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MANEUVERING & COLLISION AVOIDANCE

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Presentation on maneuvering and collision avoidance with special focus on large tonnage vessels.

Maneuverability limits and last moment maneuver are thoroughly shown in this material.

Published in: Education

MANEUVERING & COLLISION AVOIDANCE

  1. 1. MANEUVERING & COLLISION AVOIDANCE by Aleksandr D. Pipchenko
  2. 2. Incident statistics of European waters • A very serious marine casualty means a marine casualty involving the total loss of the ship or a death or severe damage to the environment.
  3. 3. World statistics for ship losses
  4. 4. Incident statistics
  5. 5. COLREGs Rule 2: Responsibility
  6. 6. Rule 2 (a) requires you to follow both the rules and ‘the ordinary practice of seamen’. This means that you must always USE COMMON SENSE
  7. 7. Rule 2 (b) is often misunderstood so read it carefully. It only allows you to depart from the rules if that is THE ONLY WAY TO AVOID AN IMMEDIATE DANGER But, in almost every situation, it is the proper application of the rules that will keep you out of that danger. Rule 2(b) is never a justification for not following the rules properly.
  8. 8. In maritime cases, Each case is to be taken in the round and the faults of each ship weighed in balance before an apportionment is made. Responsibility & Court Cases
  9. 9. Human error… again?
  10. 10. Finland is throwing its weight behind the development of autonomous ships, with the country aiming to provide the world's first unmanned maritime products, services and ecosystem by 2025
  11. 11. MSC Alexandra & Dream II 03-Aug-16 • The VLCC Dream had deadweight of 319,999 DWT and gross tonnage of 164,241 GRT. The ship was en route from Beilun, China to Port of Khark, Iran under ballast. The vessel was built in 2008 by Daewoo Shipbuilding and Marine Engineering in South Korea. • The container ship MSC Alexandra 365.80 m/52.00 m /12.00 m. • Deadweight of 165,908 DWT, gross tonnage of 153,115 GRT and capacity to carry 14,000 TEU. The container carrier was built in 2010 by Daewoo Shipbuilding and Marine Engineering in South Korea.
  12. 12. MSC Alexandra & Dream II
  13. 13. MSC Alexandra & Dream II
  14. 14. Josephine Maersk & Spring Glory 05-Jun-12
  15. 15. Josephine Maersk & Spring Glory 05-Jun-12
  16. 16. Josephine Maersk & Spring Glory 05-Jun-12 • 22:15 Vessels visible on radar’s 10 nm away • 22:26 SG detected JM • 22:29 JM detected SG (2 nm), officer went to plot a position… • 22:30 SG tried to contact JM on VHF (1.5 nm) • 22:30-22:33 No understanding in comm’s • 22:33 JM alters to STBD, SG alters to PORT • 22:35 Collision
  17. 17. • Lack of situational awareness • VHF assisted collision • Late and erroneous actions
  18. 18. COLREGs is a logical algorithm to be followed by all vessels When everyone is guided by a single algorithm, the actions of other vessels can be predicted, and therefore right decision can be made
  19. 19. Vessel’s safety and COLREGs… COLREGs IS EASY – JUST ALTER COURSE IN ADVANCEREALLY???
  20. 20. TYPICAL ERROR, WHEN GIVE A WAY SHALL I GIVE HER MORE SPACE… AND TURN SLIGHTLY TO PORT?? 4-6 NM I’LL TURN 5 TO STARBOARD TO ADJUST CPA…. ALTERATION SHALL BE SUBSTANTIAL TO BE CLEARLY SEEN FROM OTHER VESSEL
  21. 21. TYPICAL ERROR, WHEN STAND ON SHALL I GIVE HER MORE SPACE… AND TURN SLIGHTLY TO PORT?? 2-3 NM SHALL I CALL HER ON VHF….? NO!!! IT’S HIGHLY DANGEROUS TO MAKE A PORT ALTERATION IN CLOSE QUARTERS
  22. 22. CASE STUDIES BY UK P&I
  23. 23. TYPICAL ERROR, WHEN STAND ON I have a turn in the next 2 minutes…. What shall I do?? 2-3 NMTC 090
  24. 24. CASE STUDIES BY UK P&I
  25. 25. TYPICAL ERROR, WHEN STAND ON 5-6 NMTC 090 YOU SHALL THINK AHEAD!!! SHOW CLEAR INTENTION IN DUE TIME
  26. 26. TYPICAL ERROR, WHEN GIVE A WAY SHALL I CALL YELLOW VESSEL ON VHF AND ASK TO TURN TO STBD TO OPEN SPACE FOR ME?? …SHALL I KEEP MY COURSE AND SPEED? YOU MAY: 1. REDUCE THE SPEED 2. ALTER TO PORT IN DUE TIME, SHOWING CLEAR INTENTION (IF SPEED CAN’T BE REDUCED) * ALWAYS CHECK BEHIND THE SIDE OF THE TURN
  27. 27. CASE STUDIES BY UK P&I
  28. 28. CASE STUDIES BY UK P&I
  29. 29. WHAT ARE WE? STAND-ON OR GIVING THE WAY?
  30. 30. CASE STUDIES BY UK P&I
  31. 31. CASE STUDIES BY UK P&I
  32. 32. Vessel’s safety and COLREGs… • PORT TO PORT? • STARBOARD TO STARBOARD? • OR…. ZIGZAG?
  33. 33. What is close quarters? • There’s no common definition for that…
  34. 34. What is close quarters? • There’s no common definition for that…
  35. 35. When is too late?
  36. 36. Vessels are maneuvering in ports
  37. 37. Vessels are passing each other in channels and rivers with CPA 1-2 cables
  38. 38. Highly maneuverable offshore vessels can operate in vicinity of each other as close as 2-3 cables, with average speeds from 0 to 5 knots
  39. 39. Underway ship-to-ship operations is a common practice for seismic and tanker industries
  40. 40. Underway ship-to-ship operations is a common practice for seismic and tanker industries
  41. 41. • Risk of collision increases as distance between vessels decreases and uncertainty of the other vessel reaction gets higher When is too late?
  42. 42. • Rule 17: Action by stand-on vessel • Stand-on vessel may however take action to avoid collision by her manoeuvre alone, as soon as it becomes apparent to her that the vessel required to keep out of the way is not taking appropriate action in compliance with these Rules. • When, from any cause, the vessel required to keep her course and speed finds herself so close that collision cannot be avoided by the action of the give-way vessel alone, she shall take such action as will best aid to avoid collision. • A power-driven vessel which takes action in a crossing situation in accordance with this Rule to avoid collision with another power- driven vessel shall, if the circumstances of the case admit, not alter course to port for a vessel on her own port side. When is too late?
  43. 43. When is too late?
  44. 44. When is too late? • Maneuverability is the key…
  45. 45. Complacency & the last moment maneuver Turning circle (hard on rudder) Crash stop (full astern)
  46. 46. Complacency & the last moment maneuver One might say, that the modern container vessels are fast and extremely maneuverable… One might say, I can apply the crash stop if I really need to… No, no… you can’t IMO Standard for Advance: 4.5 – 5 LOA IMO Standard for Track Reach: 15-20 LOA
  47. 47. Maneuverability, space & dimensions LOA  300 m Advance > 1000 m Crash Stop  4500 m LOA  100 m Advance > 100-150 m Crash Stop  350 m Different size… different time and space Turning circles from Full Ahead, Rudder 35° STBD
  48. 48. Maneuverability, space & dimensions
  49. 49. Complacency & the last moment maneuver Close Quarters distance is 5 X LOA? For the ship of 300 m it will be approx. 0,8 nm… What happens when you put hard to starboard from full speed?
  50. 50. You might get a dangerously big list
  51. 51. You lose control over the vessel, until you finish the manoeuvre
  52. 52. If you are alone on the bridge at the moment you are practically stuck to a steering helm
  53. 53. What to do, if you see that its critical? • Reduce your speed, it will give you more time and lessen the severity • Do a maneuver earlier. If you turn with 10° alteration your advance will be 7-10 LOA, list will not be too bad For LOA = 300 m, 2100 – 3000 m : 1,13 – 1,62 nm • Autopilot maneuver takes time, but you have your hands free
  54. 54. What does close quarters mean then? • If you do an alteration with 10° rudder or similar ROT on Autopilot for 300 LOA you need to be at least 2 nm away • So anything less will be the point of no-return or high risk zone • 2 nm with 20 knots – TCPA – 6 min • 2nm with 10 knots – TCPA – 12 min • Not much time, when you are in anxiety…
  55. 55. What does close quarters mean then?
  56. 56. What does close quarters mean then? COLLISION
  57. 57. What does close quarters mean then? 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 Unavoidable collision Own vessel 282/32 m, V = 20 kts, Target 300/32 m, V = 15 kts Distance to collision point Distance between vessels Distance, nm
  58. 58. What does close quarters mean then? 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 Unavoidable collision diagram 50/8 100/20 200/25 300/32 400/50Ship size: LOA / Breadth Angle of intersection, deg Distance to CPA point, m
  59. 59. THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION!

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