way.
Both international and inland rules of
the road cover:




     •   Lights and shapes
     •   Sound signals
     •   Steering and sailing rules
     •   Distress signals
Maritime courts
of law use both
international and
inland rules after
a collision to
decide who will
pay for damages.
Display lights from sunset to sunrise
and in periods of restricted visibility.




 Do not display lights that could be
 mistaken for required lights.
Running Lights
(Port, Starboard, and Stern)
Running Lights
(Masthead and Range)
Running Lights

Any of various lights required to
be displayed by vessels operating
between sunset and sunrise
Running lights are white, red, and
green lights carried by all seagoing
power-driven vessels underway.
Masthead Light




                                      225°




 The white light in the fore part of the ship
 is required for all ocean-going ships.
Masthead Light
(Vessels less
than 12 meters,
39 feet)

                          360°




All-around white light.
Range Light
  (Vessels over 50 meters or 150 feet)
                             Range Light
                         (15 feet higher than
                           Masthead Light)



Masthead Light
Stern Light




12 Pts.
 135°




   A ship underway must display a white
   stern light.
Port


                 112.5°


                 112.5°


         Starboard


Running Lights
What side of a vessel is called the port
side, and what color is its sidelight?



What side of a vessel is called the
starboard side, and what color is its
sidelight?
What side of a vessel is called the port
side, and what color is its sidelight?

Left and red

What side of a vessel is called the
starboard side, and what color is its
sidelight?

Right and green

An easy way to remember is
―Port wine is red.‖
Arc of Visibility

The angular dimension (horizontal
arc in degrees) within which a light
can be seen from a location off the
vessel
What is the required arc of visibility, in
degrees, of the following ship’s lights?

       Masthead light:

       Sidelights:

       All-around light:

       Stern light:
What is the required arc of visibility, in
degrees, of the following ship’s lights?

       Masthead light:     225°

       Sidelights:         112.5°

       All-around light: 360°

       Stern light:        135°
The white masthead and range lights, together with
sidelights, indicate the course of the sighted ship.
The white stern light warns overtaking
ships that another ship is ahead.
―Reading‖ Navigation Lights
    (Vessels Underway)
―Reading‖ Navigation Lights
       (Vessels Underway)
                     S
          B          T
          O          E
          W          R
                     N


                             STAR-
PORT                         BOARD
The upper white lights must be visible
from a distance of at least 5 miles.
The port and
starboard sidelights
and the stern light
must be visible at
least 2 miles away.
International Maritime Organization (IMO)

The international and inland rules agree
in the arcs of visibility required by the
lights shown.
Power-driven motorboats




• Range light optional
• Masthead light visible for at least 3 miles
• Stern and sidelights visible for 1 mile
Pilot Boat
Pilot Boat

A boat carrying pilots to or from
large ships
Pilot Boat




―White over red, pilot ahead‖
is a memory aid used when
looking for a pilot boat.
Pilot Boat




A vessel engaged in pilotage duties may
sound an optional identity signal of four
short blasts on its horn.
Vessel at Anchor




Ships less than 50 meters in length at anchor
show an all-around white light forward.

Ships more than 50 meters in length show an
all-around white light forward and aft.
Vessel at Anchor




                                     Dayshape



In daytime, vessels
at anchor must display
a black ball, known as a dayshape.
Dayshape




       Vessel at Anchor
Vessel Towing
Vessels towing must:

• Display two masthead lights in
  a vertical line.




• If the tow extends beyond 200
  meters, a third light must be
  added below the second light.
Vessel Not under Command

A ship or craft that is disabled and
cannot operate in accordance with
the Rules of the Road
Vessel Not under Command



                            Day
                           Shape




Not Making Way
Vessel Not under Command



                            Day
                           Shape




Making Way
A ship not under command at night must show
two red lights, one over the other. They must be
visible all around the horizon at a distance of 2
miles.
Vessels Not under
           Command during
               Daylight



Merchant ships will hoist two
black balls.



Naval vessels will hoist the
―5‖ flag and two black balls.
Other lights and day shapes are
prescribed for various operations
such as:

•   Commercial fishing
•   Cable laying
•   Underwater or diving operations
•   Dredging

Some examples of day shapes follow.
Special Rules for Naval Vessels




The horizontal separation of white lights
on destroyers and smaller ships is often
less than that required by the rules.
The white lights on aircraft carriers are
usually on the superstructure and off the
centerline.




Special lights such as speed lights,
carrier-landing lights, and colored
recognition lights may be shown on
naval vessels during certain operations.
During ship exercises, naval vessels
may show no lights at all.

In peacetime, however, if a merchant ship
approaches, lights are usually turned on.
When lights are required, the three black
balls are replaced with three green lights.




            MINESWEEPER
Amber-colored intermittent flashing
beacon – 3 seconds on – 3 seconds
off when submarine running surfaced,
in addition to other required lights
Whistle Signals




Whistle signals are required by both sets
of rules for vessels maneuvering within
sight of one another.
INLAND
                           RULES




Signifies intention only. A response
IS required.
INTERNATIONAL
                      RULES




Signifies execution of maneuver.
A response is NOT required.
Duration Times for
 Whistle Signals

Short Blast: TOOT
             I  1 second     I

Prolonged: T - O - O - T
            I     4 - 6 seconds      I

Long Blast: T – O – O – T
            I       8 - 10 seconds       I
INTERNATIONAL

      1 Short Blast:
       ―I am altering
       my course to
        starboard.‖
INTERNATIONAL


     2 Short Blasts:
       ―I am altering
       my course to
           port.‖
INTERNATIONAL

      3 Short Blasts:
      ―My engines are
       going astern.‖
INTERNATIONAL - INLAND

          5 Short Blasts:
             ―DANGER!’
Confusion over whistle signals probably
causes more collisions than any other
part of the rules of the road.
Both international and inland rules
consider the situation in which two
ships are approaching each other
with the risk of collision. They are:



• Meeting
• Overtaking
• Crossing
Give-Way Vessel — Must keep clear

Stand-On Vessel — Has the right of way
The risk of a collision exists when
the bearing of an approaching vessel
remains constant.
A collision at sea can ruin your whole
day.
General Rules to Avoid Collision

1. Take action in ample time.
2. Make the passing agreement
   signals.
3. Make obvious changes.
4. Check and recheck your actions
   until clear of other vessels.
5. If necessary, stop or reverse your
   engines.
INLAND
Meeting        One Short Blast
Situation      Port to Port


                       Give-way
                        Vessel


Give-way
 Vessel
INTERNATIONAL
Meeting              Two Short Blasts
Situation            Starboard to Starboard
  Only done if it is clearly the most convenient,
  safe maneuver for both vessels.

                                       Give-way
                                        Vessel


  Give-way
   Vessel
INTERNATIONAL
Meeting             Two Short Blasts
Situation           Starboard to Starboard
  It is implied that a starboard-to-starboard
  passing is only proper when there is no risk
  of collision.




   There is an old nautical saying that
   warns: ―Two short blasts are the first
   two notes of the collision waltz.‖
In U.S. Inland Waters




Starboard-to-starboard passing is
authorized only if the ships are not
meeting end-on and safe passage is
assured without any maneuvering.
INTERNATIONAL
           Crossing Situation



                    Stand-on
                     Vessel

                 The give-way vessel is
Give-way         required to maneuver to
 Vessel          avoid crossing ahead of
                 the stand-on vessel.
INTERNATIONAL
           Crossing Situation



                    Stand-on
                     Vessel

                 This means reducing
Give-way         speed, stopping, altering
 Vessel          course to starboard, or
                 backing down.
INTERNATIONAL
                   One Short Blast
Crossing           Two Short Blasts
Situation          Three Short Blasts


                            Stand-on
                             Vessel


              Give-way
               Vessel
Overtaking Situation

In inland waters, the overtaking vessel
must signal on which side it intends to
pass; one blast to starboard and two
blasts to port.

It cannot pass until it hears the same
signal from the overtaken vessel.
INTERNATIONAL
            Overtaking Situation


In international waters, a ship that can pass
another without a change of course may do
so without a signal.
INTERNATIONAL
           Overtaking Situation
If overtaking vessel must change course to
pass, she sounds one short blast if turning
to the right, or two short blasts if turning to
the left, and does not have to wait for an
answer.

Vessel being overtaken may respond with 5
or more short blasts if she considers
proposed maneuver dangerous.
Overtaking Situation
I   An overtaking vessel must give a signal
N   whether or not she must change course
L   to pass, and she may not pass until she
A   hears the agreeing signal from the vessel
N   ahead.
D
    The signals are one short blast if
    proposing to pass the other vessel on her
R   starboard side, and two if proposing to
U   pass on her port side.
L
E
S
Overtaking Situation
I
N                          DANGER
L
A
N
D                              Vessel being overtaken
                               responses with 5 short
                               blasts indicating danger
R                              to port.
U
L   Overtaking vessel
    indicates overtaking       This is followed by a signal for
E   on the port side by        what is considered the safer
                               procedure and the overtaking
S   2 short blasts.
                               vessel answers signal and
                               passes on the correct side.
Avoid Collision – ―In Extremis‖




A vessel may depart from the requirements
of the rules of the road when there is
imminent danger of collision. Such a
danger of collision is called ―in extremis.‖
A ship’s captain is
required to use good
judgment to avoid
collision even if the
action might violate
the rules.
Fog Signals Underway

      Inland Rules
Prolonged blast 4 to 6
seconds on the whistle
at 1-minute intervals



                    International Rules
                   Prolonged blast 4 to 6
                   seconds on the whistle
                   every 2 minutes
Inland Rules
Fog Signal at Anchor




Ring the bell for about
5 seconds at 1-minute
      intervals.
In restricted visibility, you must:


  Go at a safe speed.
  Maintain a proper look-out.
  Display navigation lights.
If you hear a fog signal forward of your
beam:

Reduce speed to bare steerageway.
Steerageway

The minimum speed at which the
rudder is effective

              or

The minimum speed at which your
vessel can be kept on course
Distress Signals
                for
   Inland & International Rules




 FOGHORN     GUN FIRED AT    FLAMES ON
CONTINUOUS    INTERVALS       A VESSEL
 SOUNDING    OF 1 MINUTE    (NIGHT ONLY)
NAUTICAL RULES OF THE ROAD
          THE END
Distress Signals
             for
    International Rules




Gun Fired at 1-Minute Intervals
Distress Signals
              for
     International Rules




Continuous Sounding of Foghorn
Distress Signals
         for
International Rules




 Rockets or Shells
Distress Signals
         for
International Rules




       SOS
Distress Signals
           for
  International Rules




Signal ―MAYDAY‖ by Radio
Distress Signals
              for
     International Rules




Flaghoist with November Charlie
Distress Signals
         for
International Rules




Square Flag and Ball
Distress Signals
            for
   International Rules




Flames from Tar or Oil Barrel
Distress Signals
         for
International Rules




  Parachute Flare
Distress Signals
         for
International Rules




   Smoke Signal
Distress Signals
         for
International Rules




    Wave Arms
Q.1. Name the two sets of rules of
     the road used by ships in the
     United States.
Q.1. Name the two sets of rules of
     the road used by ships in the
     United States.


A.1. The International Regulations
     for Preventing Collisions at
     Sea, 1972, and The Inland
     Navigational Rules Act of
     1980
Q.2. What is the purpose of the rules
     of the road?
Q.2. What is the purpose of the rules
     of the road?


A.2. To prevent ship collisions
Q.3. How can you determine if risk
     of collision exists?
Q.3. How can you determine if risk
     of collision exists?


A.3. If the compass bearing of an
     approaching vessel does not
     appreciably change as the
     range decreases (―constant
     bearing decreasing range‖)
Q.4. What do the rules of the road
     cover?
Q.4. What do the rules of the road
     cover?


A.4. Lights and shapes, sound
     signals, steering and sailing
     rules, and distress signals
Q.5. Explain the difference between
     power-driven and sailing
     vessels.
Q.5. Explain the difference between
     power-driven and sailing
     vessels.


A.5. A power-driven vessel is one
     that is being propelled by
     machinery even if she is
     equipped with sails. A sailing
     vessel is any vessel which is
     being propelled by sail alone.
Q.6. What is the definition of
     ―underway?‖
Q.6. What is the definition of
     ―underway?‖


A.6. Any vessel not at anchor;
     moored to a buoy or dock or
     not aground
Q.7. What additional white light
     must be shown for vessels 50
     meters or more in length?
Q.7. What additional white light
     must be shown for vessels 50
     meters or more in length?


A.7. A range light
Q.8. Name the colors of the lights
     used aboard ships.
Q.8. Name the colors of the lights
     used aboard ships.


A.8. White, red, and green (and
     amber for special
     circumstances)
Q.9. What color is the masthead
     light?
Q.9. What color is the masthead
     light?


A.9. White
Q.10. State the colors of the port
      and starboard sidelights.
Q.10. State the colors of the port
      and starboard sidelights.


A.10. Red on the port, green on the
      starboard
Q.11. Why are special rules made
      for lights on naval vessels?
Q.11. Why are special rules made
      for lights on naval vessels?


A.11. Construction and mission
      requirements
Q.12. What is the meaning of one
      short blast of a ship's whistle
      in international waters?
Q.12. What is the meaning of one
      short blast of a ship's whistle
      in international waters?


A.12. I am changing course to
      starboard.
Q.13. What is the whistle signal for
      danger?
Q.13. What is the whistle signal for
      danger?


A.13. Five or more short blasts
Q.14. What is the meaning of one
      short blast of a ship’s whistle
      in inland waters?
Q.14. What is the meaning of one
      short blast of a ship’s whistle
      in inland waters?


A.14. It is a signal of intention to
      pass port to port and only
      executed if acknowledged by
      the other vessel.
Q.15. When is a vessel required to
      fly the national ensign upside
      down as a signal?
Q.15. When is a vessel required to
      fly the national ensign upside
      down as a signal?


A.15. Never
Q.16. According to the rules, what is
      the vessel called that must
      take action in any given
      situation?
Q.16. According to the rules, what is
      the vessel called that must
      take action in any given
      situation?


A.16. Give-way
Q.17. Briefly explain what the Rule
      of Good Seamanship states.
Q.17. Briefly explain what the Rule
      of Good Seamanship states.


A.17. A ship's master must
      exercise professional
      judgment and may deviate
      from the rules if a possible
      dangerous situation arises
Q.18. In a crossing situation, which
      vessel is the stand-on vessel?
Q.18. In a crossing situation, which
      vessel is the stand-on vessel?


A.18. The vessel to the starboard
      of the other
Q.19. In a meeting situation, which
      vessel is the stand-on vessel?
Q.19. In a meeting situation, which
      vessel is the stand-on vessel?


A.19. Neither, they are both
      designated give-way vessels
Q.20. In an overtaking situation,
      which vessel is the stand-on
      vessel?
Q.20. In an overtaking situation,
      which vessel is the stand-on
      vessel?


A.20. The vessel being overtaken
      (passed)
Q.21. What signal must a vessel
      sound if, when rounding a
      bend, it is unable to see for at
      least ½ mile?
Q.21. What signal must a vessel
      sound if, when rounding a
      bend, it is unable to see for at
      least ½ mile?


A.21. A prolonged blast of its
      whistle (4 to 6 seconds)
Q.22. What do two short blasts of a
      ship's whistle signal in
      international waters?
Q.22. What do two short blasts of a
      ship's whistle signal in
      international waters?


A.22. Changing course to port
Q.23. What do three short blasts of
      a ship's whistle signal?
Q.23. What do three short blasts of
      a ship's whistle signal?


A.23. Engine backing (going
      astern)
Q.24. In conditions of reduced
      visibility, what signal does a
      power-driven vessel underway
      and making way sound?
Q.24. In conditions of reduced
      visibility, what signal does a
      power-driven vessel underway
      and making way sound?


A.24. One prolonged blast at least
      every 2 minutes
Range Light

The white light on the aftermast
of vessels 50 meters or more
Sidelights

Either of two lights carried by a
vessel underway at night, a red
one on the port side and a green
one on the starboard
Day Shape
   (Black Ball)

A metal ribbing
roughly oval in
shape, over which
canvas is stretched
Obstructed View
1 Prolong Blast
Change of Status
I   (leaving a dock or berth)
N        1 prolong blast
L
A
N
D

R
U
L
E
S
Leaving a Dock or Berth in Reverse
I
N   1 prolonged blast, (change of status)
    then 3 short blasts, (making sternway)
L
A
N
D

R
U
L
E
S
VESSEL AT ANCHOR
At night, ―Red over red, the captain is
dead‖ may help you remember the
vessel is not under command.




VESSEL NOT UNDER COMMAND
VESSEL AGROUND
VESSEL TOWING ASTERN, TOW LENGTH
  MORE THAN 200 METERS ASTERN
SAILING VESSEL UNDER POWER
VESSEL ENGAGED IN FISHING
VESSEL ENGAGED IN FISHING, GEAR
EXTENDING MORE THAN 150 METERS
VESSEL CONSTRAINED BY DRAFT
VESSEL ENGAGED IN
  MINESWEEPING
VESSEL RESTRICTED IN ABILITY TO
          MANEUVER
VESSEL RESTRICTED IN ABILITY TO
MANEUVER, OBSTRUCTION EXISTS ON SIDE
          WITH TWO BALLS
Meeting         Two Short Blasts
    Situation       Starboard to Starboard
I
N
                                  Give-way
L                                  Vessel
A
N        Give-way
          Vessel
D
        Meeting         One Short Blast
        Situation       Port to Port
R
U                                 Give-way
L                                  Vessel
E
        Give-way
S        Vessel
Crossing Situation
I                 One Short Blast
N                 Port to Port
L
A                 In inland waters,
N                 starboard-to-
                  starboard passing
D
                  is authorized only
                  if ships are not
R                 meeting end-on
U                 and safe passage
L                 is assured
E                 without any
S                 maneuvering.

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Nautical Rules of the Road

  • 2. Nautical traffic laws are known as the Nautical Rules of of the Road.
  • 3. International Inland Nautical Rules of the Road were first established in 1897 by all maritime nations of the world. The latest major revision was in 1972.
  • 4. International Rules of the Road The official name is The International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea, 1972, or ―the 72 COLREGS.‖
  • 5. Convention on the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea, 1972 (COLREGs) The COLREGs include 38 rules divided into five sections: • Part A - General • Part B - Steering and Sailing • Part C - Lights and Shapes • Part D - Sound and Light Signals • Part E - Exemptions
  • 6. Inland Waters – Unified Rules The inland rules for the U.S. were established by Congress under The Inland Navigational Rules Act of 1980.
  • 7. Purpose of the Rules Prevent Collisions
  • 8. The rules govern all waterborne traffic.
  • 9. Power Vessel Propelled by machinery, even if under sail Sailing Vessel Under sail alone, even if machinery is aboard
  • 10.
  • 11. A vessel is underway when not: • Anchored • Moored to a dock or buoy • Aground
  • 12. Underway A vessel that is not anchored, moored, or aground It is not required that you are moving or making way.
  • 13. Both international and inland rules of the road cover: • Lights and shapes • Sound signals • Steering and sailing rules • Distress signals
  • 14. Maritime courts of law use both international and inland rules after a collision to decide who will pay for damages.
  • 15. Display lights from sunset to sunrise and in periods of restricted visibility. Do not display lights that could be mistaken for required lights.
  • 18. Running Lights Any of various lights required to be displayed by vessels operating between sunset and sunrise
  • 19. Running lights are white, red, and green lights carried by all seagoing power-driven vessels underway.
  • 20. Masthead Light 225° The white light in the fore part of the ship is required for all ocean-going ships.
  • 21. Masthead Light (Vessels less than 12 meters, 39 feet) 360° All-around white light.
  • 22. Range Light (Vessels over 50 meters or 150 feet) Range Light (15 feet higher than Masthead Light) Masthead Light
  • 23. Stern Light 12 Pts. 135° A ship underway must display a white stern light.
  • 24. Port 112.5° 112.5° Starboard Running Lights
  • 25. What side of a vessel is called the port side, and what color is its sidelight? What side of a vessel is called the starboard side, and what color is its sidelight?
  • 26. What side of a vessel is called the port side, and what color is its sidelight? Left and red What side of a vessel is called the starboard side, and what color is its sidelight? Right and green An easy way to remember is ―Port wine is red.‖
  • 27. Arc of Visibility The angular dimension (horizontal arc in degrees) within which a light can be seen from a location off the vessel
  • 28. What is the required arc of visibility, in degrees, of the following ship’s lights? Masthead light: Sidelights: All-around light: Stern light:
  • 29. What is the required arc of visibility, in degrees, of the following ship’s lights? Masthead light: 225° Sidelights: 112.5° All-around light: 360° Stern light: 135°
  • 30. The white masthead and range lights, together with sidelights, indicate the course of the sighted ship.
  • 31. The white stern light warns overtaking ships that another ship is ahead.
  • 32. ―Reading‖ Navigation Lights (Vessels Underway)
  • 33. ―Reading‖ Navigation Lights (Vessels Underway) S B T O E W R N STAR- PORT BOARD
  • 34. The upper white lights must be visible from a distance of at least 5 miles.
  • 35. The port and starboard sidelights and the stern light must be visible at least 2 miles away.
  • 36. International Maritime Organization (IMO) The international and inland rules agree in the arcs of visibility required by the lights shown.
  • 37. Power-driven motorboats • Range light optional • Masthead light visible for at least 3 miles • Stern and sidelights visible for 1 mile
  • 38.
  • 40. Pilot Boat A boat carrying pilots to or from large ships
  • 41. Pilot Boat ―White over red, pilot ahead‖ is a memory aid used when looking for a pilot boat.
  • 42. Pilot Boat A vessel engaged in pilotage duties may sound an optional identity signal of four short blasts on its horn.
  • 43.
  • 44. Vessel at Anchor Ships less than 50 meters in length at anchor show an all-around white light forward. Ships more than 50 meters in length show an all-around white light forward and aft.
  • 45. Vessel at Anchor Dayshape In daytime, vessels at anchor must display a black ball, known as a dayshape.
  • 46. Dayshape Vessel at Anchor
  • 47.
  • 49. Vessels towing must: • Display two masthead lights in a vertical line. • If the tow extends beyond 200 meters, a third light must be added below the second light.
  • 50.
  • 51. Vessel Not under Command A ship or craft that is disabled and cannot operate in accordance with the Rules of the Road
  • 52. Vessel Not under Command Day Shape Not Making Way
  • 53. Vessel Not under Command Day Shape Making Way
  • 54. A ship not under command at night must show two red lights, one over the other. They must be visible all around the horizon at a distance of 2 miles.
  • 55. Vessels Not under Command during Daylight Merchant ships will hoist two black balls. Naval vessels will hoist the ―5‖ flag and two black balls.
  • 56.
  • 57. Other lights and day shapes are prescribed for various operations such as: • Commercial fishing • Cable laying • Underwater or diving operations • Dredging Some examples of day shapes follow.
  • 58. Special Rules for Naval Vessels The horizontal separation of white lights on destroyers and smaller ships is often less than that required by the rules.
  • 59. The white lights on aircraft carriers are usually on the superstructure and off the centerline. Special lights such as speed lights, carrier-landing lights, and colored recognition lights may be shown on naval vessels during certain operations.
  • 60. During ship exercises, naval vessels may show no lights at all. In peacetime, however, if a merchant ship approaches, lights are usually turned on.
  • 61. When lights are required, the three black balls are replaced with three green lights. MINESWEEPER
  • 62. Amber-colored intermittent flashing beacon – 3 seconds on – 3 seconds off when submarine running surfaced, in addition to other required lights
  • 63. Whistle Signals Whistle signals are required by both sets of rules for vessels maneuvering within sight of one another.
  • 64. INLAND RULES Signifies intention only. A response IS required.
  • 65. INTERNATIONAL RULES Signifies execution of maneuver. A response is NOT required.
  • 66. Duration Times for Whistle Signals Short Blast: TOOT I 1 second I Prolonged: T - O - O - T I 4 - 6 seconds I Long Blast: T – O – O – T I 8 - 10 seconds I
  • 67. INTERNATIONAL 1 Short Blast: ―I am altering my course to starboard.‖
  • 68. INTERNATIONAL 2 Short Blasts: ―I am altering my course to port.‖
  • 69. INTERNATIONAL 3 Short Blasts: ―My engines are going astern.‖
  • 70.
  • 71. INTERNATIONAL - INLAND 5 Short Blasts: ―DANGER!’
  • 72. Confusion over whistle signals probably causes more collisions than any other part of the rules of the road.
  • 73. Both international and inland rules consider the situation in which two ships are approaching each other with the risk of collision. They are: • Meeting • Overtaking • Crossing
  • 74. Give-Way Vessel — Must keep clear Stand-On Vessel — Has the right of way
  • 75. The risk of a collision exists when the bearing of an approaching vessel remains constant.
  • 76. A collision at sea can ruin your whole day.
  • 77.
  • 78. General Rules to Avoid Collision 1. Take action in ample time. 2. Make the passing agreement signals. 3. Make obvious changes. 4. Check and recheck your actions until clear of other vessels. 5. If necessary, stop or reverse your engines.
  • 79. INLAND Meeting One Short Blast Situation Port to Port Give-way Vessel Give-way Vessel
  • 80. INTERNATIONAL Meeting Two Short Blasts Situation Starboard to Starboard Only done if it is clearly the most convenient, safe maneuver for both vessels. Give-way Vessel Give-way Vessel
  • 81. INTERNATIONAL Meeting Two Short Blasts Situation Starboard to Starboard It is implied that a starboard-to-starboard passing is only proper when there is no risk of collision. There is an old nautical saying that warns: ―Two short blasts are the first two notes of the collision waltz.‖
  • 82. In U.S. Inland Waters Starboard-to-starboard passing is authorized only if the ships are not meeting end-on and safe passage is assured without any maneuvering.
  • 83. INTERNATIONAL Crossing Situation Stand-on Vessel The give-way vessel is Give-way required to maneuver to Vessel avoid crossing ahead of the stand-on vessel.
  • 84. INTERNATIONAL Crossing Situation Stand-on Vessel This means reducing Give-way speed, stopping, altering Vessel course to starboard, or backing down.
  • 85. INTERNATIONAL One Short Blast Crossing Two Short Blasts Situation Three Short Blasts Stand-on Vessel Give-way Vessel
  • 86. Overtaking Situation In inland waters, the overtaking vessel must signal on which side it intends to pass; one blast to starboard and two blasts to port. It cannot pass until it hears the same signal from the overtaken vessel.
  • 87.
  • 88. INTERNATIONAL Overtaking Situation In international waters, a ship that can pass another without a change of course may do so without a signal.
  • 89. INTERNATIONAL Overtaking Situation If overtaking vessel must change course to pass, she sounds one short blast if turning to the right, or two short blasts if turning to the left, and does not have to wait for an answer. Vessel being overtaken may respond with 5 or more short blasts if she considers proposed maneuver dangerous.
  • 90. Overtaking Situation I An overtaking vessel must give a signal N whether or not she must change course L to pass, and she may not pass until she A hears the agreeing signal from the vessel N ahead. D The signals are one short blast if proposing to pass the other vessel on her R starboard side, and two if proposing to U pass on her port side. L E S
  • 91. Overtaking Situation I N DANGER L A N D Vessel being overtaken responses with 5 short blasts indicating danger R to port. U L Overtaking vessel indicates overtaking This is followed by a signal for E on the port side by what is considered the safer procedure and the overtaking S 2 short blasts. vessel answers signal and passes on the correct side.
  • 92. Avoid Collision – ―In Extremis‖ A vessel may depart from the requirements of the rules of the road when there is imminent danger of collision. Such a danger of collision is called ―in extremis.‖
  • 93. A ship’s captain is required to use good judgment to avoid collision even if the action might violate the rules.
  • 94. Fog Signals Underway Inland Rules Prolonged blast 4 to 6 seconds on the whistle at 1-minute intervals International Rules Prolonged blast 4 to 6 seconds on the whistle every 2 minutes
  • 95. Inland Rules Fog Signal at Anchor Ring the bell for about 5 seconds at 1-minute intervals.
  • 96. In restricted visibility, you must: Go at a safe speed. Maintain a proper look-out. Display navigation lights.
  • 97.
  • 98. If you hear a fog signal forward of your beam: Reduce speed to bare steerageway.
  • 99. Steerageway The minimum speed at which the rudder is effective or The minimum speed at which your vessel can be kept on course
  • 100.
  • 101. Distress Signals for Inland & International Rules FOGHORN GUN FIRED AT FLAMES ON CONTINUOUS INTERVALS A VESSEL SOUNDING OF 1 MINUTE (NIGHT ONLY)
  • 102. NAUTICAL RULES OF THE ROAD THE END
  • 103. Distress Signals for International Rules Gun Fired at 1-Minute Intervals
  • 104. Distress Signals for International Rules Continuous Sounding of Foghorn
  • 105. Distress Signals for International Rules Rockets or Shells
  • 106. Distress Signals for International Rules SOS
  • 107. Distress Signals for International Rules Signal ―MAYDAY‖ by Radio
  • 108. Distress Signals for International Rules Flaghoist with November Charlie
  • 109. Distress Signals for International Rules Square Flag and Ball
  • 110. Distress Signals for International Rules Flames from Tar or Oil Barrel
  • 111. Distress Signals for International Rules Parachute Flare
  • 112. Distress Signals for International Rules Smoke Signal
  • 113. Distress Signals for International Rules Wave Arms
  • 114. Q.1. Name the two sets of rules of the road used by ships in the United States.
  • 115. Q.1. Name the two sets of rules of the road used by ships in the United States. A.1. The International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea, 1972, and The Inland Navigational Rules Act of 1980
  • 116. Q.2. What is the purpose of the rules of the road?
  • 117. Q.2. What is the purpose of the rules of the road? A.2. To prevent ship collisions
  • 118. Q.3. How can you determine if risk of collision exists?
  • 119. Q.3. How can you determine if risk of collision exists? A.3. If the compass bearing of an approaching vessel does not appreciably change as the range decreases (―constant bearing decreasing range‖)
  • 120. Q.4. What do the rules of the road cover?
  • 121. Q.4. What do the rules of the road cover? A.4. Lights and shapes, sound signals, steering and sailing rules, and distress signals
  • 122. Q.5. Explain the difference between power-driven and sailing vessels.
  • 123. Q.5. Explain the difference between power-driven and sailing vessels. A.5. A power-driven vessel is one that is being propelled by machinery even if she is equipped with sails. A sailing vessel is any vessel which is being propelled by sail alone.
  • 124. Q.6. What is the definition of ―underway?‖
  • 125. Q.6. What is the definition of ―underway?‖ A.6. Any vessel not at anchor; moored to a buoy or dock or not aground
  • 126. Q.7. What additional white light must be shown for vessels 50 meters or more in length?
  • 127. Q.7. What additional white light must be shown for vessels 50 meters or more in length? A.7. A range light
  • 128. Q.8. Name the colors of the lights used aboard ships.
  • 129. Q.8. Name the colors of the lights used aboard ships. A.8. White, red, and green (and amber for special circumstances)
  • 130. Q.9. What color is the masthead light?
  • 131. Q.9. What color is the masthead light? A.9. White
  • 132. Q.10. State the colors of the port and starboard sidelights.
  • 133. Q.10. State the colors of the port and starboard sidelights. A.10. Red on the port, green on the starboard
  • 134. Q.11. Why are special rules made for lights on naval vessels?
  • 135. Q.11. Why are special rules made for lights on naval vessels? A.11. Construction and mission requirements
  • 136. Q.12. What is the meaning of one short blast of a ship's whistle in international waters?
  • 137. Q.12. What is the meaning of one short blast of a ship's whistle in international waters? A.12. I am changing course to starboard.
  • 138. Q.13. What is the whistle signal for danger?
  • 139. Q.13. What is the whistle signal for danger? A.13. Five or more short blasts
  • 140. Q.14. What is the meaning of one short blast of a ship’s whistle in inland waters?
  • 141. Q.14. What is the meaning of one short blast of a ship’s whistle in inland waters? A.14. It is a signal of intention to pass port to port and only executed if acknowledged by the other vessel.
  • 142. Q.15. When is a vessel required to fly the national ensign upside down as a signal?
  • 143. Q.15. When is a vessel required to fly the national ensign upside down as a signal? A.15. Never
  • 144. Q.16. According to the rules, what is the vessel called that must take action in any given situation?
  • 145. Q.16. According to the rules, what is the vessel called that must take action in any given situation? A.16. Give-way
  • 146. Q.17. Briefly explain what the Rule of Good Seamanship states.
  • 147. Q.17. Briefly explain what the Rule of Good Seamanship states. A.17. A ship's master must exercise professional judgment and may deviate from the rules if a possible dangerous situation arises
  • 148. Q.18. In a crossing situation, which vessel is the stand-on vessel?
  • 149. Q.18. In a crossing situation, which vessel is the stand-on vessel? A.18. The vessel to the starboard of the other
  • 150. Q.19. In a meeting situation, which vessel is the stand-on vessel?
  • 151. Q.19. In a meeting situation, which vessel is the stand-on vessel? A.19. Neither, they are both designated give-way vessels
  • 152. Q.20. In an overtaking situation, which vessel is the stand-on vessel?
  • 153. Q.20. In an overtaking situation, which vessel is the stand-on vessel? A.20. The vessel being overtaken (passed)
  • 154. Q.21. What signal must a vessel sound if, when rounding a bend, it is unable to see for at least ½ mile?
  • 155. Q.21. What signal must a vessel sound if, when rounding a bend, it is unable to see for at least ½ mile? A.21. A prolonged blast of its whistle (4 to 6 seconds)
  • 156. Q.22. What do two short blasts of a ship's whistle signal in international waters?
  • 157. Q.22. What do two short blasts of a ship's whistle signal in international waters? A.22. Changing course to port
  • 158. Q.23. What do three short blasts of a ship's whistle signal?
  • 159. Q.23. What do three short blasts of a ship's whistle signal? A.23. Engine backing (going astern)
  • 160. Q.24. In conditions of reduced visibility, what signal does a power-driven vessel underway and making way sound?
  • 161. Q.24. In conditions of reduced visibility, what signal does a power-driven vessel underway and making way sound? A.24. One prolonged blast at least every 2 minutes
  • 162. Range Light The white light on the aftermast of vessels 50 meters or more
  • 163. Sidelights Either of two lights carried by a vessel underway at night, a red one on the port side and a green one on the starboard
  • 164. Day Shape (Black Ball) A metal ribbing roughly oval in shape, over which canvas is stretched
  • 166. Change of Status I (leaving a dock or berth) N 1 prolong blast L A N D R U L E S
  • 167. Leaving a Dock or Berth in Reverse I N 1 prolonged blast, (change of status) then 3 short blasts, (making sternway) L A N D R U L E S
  • 169. At night, ―Red over red, the captain is dead‖ may help you remember the vessel is not under command. VESSEL NOT UNDER COMMAND
  • 170.
  • 172. VESSEL TOWING ASTERN, TOW LENGTH MORE THAN 200 METERS ASTERN
  • 174. VESSEL ENGAGED IN FISHING
  • 175. VESSEL ENGAGED IN FISHING, GEAR EXTENDING MORE THAN 150 METERS
  • 177. VESSEL ENGAGED IN MINESWEEPING
  • 178. VESSEL RESTRICTED IN ABILITY TO MANEUVER
  • 179. VESSEL RESTRICTED IN ABILITY TO MANEUVER, OBSTRUCTION EXISTS ON SIDE WITH TWO BALLS
  • 180.
  • 181. Meeting Two Short Blasts Situation Starboard to Starboard I N Give-way L Vessel A N Give-way Vessel D Meeting One Short Blast Situation Port to Port R U Give-way L Vessel E Give-way S Vessel
  • 182. Crossing Situation I One Short Blast N Port to Port L A In inland waters, N starboard-to- starboard passing D is authorized only if ships are not R meeting end-on U and safe passage L is assured E without any S maneuvering.