The most important thing to remember about the rules of the road is what they don’t do: the rules are not intended to be used to determine blame after a collision has occurred. They are intended to prevent the collisions in the first place. Hence their full name: Regulations for the Avoidance of Collisions at Sea How? = The rules are designed to state who should take action first to avoid a collision. They also establish ways for sailors who speak hundreds of different languages to speak to each other. In 1940, Captain Raymond Farwell said that “the rules, if implicitly obeyed, are practically collision-proof.”
History: Prior to the rules, each country had its own rules International Maritime Organization (IMO) Met in 1972 with representatives from 52 nations International Regulations for the Prevention of Collisions at Sea (COLREGS) Principles: 1. NavRules apply based upon a vessel’s location COLREGS line of demarcation territorial waters National/International Rules 2. NavRules have the force of law, they are mandatory Issue of Jurisdiction - US Federal Court 3. Obedience must be timely and positive Incremental course changes 4. NavRules apply to all vessels every description of watercraft Navy and Coast Guard vessels also fall under the Rules Contrast with” The king can do no wrong” theory
The rules must be obeyed, but they must not be blindly obeyed at the expense of good seamanship. The rules give you no excuse for hitting someone. Rule of Good Seamanship General Prudential Rule Special Situations Rules don’t cover every possible scenario: Ships operating in reverse (TR and LTG collision) Ships that are adrift There is no comprehensive list of IF…THEN’s In Extremis Literally: “at the point of death” or collision imminent Collision can be avoided only by action of both vessels It means one or both of the vessels failed to take the 1st line of preventive measures.
Vessel - every description of watercraft (non-displacement craft, seaplanes) that are used or capable of being used as a means of transportation. Inner-tubes - no; sailboards - yes human/animal powered vessels are not covered under the rules - use Rule #2 (Good seamanship) - still don’t hit them Power- driven vessel - any vessel propelled by machinery Sailing vessel - any vessel under sail (not using engines for propulsion) See ROR for remaining definitions.
The most important thing to remember about the rules of the road is what they don’t do: the rules are not intended to be used to determine blame after a collision has occurred. They are intended to prevent the collisions in the first place. Hence: full name: Regulations for the Avoidance of Collisions at Sea The rules are designed to state who should take action first to avoid a collision. They also establish ways for sailors who speak hundreds of different languages to speak to each other.
Rules of The Road Review
Navigation Rules Purpose and ScopeApplicable reading: USCG ROR.
Purpose of Scope of the Rules of the RoadSources:– 1972 COLREGS (International Rules) Regulations for the Prevention of Collisions at Sea Amended in 1983, 1989, 1991 by the IMO– 1980 Navigation Rules Act (Inland Rules) Applies exclusively to US inland watersNOTE: Navigation Rules have the force of law.
Rule 1(a): ApplicabilityNav Rules apply based upon a vessel’slocation. – COLREGS Line of Demarcation• “These rules shall apply to all vessels upon the high seas and in all waters connected therewith navigable by seagoing vessels.”
Rule 2: Responsibility“Nothing in these Rules shall exonerate any vessel, orthe owner, master or crew thereof, from theconsequences of any neglect to comply with these Rulesor of the neglect of any precaution which may berequired by the ordinary practice of seaman.”General Prudential Rule: the mariner is responsible notonly for complying with the Rules but also for avoiding acollision. Special Situations In extremis situations
Rule 3: General DefinitionsVessel Underway – Power driven vessel – Making way – Sailing vessel – Not making waySpecial Conditions Vessel engaged in fishing Not under command Restricted in ability to maneuver Constrained by draft (int’l rules only)
Rule 3: Definitions Vessel Vessel: includes every description of water craft used or capable of being used as a means on transportation on water.• Includes: – Power-driven vessels – Sailboats – Seaplanes – Non-displacement craft• “Power driven vessel”
Rule 3: Definitions Vessel engaged in fishing Vessel engaged in fishing means any vessel fishing with nets, lines, trawls or other fishing apparatus which restrict maneuverability.• Does NOT include: – Vessel engaged in trolling.
Rule 3: Definitions Vessel not under command Vessel not under command means a vessel which through some exceptional circumstances is unable to maneuver to comply with the Rules.• Examples: – Propulsion casualty – Steering casualty
Rule 3: Definitions Vessel restricted in ability to maneuver Vessel restricted in ability to maneuver means a vessel which from the nature of her work is unable to keep out of the way of another vessel.• Examples: – Laying navaids – Dredging/Surveying – UNREP – Flight Ops – Mineclearance Ops
Rule 3: Definitions Vessel constrained by draftVessel constrained by draft means a powerdriven vessel which, because of her draft inrelation to the available depth is severelyrestricted in her ability to deviate from herpresent course.
Lights and DayshapesAGENDA:– Rule #20/21 Application and Definitions– Rule #22 Visibility of Lights– Rule #23 Power Driven Vessels Underway– Rule #24 Towing and Pushing– Rule #25 Sailing Vessels– Rule #26 Fishing Vessels– Rule #27 Vessels not under command / restricted in ability …– Rule #28 Vessels constrained by draft– Rule #29 Pilot vessels– Rule #30 Vessels aground/at anchor
Rule 20: Application of Lights and DayshapesLights shall be displayed:– From sunset to sunrise– In conditions of restricted visibility– In all other circumstances when deemed appropriatePurpose of Lights and Dayshapes:– Helps determine stand on/give way status.– Indicates the occupation of certain vessels.– Aids in the determination of target angle and course.
Rule 21:Definitions Rule 22: Visibility of Lights Min RangesTYPE OF LIGHT COLOR ARC 50M+ 12-50MMasthead white 225 6 nm 5 nmSidelight red/green 112.5 3 nm 2 nmSternlight white 135 3 nm 2 nmTowing yellow 135 3 nm 2 nmAll around various 360 3 nm 2 nmFlashing yellow/blue 360 3 nm 2 nmRange Light - refers to the second masthead light placed aft and higher than the forward masthead light (>50 m)Flashing Light - flashes at regular intervals at 120 hz. Found on surfaced sub’s and non-displacement craft in the non- displacement mode.
Rule 21:DefinitionsRule 22: Visibility of Lights
Rule 24: Towing and PushingTOWING ASTERN Vessel < 50 m Tow < 200 m Vessel < 50 m Tow > 200 m Vessel > 50 m Tow < 200 m Vessel > 50 m Tow > 200 mCOMPOSITE UNITPUSHING AHEAD/ALONGSIDE Vessel > 50 m International, Inland Vessel < 50 m International, InlandTOWING and RESTRICTED IN ABILITY TO MANEUVER“LIGHTING THE TOW”
Steering and Sailing Rules– Conduct of Vessels in any Condition of Visibility Rule #6 - Safe Speed Rule #7 - Risk of Collision Rule #8 - Action to Avoid Collision Rule #9 - Narrow Channels Rule #10 - Traffic Separation Schemes
Rule 4: Application Rule 5: Look-outApplication (Rule 4) - Rules in this section apply in Any condition of visibility.Look-out (Rule 5)– Maintain Proper Lookout– Use all available means Must use sight and hearing Binoculars/Radar Bearing circle/Alidade Night vision devices– Also required at anchor
Rule 6: Safe SpeedDeterminants of Safe Speed– Draft of vessel in relation to charted depth– Stopping distance and turning ability– Presence of background lighting– State of winds, sea, and current– State of visibility– Traffic density
Rule 7: Risk of CollisionRisk of Collision (Rule 7)– Every vessel shall use all available means to determine if risk of collision exists. Early use of RADAR Systematic observationSuch risk is deemed toexist if the compass bearing of an approaching vessel does not appreciably change.
Rule 8: Action to Avoid CollisionAny action taken to avoid collision shall … bepositive, made in ample time, and with dueregard to the observance of good seamanship. – Action taken must be positive and timely.Action taken to avoid collision with anothervessel shall result in passing at a safe distance.The effectiveness of the actionshall be carefully checked until thevessel is passed and clear.
Rule 8: Action to Avoid CollisionTwo variables can be altered to avoid collision:course and speed.– Change course to avoid “close-quarter situations”.– Slacken speed or take all way to allow more time to assess the situation.Escape clause: “if the circumstances of the case admit”
Rule 9: Narrow ChannelsNarrow Channels (Rule 9)– Stay on the “right” side of the channel– Sailing vessels and vessels < 20 meters shall not impede vessels restricted to the channel.– Fishing vessels shall not impede other vessels.– Crossing vessels shall not impede other vessels.
Rule 10: Traffic Separation Schemes Traffic Separation schemes my be adopted by the IMO for the purpose of these Rules.– Use small angle of approach to enter/depart.– Cross the scheme at right angles.– You can fish in the lanes as long as you do not impede passage of the other vessels.
Conduct of vessels in sight of one anotherConduct of vessels in sight of one another Rule #12 - Sailing Vessels Approach Situations – Rule #13 - Overtaking – Rule #14 - Meeting – Rule #15 - Crossing Rule #16 - Action by the Give-way Vessel Rule #17 - Action by the Stand-on Vessel Rule #18 - Responsibilities Between Vessels
Vessels in Sight of One Another Rule 12: Sailing Vessels
Vessels in Sight of One Another Rule 12: Sailing Vessels
Vessels in Sight of One Another Rule 13: OvertakingRule 13 requires the overtaking vessel to keep out of theway of the vessel being passed.An overtaking situation exists when a vessel approachesAn overtaking situation exists when a vessel approaches anothervessel more than 22.5deg abaft the beam.
Vessels in Sight of One Another Rule 14: Meeting SituationRule 14 requires both power vessels to maneuver tostarboard.An overtaking situation exists when a vessel approachesA meeting situation exists if two power vessels approach onreciprocal or near reciprocal courses.
Vessels in Sight of One Another Rule 15: Crossing Situation Rule 15 requires the vessel that has the other on its starboard side to keep clear.An overtaking situation exists when a vessel approaches At night the stand-on vessel sees the green sidelight of the give- way vessel, and the give-way vessel sees the red sidelight of the stand-on vessel.
Rules 16/17: Action by Give-way and Stand-on VesselsGive-way: Every vessel which is directed to keep out of the way of another vessel shall, so far as possible, take early and substantial action to keep well clear.Stand-on: Where one of two vessels is to keep out of the way the other vessel shall keep her course and speed.
Rule 18: Responsibilities Between Vessels (Order of Precedence)Vessel being overtakenVessel not under command orRestricted in ability to maneuverVessel constrained by draftVessel engaged in fishingSailing vesselsPower driven vesselsSeaplanes
Rules 13-15: Vessels in Sight and in Risk of Collision (Review) HEAD ON OVERTAKING CROSSINGDescription Meeting on Overtaking another Two vessels reciprocal courses, vessel more than crossing, risk of masthead lights in 22.5 abaft the beam, collision exists. line, both sidelights at night only the visible. sternlight visible.Action Both vessels turn to Overtaking vessel The vessel which starboard to pass keeps out of the way holds the other port-to-port. on the overtaken on her starboard vessel. must keep out of the way of the stand-on vessel.
HomeworkReview and Be Familiar with the Rules ofThe Road