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HSC PDHPE Core 2
HSC PDHPE Core 2
HSC PDHPE Core 2
HSC PDHPE Core 2
HSC PDHPE Core 2
HSC PDHPE Core 2
HSC PDHPE Core 2
HSC PDHPE Core 2
HSC PDHPE Core 2
HSC PDHPE Core 2
HSC PDHPE Core 2
HSC PDHPE Core 2
HSC PDHPE Core 2
HSC PDHPE Core 2
HSC PDHPE Core 2
HSC PDHPE Core 2
HSC PDHPE Core 2
HSC PDHPE Core 2
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HSC PDHPE Core 2
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HSC PDHPE Core 2
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HSC PDHPE Core 2
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HSC PDHPE Core 2
HSC PDHPE Core 2
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HSC PDHPE Core 2

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PowerPoint presentation for Stage 6 HSC PDHPE Core 2 unit. …

PowerPoint presentation for Stage 6 HSC PDHPE Core 2 unit.
PowerPoint to be used in conjunction with class teacher website for activity resources and additional Prezi presentation for student-led learning.

http://ratusaupdhpe.weebly.com/

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  • Prior to the 2006 World cup, Australia had not qualified for the World Cup since 1974. 32 years had passed.
  • Prior to the 2006 World cup, Australia had not qualified for the World Cup since 1974. 32 years had passed.
  • Prior to the 2006 World cup, Australia had not qualified for the World Cup since 1974. 32 years had passed.
  • Prior to the 2006 World cup, Australia had not qualified for the World Cup since 1974. 32 years had passed.
  • Transcript

    • 1. 1) How does training affect performance? 2)How can psychology affect performance? 3) How can nutrition and recovery strategies affect performance? 4) How does the acquisition of skill affect performance?
    • 2. Core 2: How Does Training Affect Performance- Syllabus 1. Energy Systems – ATP/PC System – Lactic Acid System – Aerobic System 2. Types of Training – Aerobic – Anaerobic – Flexibility – Strength 4. Physiological Adoptions in response to Training - Resting Heart Rate - Stroke Volume and Cardiac output - Haemoglobin level - Oxygen Uptake - Fast & Slow Twitch Fibres - Muscle Hypertrophy 3. Principles of Training - Progressive Overload - Specificity - Reversibility - Variety -Training Thresholds - Warm Up & Cool Down
    • 3. 4 types of training (and training methods) • Aerobic (continuous, fartlek, aerobic interval, circuit) • Anaerobic (anaerobic interval) • Flexibility (static, ballistic, PNF, Dynamic) • Strength (isometric, isotonic, isokinetic)
    • 4. Aerobic training uses the aerobic system as the main source of energy supply. It includes a number of training types including: continuous, fartlek, aerobic interval, circuit. Continuous Training Continuous training means there is a sustained effort without rest intervals. • Performed consistently for at least 20 mins. • Usually of moderate intensity (65-80% of max HR). • Goal is to make body more efficient at using oxygen • Trains larger muscle groups (quads, core) FITT Frequency – 1-2 times Intensity – 65-80% Time – 20 to 120mins Type – continuous Examples – swimming, joggling, cycling, power walking, aerobics
    • 5. Aerobic training uses the aerobic system as the main source of energy supply. It includes a number of training types including: continuous, fartlek, aerobic interval, circuit. Continuous Training Two types of continuous training: Long, slow distance training: Standard for individuals who need to improve general condition. 60-80% of maximal heart rate, focus on distance rather than speed. High intensity work of moderate duration. Very demanding, only well-conditioned athletes use this training and even then, intervals of relief are required. Requires work at or near competition pace and is essential for leg speed. 80-90% of maximal heart rate. -Activity - continuous run – 12min/beep test
    • 6. Fartlek – Swedish for speed play • Involves varying intensity of effort • Periods of intense work is followed by easier effort • Because the efforts are continuous, it is aerobic training • By pushing the limits during the periods of intense running, athletes are improving their anaerobic threshold. • Fartlek training works both the aerobic and anaerobic systems which is a common requirement for most sports. FITT Frequency – 1 wk Intensity – 70% - max thresholds Time – 20 to 60 mins Type – Fartlek Activities – run as a class in a straight line, one behind another. The last person needs to sprint to the front of the line
    • 7. Fartlek is beneficial for pre-season training and in preparation for activities between pre-dominant energy systems for example, rugby, basketball and soccer.
    • 8. Aerobic interval involves periods of effort and periods of rest E.G. 10x100m sprints with 30 second breaks at 80% max effort Interval training can be adapted to a variety of needs, depending on sporting needs. FITT Frequency – 1-2 times wk Intensity – near vo2 max Time – 1min on, 1 min off for 20mins Type – interval Activity – 10 x 40m sprints (sprint 40m then walk back and sprint again) The overload principle can be applied by manipulating four variables: •Work intensity •Work time •Number of repetitions •Work-rest ratio
    • 9. Circuit training is an arrangement of activities that require an athlete to spend time at a station before moving to a new station. Specific needs can be developed by changing the length of time at each station, the reps completed and the rest periods between stations Activity – As a class, design a circuit training session. The overload principle can be achieved by: • increasing the number of stations • increasing the time at each station • increasing the repetitions at each station • decreasing the time allowed for the circuit • increasing the repetitions of the circuit • determining the repetitions at each station on the basis of the individual’s target zone for their heart rate response. Fitter athletes will do more repetitions at each station than less fit athletes.
    • 10. The greatest benefits are achieved when: • the overload principle is applied • the skills at each station concentrate on the attributes needed for a particular game/activity • all fitness components essential to the particular sport or activity are developed • record cards are kept to monitor improvement to keep athletes aware of their progress.
    • 11. Designing and trialing a circuit As a class or in small groups, design a circuit to improve aerobic capacity. Include at least 10 activities and ensure a logical progression from one activity to the next. Make a card for each activity in your circuit that names (and perhaps illustrates) what is to be done at each station. On each card indicate the number of repetitions of the movement that are required before progression to the next activity. Finally, perform your circuit as quickly as possible and record the time taken.
    • 12. Anaerobic Interval training – Most anaerobic interval training is aimed at developing the players speed or short bursts. • Does not call on oxygen to supply energy demands • Training involves high intensity activities for shorter durations • By increasing intensity or duration, athletes can improve their anaerobic threshold and build tolerance to lactic acid • Longer rests are given between intervals to enable the creatine phosphate to be replenished. • Enough time must be given otherwise it become aerobic training. For example. 5 x 100m sprint should have 2-3mins recovery time between each.
    • 13. Anaerobic Interval training – Most anaerobic interval training is aimed at developing the players speed or short bursts. • Does not call on oxygen to supply energy demands • Training involves high intensity activities for shorter durations • By increasing intensity or duration, athletes can improve their anaerobic threshold and build tolerance to lactic acid • Longer rests are given between intervals to enable the creatine phosphate to be replenished. • Enough time must be given otherwise it become aerobic training. For example. 5 x 100m sprint should have 2-3mins recovery time between each.
    • 14. An athlete who is flexible is more likely to avoid injury as well as being able to perform skills at a higher level. An effective flexibility program will: • Improve muscle co-ordination • Improve ability of muscles to stretch • Reduce the tightening of muscles • Muscle relax and recovery Flexibility is affected by: • Age – muscles shorten as we age • Sex – females are generally more flexible • Temperature – increased body and air temp allow for better flexibility • Exercise – the more you exercise, generally more flexible
    • 15. Static - also called passive stretching • Involves gradual lengthening of the muscle and held for 10-20 secs • Should be stretched til muscle is felt with tension • It is a safe and effective method as it is slow and sustained http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=l0uwEPzVsqk Ballistic – generally known as the bounce stretch • -Popular in 1950’s and 60’s but has since been discredited. • Involves stretching a muscle to its end point and then over stretching by bouncing • -Due to the force of the stretch, it can damage muscle fibres http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ep3Q1gzH8AQ
    • 16. Dynamic – also called the range of movement (ROM) stretch • Involves rhythmical movements of major muscle groups to be used in the activity. • Stretching is generally slow, gentle repetition of movements • Each movements should be repeated at least 12 times. • E.G. Large arm circles of swimmers/high knees for hurdlers. - http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=v1q4l1bkKY4 PNF – Emerged from field of rehab. • Involves gently, static stretch followed by an isometric contraction against a resistance (often a partner) followed by another stretch. • This process is often repeated twice • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4GWlJMSAlu4
    • 17. • To develop strength, a resistance needs to be applied to a muscle to contract. • Strength training can also be called resistance training • Muscle enlargement and growth is called hypertrophy • Resistance can be: • body weight • Barbells/dumb bells • Weight machines • Hydraulic resistance machines • Elastic bands • Water (aqua aerobics)
    • 18. Types of muscle contractions When a muscle is stimulated, it contracts. This may happen in a number of ways. There are three principal types of muscle contraction — static (isometric) and dynamic (isotonic, isokinetic) Isotonic – cause the muscle length to change as tension is developed in the muscle Concentric A concentric contraction is the most common type of muscular contraction. During this contraction, the muscle shortens, causing movement at the joint. Examples of concentric contractions are the contraction of the rectus abdominis to raise the trunk during a sit-up, or the biceps contracting to lift a weight.
    • 19. Types of muscle contractions Eccentric An eccentric contraction occurs when the muscle lengthens while under tension. The action often happens with the assistance of gravity. Examples of eccentric contractions are the rectus abdominis extending to gradually lower the trunk during the downward action of a sit-up, or the biceps muscle fibres lengthening as the weight is returned to its original position
    • 20. Types of muscle contractions Isometric An isometric contraction occurs when the muscle fibres are activated and develop force, but the muscle length does not change; that is, movement does not occur. Isometric contractions are commonly seen in attempted movements where a resistance cannot be overcome. Examples are a weight-lifter trying to lift a weight that cannot be moved, or a person pushing against a wall. In each case, the effort is being made, but the muscle length does not change because the resistance is too great.
    • 21. Types of muscle contractions Isometric An isometric contraction occurs when the muscle fibres are activated and develop force, but the muscle length does not change; that is, movement does not occur. Isometric contractions are commonly seen in attempted movements where a resistance cannot be overcome. Examples are a weight-lifter trying to lift a weight that cannot be moved, or a person pushing against a wall. In each case, the effort is being made, but the muscle length does not change because the resistance is too great.
    • 22. Types of muscle contractions Isokinetic An isokinetic contractions occur when tension is developed in a muscle throughout its entire range of motion. As the muscle shortens, the resistance is increased to maintain constant tension at all joint angles, and all speeds of movement. As maximal tension is developed throughout the entire range of motion, a muscle contracted isokinetically is comprehensively fatigued. For this reason, it is the most effective form of training fir the development of muscular strength. Video Recovery Fast Athlete
    • 23. Term Defintion Example Lift The description of how a weight is moved Arm Curl/Leg press Repetition 1 execution of a lift Doing 1 arm curl No. Of reps How many executions of an exercise are performed repeatedly 10 leg presses Set 1 group of repetitions 3x10 leg presses, followed by a break Repetition max The maximum amount of weight that can be lifted a specific number of times 5 RM of 50kg means that the athlete can only lift 60kg 5 times Training Frequency Number of times training is done each week 3 sessions each week 1RM The maximun amount of weight that can be lifted a specific number of times Mike can lift a maximum of 40 kg in 1 lift Training Load The resistance weight used (often expressed at RM) Load is 10kg for arm curls
    • 24. Type Weight Reps Sets Speed Rest Strength heavy 2 to 6 3 to 5 slow to medium 3-5 mins Power heavy 2 to 10 3 to 8 fast 3-5 mins Endurance light to medium 15+ 2 to 3 medium 1-3 mins Lean Body Mass medium to heavy 6 to 10 3 to 10 slow to medium 1-3 mins Page 35.
    • 25. In order for a training program to be effective, a coach needs to consider the principles of training. The objective of training is to improve performance, and the body needs to respond to physical, psychological and environmental stressors Definitions you need: Maximal effort - exercise at the highest intensity possible. This can only be sustained for a short period of time (sprinting) Sub Maximal effort - exercise at a rate less than maximal intensity which can be maintained for longer (jogging) Most fitness tests use the sub maximal test.
    • 26. Principles of Training Progressive Overload The principle of progressive overload implies that a training effect is produced when the system or tissue is worked at a greater level that it is normally accustomed to working Reversibility Principal of training states that the effects of training are reversible Warm up & Cool down Warming up and cooling down are important components of all training and performance sessions. The warm up aims to prepare the body in readiness for the activity Variety The principle of variety states that athletes need to be challenged by not only the activity but also by the implementation of the activities Training Threshold The principle of training thresholds relates to levels of exercise intensity that are sufficient to produce a training effect. Specificity The principle of specificity implies that the greatest gains are made when activity in the training program replicates the movements in the game or activity.
    • 27. This principle states that the training activity should be specific to the: • Task requirements • Energy systems • Muscle groups • Components of fitness For example, a marathon runner needs to develop • Running styles/actions • Aerobic energy system • Predominately leg muscles (not shoulders) • Train for endurance – not power There is a place for cross training, ie training that is not always specific to the activity. This aids with motivation, helping aerobic fitness, recovering from injury, assist muscle balance. E.g. Cricketers might warm up with a game of soccer
    • 28. Reversibility The effects of training are reversible. So, if a person stops exercising, or fails to train at a high enough intensity, the training effects will be lost. The speed of this principle varies. Most people will loose benefits after 2 weeks of no training. In general, the faster the gains, the faster the losses. For most athletes, the off season is the time where reversibility occurs the most. Some athletes continue during off season to maintain some fitness
    • 29. Variety – To become a professional, athletes need to train for many hrs over many years. This can become very repetitious and boring (especially in endurance events such as marathon running and swimming) Whilst variety will not necessarily make an athlete perform better, it does make training more fun and interesting. Used for psychological purposes. For example, Rugby League many warm ups will use different types of sports – might play soccer to start off different focuses for each session- some fitness, some tackling, some set plays, pool work coaches can take players to different venues – sand climbs for preseason, gym, overseas trips
    • 30. Reversibility The effects of training are reversible. So, if a person stops exercising, or fails to train at a high enough intensity, the training effects will be lost. The speed of this principle varies. Most people will loose benefits after 2 weeks of no training. In general, the faster the gains, the faster the losses. For most athletes, the off season is the time where reversibility occurs the most. Some athletes continue during off season to maintain some fitness
    • 31. •Training Thresholds – are usually explained in terms of max HR in relation to volume of oxygen uptake (VO2 max). •During training, 3 factors are important in relation to thresholds: • HR – beats per minute • Ventilation – air breathed in 1 min • Blood lactate – by product of the lactate system •All these increase in proportion to intensity of exercise
    • 32. The point where lactic acid begins to accumulate can be described as the Anaerobic Threshold. The threshold is the maximum intensity (speed/power/effort) that an athlete can maintain and still have no increase of lactate acid. Training the anaerobic threshold: • Accelerates glycolosis (conversion of glucose to glycogen and glycogen to pyruvic acid) • Increased use of fast twitch muscles • Generally at 75-80% of VO2 max and 85% of HR Aerobic Training thresholds – intensity that the body needs for improvement in the bodies ability to use oxygen during exercise. This usually occurs at 70% of max HR and 50-60% of VO2 max Activity – in your own words, define the term ‘ anaerobic threshold’. 2. What kind of athletes want to train their anaerobic threshold?
    • 33. Warm Up involves getting the body ready for the training activity. Warm up: • Increases blood flow to working muscles • Increases body temperature making muscles, ligaments, tendons more elastic • Extra elasticity reduces likelihood of injury • Activates motor neurons (switches players on of the task) • Most warm ups include small aerobic activity and stretching followed by specific activity for the session or game. Cool Down is effectively the same as the warm up but in reverse. The cool down: • Allows for active recovery (gives time for body to return blood to heart rather than blood pooling in muscles) • Allows the oxygenated blood to flush out the waste products formed during activity. • Should also incorporate a session of stretching which reduces msucle soreness and aids recovery. Activity – in small groups, design an appropriate warm up for: • 14 yr old basketballer • 70yr old lawn bowler • 16 yr old rugby league player
    • 34. Anaerobically - training needs to be near max intensity • Short duration, but frequent sessions (maybe 4 per wk) • To overload anaerobic system, increase length of sprints or more reps of sprints • Intensity determined by HR, pace or lactate threshold Aerobic – basically opposite to above but: • Lower intensity • Long duration , fewer sessions • Overload achieved by increasing distance or lowering time to complete set distance •Strength - should be specific to the predominant energy system and for the muscles and movements used. • Gains in strength should follow progressive overload
    • 35. Activity Explain each principle in your own words and give an example of how they can be applied to a training program for a sport of your choice.
    • 36. Factor` Description Increase or decrease Reason Resting Heart Rate • measured in beats per minute •At rest, delivers blood to body •Amount of oxygen needed is determined by BMR •Your resting heart rate will fall as your body adapts to the training program. •Heart rate will be lower during sub max work •Main reason for the fall is due to higher stroke volume •This allows more blood to be pumped every beat... Therefore, more oxygen is delivered with fewer beats. •Interestingly, athletes often have lower max HR Decrease •Trained athlete has more efficient cardiovascular system •Some pro athletes have resting HR as low as 35 per min. Stroke Volume and Cardiac Output •Stroke Volume Amount of blood that leaves the left ventricle in 1 beat •Body needs oxygen rich blood to muscles during exercise •The more blood that a person pushes out, the more work they can do because of more oxygen •Person could exercise faster and longer •Untrained person – 15-20L per min, Trained – 22-30L per min •Cardiac Output is the amount of blood pumped in 1 min Increase •Trained person physically has more blood in body. •Ventricles are more powerful and elastic to pump more/faster Oxygen Uptake and Lung Capacity •Oxygen uptake is the amount of oxygen absorbed into the blood stream during exercise. •Oxygen uptake is measured in litres per minute •If more oxygen reaches the working muscles, the muscles can work harder and longer. •Lung Capacity is the amount of air that can move in and out of the lungs during a single breath. Increase •Number of breathes can be increased •Max breathing rates increase from 40-50 per min •Size of the lungs significantly increase, allowing for more oxygen •Total amount of air breathed in during exercise increases •Number of capillaries will increase with training allowing more oxygen to be absorbed.
    • 37. Factor` Description Increase or decrease Reason Haemoglobin Level •Haemoglobin is the protein of blood carrying the oxygen in red blood cells •Its main function is to absorb oxygen into blood stream •Plays a role in removing Co2 also. •Haemoglobin levels can be increased with altitude training. Increase •When training occurs, body becomes short of oxygen •Body adapts to this by producing more blood cells Muscle Hypertrophy •Refers to the increase of diameter of muscle. Muscle length stays the same, but muscle enlarges. •Muscle atrophy is the opposite to hypertrophy (gets smaller) Increase After training, muscles are able to contract with a greater force. This improves strength and power related sports. Effect on Slow/Fast twitch Fibres •Slow twitch are red – they contain large number of capillaries and produce large amounts of ATP slowly. Good for sports such as marathons •Fast Twitch are white – contain few capillaries and rapidly generate ATP anaerobically. Good for sports such as weightlifting and sprinting. Depends on training •Endurance training encourages slow twitch fibres to develop because it allows body to make more capillaries, allowing for more oxygen to be transported around the body.
    • 38. Core 2 Assessment Task PART 2 An athlete suffers from low motivation levels and this is hindering their performance. Discuss psychological strategies to enhance the athlete’s performance. (5 marks) Or Outline the effects of training on the aerobic system. Detail a method relating to how improvements in aerobic capacity could be measured. (5 marks)
    • 39. Revision Activity – Homework due Wednesday Students are to use type up & print out to submit, an answer to one of the following questions 1.Explain how ATP provides energy for muscular contractions 2.Identify aerobic training activities that would benefit a 100m swimmer 3.Distinguish the roles that interval training can play for aerobic and anaerobic performance 4.Outline the adaptations that can occur as a result of aerobic training 5.Explain the process of blood doping 6.Explain why an effective training program takes into consideration all training principles
    • 40. Psychology and sports performance OLD FOCUS.
    • 41. Psychology and sports performance
    • 42. Motivation is an internal state that activates, directs and sustains behaviour towards achieving a particular goal. This ideal can energise an individual and direct goal orientated behaviour. A high level of motivation within an individual directly impacts their sense of responsibility in terms of improving performance. Without motivation, athletes: •May not want to train at full intensity •May not attend all training sessions •Not perform at highest capability. For example: swimmers – train before/after. School 5-6 days a week. Doing lap after lap… looking at the line.
    • 43. Positive Motivation Positive motivation occurs when an individual’s performance is driven by previous reinforcing behaviours. It occurs when the athlete performs because they have received rewards for similar actions in the past and realise that continuing to perform as required results in additional rewards. Athlete pursues success. For example, crowd appreciation vs trophies.
    • 44. Negative Motivation Negative motivation is characterised by an improvement in performance out of fear of the consequences of not performing to expectations Inspiring an athlete to perform well because they expect to be punished if they fail may work on occasions, but has serious shortfalls. Indecision, lack of creativity, fear of risk taking and susceptibility to ‘choking; are some performance inhibiting behaviours that might surface. General long term effect can be the destruction of confidence, initiative and self-belief – the reverse of what motivation is supposed to achieve. For example, Des Hasler
    • 45. Intrinsic motivation Intrinsic or internal motivation is motivation that comes from within the individual. It is a self-propelling force as the the individual may have an interest in the task, enjoy learning and performing movements. It is self-sustaining and self- reinforcing because effort and personal accomplishment becomes its own reward. Intrinsically motivated people like to become masters/experts at tasks and not just participants. For example, just finishing a triathlon is motivating... Even if no chance of a win!
    • 46. Extrinsic motivation Extrinsic or external motivation occurs when the individual’s internal state is modified by sources originating from outside the person. • Often associated with material reinforcement – money, trophy • People – coaches pep talk, parental praise • Recognition – school sportsman/women award Extrinsic motivation focuses on product or what can be gained, compared to intrinsic motivation that focuses on process and development of competence. Effort and the desire for achievement are related to the expectation of an outside reward or fear of punishment from an outside source. Furthermore, external motivation can be manipulated by those responsible for its making. For example, bribes. Example: Folau vs SBW
    • 47. The responsibility for motivation needs to be shared between the athlete and their coaches/parents/peers, sustained motivation relies much more on internal factors than on external forces. Athletes who seek motivation from satisfaction with quality performances are likely to stay motivated longer than those who rely on external rewards. A noticeable characteristic of high achievers is that they seek to match their physical and technical skill against others of similar ability, whereas lower achievers often select competitions in which they know they will be successful. For example, Anthony Mundine selecting opponents 44 wins, 5 losses
    • 48. YES WE ARE GOING TO THE WORLD CUP!! Mark Schwarzer: The Hero Made two memorable saves in the penalty shootout What was the key to his memorable performance?
    • 49. 1) It is important to keep the crowd out of your mindset, particularly being goalkeeper having the crowd right behind you, abusing you, trying to distract you, so it is important to zone them out and use selective hearing. The keeper has to have the skill to not care about what they say and stay focused on the game. Not the crowd. 2) The mental process - I analyse the players approach to taking the penalty. Watching carefully how they position themselves, their run-up and eye contact to maximise my opportunities to save the ball. After I pick a side, the decide either top or bottom
    • 50. 1) Take deep breaths and focus solely on the penalties, keeping all other distraction away. During the shoot out I remember all the positives I’ve had in my career, like top games in terms of saves, how much hard work I've put in waking up early and training, always thinking no matter what happens all friends & family will be proud of my achievements and at the end of the day opportunities like this don’t come very often. Most importantly you might think I’m weird but I talk to myself both out loud and in my mind, I keep positive thoughts in my head like “I can do it” or “I’m going to save this” to keep me confident and boost my self-esteem Managing Anxiety Techniques: •Relaxation •Concentration •Visualisation •Self-Talk
    • 51. MANAGING ANXIETY ANXIETY Fear TRAIT Varies in individuals Response to everyday situations STATE Increased distress in response to certain situations STRESS PHYSICAL RESPONSE ANXIETY Psychological state AROUSAL Physiological response to anxiety
    • 52. Anxiety is predominantly a psychological process characterised by fear or apprehension in anticipation of confronting a situation perceived to be potentially threatening. In other words – when we experience situations where we are at risk, uncertain, threatened or attacked, we become anxious and take steps to address the concern. From here our natural instincts take over forcing us to confront it (fight) or escape (flight) it. At extreme, anxiety disrupts and unsettles behaviour by lowering the individual’s concentration and affecting muscle control
    • 53. Trait Anxiety is a person’s general level of anxiety linked to daily living. Certain personalities respond to everyday stresses and how they respond determines their level of trait anxiety. Increased levels can be managed through relaxation techniques.
    • 54. • Two variables in state anxiety: – importance of the situation (backyard cricket or ashes) – Uncertainty of the outcome (even competition or easy) State Anxiety is situational, it relates to how a person responds to a certain situation. Who is the male 100m Athletics World Champion? Two variables in state anxiety: – importance of the situation (backyard cricket or Ashes series) – Uncertainty of the outcome (even competition or easy) A certain level can be beneficial, like in rugby where aggression is a natural outlet for pent up anxiety.
    • 55. • Two variables in state anxiety: – importance of the situation (backyard cricket or ashes) – Uncertainty of the outcome (even competition or easy) • Trait Anxiety can be controlled by simple relaxation techniques, such as massages. • State Anxiety is harder to control and generally involves training in mental rehearsal and relaxation.
    • 56. Stress is a non-specific response of the body to a demand placed on it Physiological Reaction • Increased blood supply to skeletal muscles • More oxygen to the lungs • Increased glucose production to provide extra fuel • Increased sweat production to cool body • Tightened muscles to prepare the body for action Our perception of stress is influenced by: • Past experience • Routines • Expectations • The amount of support • The frequency of similar occurrences
    • 57. Stressors: factors that produce stress. In practice and competitive sporting environments, they can develop from: •Personal pressure – individual presssure imposed by the desire to win, achieve or fulfil goals •Competition pressure – pressure exertes by opponents on the field of play •Social pressure – pressure from coaches, parents, peers and others who are held in high esteem by the athlete •Physical pressure – the pressure of having to perform learned skills under the demands of competition
    • 58. Athletes, can further learn to cope with stress by using strategies , such as •Practising relaxation techniques •Developing concentration skills that require focusing on immediate task •Developing confidence •Planning strategies to cope with the situation
    • 59. Arousal is a specific level of anxiety and can be experienced prior to and during performance. Arousal is different from anxiety. While anxiety is predominantly psychological state, arousal is essentially a physiological state. Psychological: relating to the mind or mental activity Physiological: consistent with or characteristic of the normal functioning of a living organism. Arousal is a necessary ingredient in sports performance, although its level can either facilitate or hinder the execution of specific skills or task components.
    • 60. The individual performs a skill most successfully when the level of arousal is optimal for that particular task and that individual. Note: optimal does not mean maximal. Here ‘optimal’ means at the required level needed to ensure success. Low level of arousal may lead to distraction, disinterest and a depressed level of motivation for the individual Over arousal leads to movements without precision, being excessively tense and unable to concentrate Moderate arousal tends to lead to optimal performance. Both over-arousal and under-arousal contribute to adverse performance. The role of the coach and athlete is to ensure level of arousal is optimal for each performance.
    • 61. A Under-aroused Performance may suffer from factors such as lack of motivation, disinterest, poor concentration and inability to cope with distractions. B Optimal arousal Balance between level of motivation and ability to control muscular tension, which could be increasing as a result of the desire to perform well. C Over-arousal Feelings characterised by anxiousness and apprehension, resulting in excessive concern about performance. Increased muscle tension, possible mental confusion as individual tries to process messages during skill execution, resulting in poor performance.
    • 62. The optimal level of arousal varies from one skill to the next. Generally, when it’s a difficult task involving few or finer muscle groups, focusing more on accuracy, levels of arousal need to be lower to be optimal. For example, archery or golf putt. This is because fine movement and/or complex skills, require a large amount of our attention to complete tasks and so a lower arousal level is required (high arousal levels interfere with fine muscle movement, coordination and concentration)
    • 63. In other activities – that seem simpler but require more speed and strength, as well as utilising large muscle groups, require a higher level of arousal for performance to be optimal. For example, running or weight lifting. ‘Easier’ activities or activities using more muscle groups require a higher arousal level that needs to be sustained for length of activity.
    • 64. Factors that impact arousal: •Self-expectation: how the individual expects to perform •Expectation by others: how a person perceives others, such as their coach or parents, expects them to perform •Experience: which determines how the individual handles the increased pressure at higher levels of competition •Financial pressures: such as whether the individual's livelihood depends on their performance •Level of competition: whether the individual is playing a round or a final •Degree of difficulty: with higher levels of arousal generally being associated with more difficult tasks •Skills finesse: fine motor skills (for example, shooting and balancing) generating higher levels of arousal than produced by gross motor skills (for example, running).
    • 65. A beginner needs only very low levels of arousal to perform well- because control of skill is not yet automatic. In contrast, an elite performer, needs higher levels to produce optimum performance.
    • 66. Factors that impact arousal: •Self-expectation: how the individual expects to perform •Expectation by others: how a person perceives others, such as their coach or parents, expects them to perform •Experience: which determines how the individual handles the increased pressure at higher levels of competition •Financial pressures: such as whether the individual's livelihood depends on their performance •Level of competition: whether the individual is playing a round or a final •Degree of difficulty: with higher levels of arousal generally being associated with more difficult tasks •Skills finesse: fine motor skills (for example, shooting and balancing) generating higher levels of arousal than produced by gross motor skills (for example, running).
    • 67. Examine figure 6.15, Which shows arousal curves X, Y and Z. Using the ranking chart, rank the following activities performed during competition in terms of lowest to highest optimum arousal levels. Then establish which curve (X, Y or Z) best suits each athlete in terms of arousal. Justify your choices. •Rowing •Weight-lifting •Pistol shooting •Golf swing •Discus throwing •Tennis serve Textbook Page 201
    • 68. Students learn about: • Nutritional considerations -pre-performance, including carbohydrate loading -during performance -post-performance • Supplementation -vitamins/minerals -protein -caffeine -creatine products • Recovery strategies -physiological strategies, eg cool down, hydration -neural strategies, eg hydrotherapy, massage -tissue damage strategies, eg cryotherapy -psychological strategies, eg relaxation. Students learn to: • Compare the dietary requirements of athletes in different sports considering pre-, during and post performance needs • Critically analyse the evidence for and against supplementation for improved performance •Research recovery strategies to discern their main features and proposed benefits to performance.
    • 69. Programs designed to improve performance must be supported by solid nutritional practices. What are some factors that may influence nutritional considerations for athletes? TYPE OF SPORT/ACTIVITY TIME OF SEASON/COMP ETITION GOALS TO BE MET ENERGY REQUIREMENTS HYDRATION REQUIREMENTS LEVEL OF COMPETITION
    • 70. Being aware of the most appropriate time for food intake and having recovery strategies in place to recoup expended energy. While complete nutritional balance is essential for optimal physical performance, the specific roles of carbohydrates and hydration are the two most important considerations Foods not only contain nutrients that power essential body functions, but are the life source of energy supply. Because different foods have differing amounts of energy (carbohydrate supplies 16 kJ/gm, protein supplies 17 kJ/gm, and fat 37 kJ/gm), the type of food consumed prior to competition directly affects the quantity of energy available. Which type of food is best prior to competition?
    • 71. Hydration involves supplying suff cient water to the body’s cells. Fluid is also important because it is the body’s medium for cooling heated muscles and ultimately preventing dehydration. It assists in temperature regulation by transporting heat to the outside of the body. It is also important because it prevents damage to organs by diluting toxic waste, aiding oxygen transport to cells, assisting transport waste from the body, and helping eliminate carbon dioxide via the blood plasma. Thus, a deficiency in fuel or fluid supply contributes to a substandard performance and can place the health of the athlete at risk.
    • 72. Undertaking physical activity alters a person’s need for energy, nutrients and fluids. By understanding the dietary needs of athletes and planning eating strategies for before, during and after activity, individuals can: • enhance their recovery • maximise physiological responses from training, • as well as improve their performance. Prior to an event Food should be consumed one-four hours before competition This prevents hunger, ensures the athlete is well hydrated, provides and restores fuel for muscle glycogen stores Helps the athlete to feel confident Why would our glycogen stores be a consideration during pre-performance?
    • 73. • One major recommendation is that athletes should increase their carbohydrate intake. • This is essential as carbohydrates are broken down into glycogen • Glycogen is the fuel for the lactic acid and aerobic system • Carbs should make up 70% of athletes diet • Carbs should be complex (not simple). EG, pasta and breads • Athletes should decrease their fat intake as it’s the last store of energy utilised • Water is another must as they loose fluid during training and competition – do not wait until you’re thirsty. Continuously hydrate.
    • 74. Muscle glycogen is the most important fuel source for short-term, high- intensity exercise (such as sprinting) as well as during prolonged exercise tasks (such as marathon running). As muscle levels of glycogen decline, the body will become increasingly reliant on blood glucose, which is derived from its limited stores in the liver. As exercise progresses beyond two hours, the body becomes progressively more dependent on its fat stores. For events last less then 90 mins, training should cease 36hrs before event and athletes should consume 7 grams of carbohydrates per body kg.
    • 75. For events last less then 90 mins, training should cease 36hrs before event and athletes should consume 7 grams of carbohydrates per body kg. Athletes are advised to adjust the amount of carbohydrate they consume for fuelling and recovery to suit their exercise level: •Light intensity exercise (30 mins/day) 3–5g/kg/day •Moderate intensity exercise (60 mins/day) 5–7g/kg/day •Endurance exercise (1–3 hrs/day) 7–12g/kg/day •Extreme endurance exercise (more than 4 hrs/day) 10–12g/kg/day For events lasting longer then 90 mins, athletes may benefit from carbohydrate loading
    • 76. Carbohydrate loading •This is a strategy involving changes to training and nutrition that can maximise muscle glycogen stores prior to endurance competition. •The technique originally involved a three-day to four-day carbohydrate ‘depletion phase’ and a three-day to four-day ‘loading phase’. •Ongoing research has demonstrated that the depletion phase is no longer necessary and it is now thought that a two-day high-carbohydrate diet (10–12 grams of carbohydrate per 1 kilogram of body mass) •This combined with an exercise taper is sufficient to elevate muscle glycogen levels. It has been demonstrated that this extra supply of carbohydrate improves endurance exercise by allowing athletes to exercise at their optimal pace for a longer time.
    • 77. Carbohydrate loading •Before a competition the athlete should taper exercise and eat a diet high in carbohydrates •This provides the athlete with enough energy for optimal performance • This should be implemented 24 hours before a non-endurance event and 72 hours before an endurance event http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=U7RhE_TuPRo
    • 78. Goals of pre-event meal: • top up glycogen stores in muscle and the liver especially after an overnight fast) • ensure an adequate level of hydration • prevent hunger • assist in the psychological preparation of the athlete through routine or ritual The following slides contain two different examples of pre-game meal options, look through both and determine reasons why certain foods would be reccomended.
    • 79. 3-4hrs pre-Event 1-2hrs pre-Event Under 1hr pre-Event Cereal, low fat milk Fruit smoothie Fruit juice Fruit salad, low fat yogurt Energy bar Cordial Backed beans on toast Fruit Sports drink Crumpets with honey Sports drink Energy bar Backed potato Bread rolls Energy bar
    • 80. Foods to be avoided prior to an event •Spicy food = abdominal pain and gas •Alcohol = impairs coordination and dehydrates the athlete •High fat and protein foods = slow digestion and can make the athlete feel sluggish •High fibre foods = abdominal cramping •Sweet foods = causes an insulin reaction lowering blood sugar levels Activity - design your own pre-performace eating plan for a triathlete
    • 81. The goal of nutrition intake during exercise is to: • minimise the fluid deficit • in the case of exercise of moderate to high intensity lasting longer than 60 minutes, provide an additional fuel source for the muscles and central nervous system. Intake of carbohydrate during exercise provides an additional fuel source and has the potential to improve exercise capacity in situations where muscle or liver glycogen stores may limit performance.
    • 82. Regular fluid intake is important especially in events over 30 minutes Endurance athletes should consume 30-60g of carbohydrates per hour These carbohydrates should be easy to digest eg. • bananas • jelly beans • energy gels • sports drinks
    • 83. Endurance events, particularly in hot and possibly humid conditions, can have a significant impact on the body’s fuel and fluid supplies. In these events, the need for carbohydrate and electrolyte replacement depends on a number of factors including intensity, duration, humidity, clothing type and individual sweat rates. Electrolytes are salts and minerals, such as sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium, that are important for many body functions such as chemical breakdown and nerve conduction. Electrolytes can be lost through perspiration during exercise.
    • 84. Nutritional considerations for performances need to address the following. - The aim is to conserve muscle glycogen and maintain blood glucose levels. • Carbohydrate supplementation is needed to avoid glycogen depletion. Be aware that at exercise intensities above 75 per cent of aerobic capacity, liquid carbohydrate feeding (sports drinks) can delay glycogen depletion by up to 30 minutes. • Glycogen supplementation is not needed for low-intensity, short- duration exercise.
    • 85. • Adequate hydration by regular fluid intake must be maintained. Athletes should have a fluid replacement plan that matches their body’s requirements and the exercise duration and intensity. It is suggested that 200–300 mL of fluid, preferably in the form of a sports drink, be taken in every 15–20 minutes during exercise. Sports drinks contain liquid carbohydrate and serve both to hydrate and energise. • An athlete should not wait until thirst develops before replenishing lost fluid. Dehydration is an excessive loss of water.
    • 86. To prevent dehydration. The following are the most important. • Hydrate before, during and after physical activity. Thirst is not a good indicator of the body’s need for fluid; by that time, dehydration has already started to take effect. • Drink every 15 to 20 minutes while running. Runners lose between three and five cups each hour, so it is important never to miss an opportunity to ‘top up’. Drink water or low-carbohydrate concentration • sports drinks. Cool plain water or sports drinks that have four to eight per cent carbohydrate concentration are recommended. Concentrations higher than eight per cent are not recommended because they slow the body’s absorption rates.
    • 87. • Ensure that you have trained properly and acclimatised to race conditions. Trained and acclimatised athletes are able to control their body temperature more effectively than those who are untrained and who have failed to acclimatise • Wear clothing that ‘breathes’. Light ‘airy’ clothing promotes heat loss through convection and evaporation. • Avoid activity in times of high temperature and high humidity. body heat cannot be lost through evaporation because the air is already saturated. Exercise is considered safe when the temperature is below 30°C and the relative humidity is below 90 per cent.
    • 88. Triathlon is an activity that combines swimming, cycling, and running in one event. The Olympic, or “standard” distance in triathlon is a: •1500 metre swim •40 kilometre bike •10 kilometre run. Australia has cemented on both an Olympic level & Iron Man having has world champions named in both disciplines of triathlon. Ironman Triathlon is •3800m swim •180km bike •42km run What nutritional considerations would a triathlete need?
    • 89. Recovery Timing of Meals Carb Loading Pre Race During event Weight Management Travel
    • 90. From a nutrition standpoint, the goals of recovery are as follows: • Refuel carbohydrate (energy) stores. • Rehydrate to replace fluids and electrolytes lost in sweat. • Repair and regenerate damaged muscle tissue. • Revitalise and maintain good immune function. A post-performance nutritional plan aims to return the body to its pre-event state as quickly as possible, enabling full training to resume in preparation for the next phase of competition. This is best achieved through proactive recovery Proactive recovery emphasises immediate refuelling and rehydration that continues until a pre-event state is obtained. This means that refuelling and rehydration begin immediately and continue for 8–12 hours following the performance. This enables optimisation of body repair and regeneration processes.
    • 91. • Important for restoration of liver glycogen stores, repair muscle tissue and replace food • The meal post event should be high in carbohydrates and protein. Carbohydrates should be taken immediately after event. An intake high in carbohydrate and inclusive of food and drinks with a high glycemic index (GI) is most beneficial.
    • 92. • The night meal after the event should be high in carbohydrate and protein to assist with muscle regeneration and glycogen stores • Ideally, athletes should drink to a plan based on their own sweat rates during training and competition. While water is always a good fluid to choose, sports drinks can have the advantage of supplying carbohydrate during and after the event, as well as sodium (electrolytes) to help in the absorption of the fluid into the body. • active rest that enhances the manufacture of red blood cells, new proteins and specific cellular components damaged by stress-related movements.
    • 93. Unless fluid losses are replaced during exercise, an athlete will become dehydrated. Dehydration impairs performance by causing the following: •increased heart rate •impaired heat regulation •increased perceived exertion (i.e. exercise feels harder than usual and the athlete fatigues earlier) •reduced mental function •reduced skill level •stomach upset All levels of dehydration impair performance and the magnitude increases as the degree of dehydration increases. FACT: When you are 2% dehydrated, you work at 90% of your maximal effort.
    • 94. In order to minimise dehydration, athletes need to drink enough during exercise to match their sweat losses. Sweat loss can be determined by weighing athletes before and after exercise. Each kilogram of weight loss indicates 1 litre of fluid loss. Adding the amount of fluid consumed during the exercise session, gives total fluid loss for the session. For example, if an athlete finishes an exercise session 1 kg lighter and has consumed 1 litre of fluid during the session, total sweat loss equals 2 litres. Once an athlete's average sweat loss is known, a plan can be prepared to enable the athlete to match sweat losses in subsequent exercise sessions. VIDEO
    • 95. What does pee indicate? While testing fluid levels, the amount of urination expected if liquids have been consumed is actually expected to be minimal. This is a sign that fluid has been absorbed by the body and is being used where it is needed the most.
    • 96. • WATER IS BEST, one, because its free but more importantly, it can be easily absorbed by the body HOWEVER… Hydration tests amongst athletes have shown the following… For low-moderate exercise, water performed just as well as sports drinks in terms of rehydrating the athlete. For high intensity and/or endurance events.. SPORTS DRINKS were more effective, as they contain important extras like carbohydrates and electrolytes to promote hydration because they're specifically designed for athletes.
    • 97. But here's a warning!!! If you're drinking sports drinks as part of your everyday routine you'll end up putting on weight. In the case of any sorts of drinks that have got carbohydrates or nutrients in them, if you're having too much of any of those sorts of drinks and you're not active then that can affect your weight and your body fat levels. But what are these electrolytes you speak of?
    • 98. Hydration tips •Make sure you're well-hydrated before you exercise — start drinking about two hours before. •Top up your fluids during exercising •Weigh yourself before and after. Losing a kilo is the equivalent of a litre of fluid, and you need to drink one-a-half times that to replace it. If you're exercising hard and looking for peak performance then sports drinks are the go for you. But if like most of us you're into the moderate exercise, then water will hydrate you just fine and there's a little bonus with that — it's free!
    • 99. Does chocolate milk have any benefits for exercise?
    • 100. Compared to plain milk, water, or most sports drinks, •It has double the carbohydrate and protein content, perfect for replenishing tired muscles. •Its high water content replaces fluids lost as sweat, preventing dehydration. •Plus it packs a nutritional bonus of calcium, and includes just a little sodium and sugar additives that help recovering athletes retain water and regain energy. Drinking plain water after exercise replaces sweat losses. Chocolate milk provides carbohydrate replenishment to your muscles.
    • 101. Supplement intake is routine for many competitors because it is believed to improve athletic performance. However, while perhaps supplying a psychological boost, supplements may be of little value if the diet is already well balanced in terms of nutritional requirements. What are the common supplements used to enhance performance?
    • 102. Vitamins are inorganic compounds that are essential to maintaining bodily functions. They do not contain energy, but they function as catalysts that help the body use energy nutrients. In this capacity they assist such functions as energy release, metabolic regulation and tissue building. Minerals are inorganic substances found in the body that are necessary for it to function adequately. Like vitamins, minerals belong to the group of micronutrients that are essential for the body to function properly, but do not provide energy. Iron and calcium are the two minerals that are most commonly deficient in athletes, and inadequate supplies will affect performance and contribute to health problem
    • 103. Iron is found in haemoglobin, which comprises most of the red blood cells in the body. These cells collect and transport oxygen, delivering it to where it is needed. Diminished haemoglobin levels affect performance because the muscle cells are deprived of oxygen, which is needed to break down the Nutrients and produce energy. A condition commonly associated with activity is ‘sports anaemia’. Most frequently experienced in the early stages of heavy training programs, it is characterised by a lack of energy and general fatigue. The condition tends to subside if training is gradual, progressive and supported by a balanced diet. It is unknown exactly why ‘sports anaemia’ develops. However, it is thought to be attributable to either a lower iron intake relative to the boost in exercise, or the body’s use of protein for functions other than red blood cell production. Again, a balanced diet is an excellent source of iron. High amounts are found in lean meat, while grain products and dark, leafy green vegetables such as spinach and lettuce are other valuable sources. What is ‘sports anemia’?
    • 104. The main vitamins that athletes need are water-soluble vitamins. The main sources of these vitamins are fruits and vegetables, wholegrain Vitamins & Minerals assist with the: • immune system • formation of haemoglobin • muscle contraction • helping to activate enzymes for energy Some athletes that may need supplementation: • Female athletes (calcium and iron) • Vegetarians (iron) • highly physical people (sodium and magnesium due to sweat)
    • 105. Protein supplements have had strong favour with weight-lifters, body builders and strength athletes for a long time. Many athletes believe that protein supplements are important because of their muscle building qualities, with higher intake positively affecting muscle size. Protein’s primary importance to the body is its structural role in holding the cells together and in the growth, repair and maintenance of body tissue. It also has a functional role in hormone production and nervous system transmissions. Protein is composed of various types of amino acids. It can be a source of energy under extreme conditions, when carbohydrate and fat supplies are in very short supply or exhausted.
    • 106. On average, an Australian diet, 12 to 15 per cent of the recommended intake should consist of protein. Studies indicate that this level is easily achieved, with most people attaining 150 per cent of the recommended intake. Athletes, because of their high energy usage, may consume amounts in excess of this. On the whole, research supports the idea that most athletes do not need or benefit from protein supplementation as they meet requirements easily within their balanced diet.
    • 107. Furthermore, excess protein can negatively affect health. High amounts of protein can increase the amount of calcium excreted in the urine and possibly contribute to osteoporosis. Unlike carbohydrates that can be stored in the body, excess protein must be eliminated. The processing and filtration of additional urea can interfere with kidney function. Diets high in protein such as those containing large amounts of meat and dairy foods can contribute to obesity as a result of their high fat content
    • 108. As little as 2–3 milligrams per kilogram body weight is enough to potentially improve performance. Caffeine is a mild diuretic but during exercise this diuretic effect falls off dramatically and will not exacerbate dehydration during exercise. Athletes should also be aware that caffeine may reduce sleep quality and quantity, which may adversely affect their recovery. Caffeine has ergogenic aid properties, which means that it improves performanceby assisting specific metabolic processes (metabolises fat fast to produce more energy).
    • 109. A diuretic is a drug that increases the amount of fluid (water and urine) passing from the body. An ergogenic aid is a substance or practice that improves or is believed to improve physical performance.
    • 110. • Creatine is a compound that occurs naturally in the body. It is found mainly in the muscle tissue in the form of creatine phosphate, which provides a ready source of ATP to the working muscle. • The body has a maximum, or ceiling, amount of creatine it can store and once this maximum is reached it will break down the excess creatine into creatinine and excrete it through the urine. • By supplementing creatine, athletes are trying to enhance the efficiency of the ATP-PC system to provide energy during high- intensity activities.
    • 111. • Studies have shown that while creatine is able to improve the recovery rate (faster resynthesis of ATP) it does not extend the length of time a performance can be maintained. • It is likely to only be of benefit to athletes who are undertaking explosive short-duration activities with short rest periods in between, rather than one off sprints or endurance events.
    • 112. In your workbooks, state point FOR and AGAINST supplementation Case FOR supplementation Case AGAINST supplementation
    • 113. Why is it important to recover from training? • Workouts and performances can weaken athletes, recovery strategies aim to ensure that the athlete is able to resume normal training and competition within the time span of the training program. • Active rest is still regarded as the most beneficial form of recovery. Rest allows both physiological and psychological revitalisation to take its course. • During rest, muscles repair and rebuild while energy and fluid levels are restored to pre-event levels • Recovery is important to avoid symptoms of overtraining that may be evident in feelings of staleness, lack of interest and an inability to put in effort despite wanting to do so
    • 114. Recovery Strategies are varied can be categorised as: •Physiological •Neural •Psychological Physiological – attaining to the body’s biological systems Includes: hydration and cool down
    • 115. Physiological HYDRATION – we covered on Monday COOL DOWN Cool down is designed to apply an active recovery strategy and therefore reduce the occurrence of delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS) This has many benefits for the individual, including: • a reduction in the level of lactate in the blood stream • a gradual lowering of the core body temperature • psychological benefits, such as feeling better when the • body has been returned to a near normal state following exercise
    • 116. Prezi, Monday slides.
    • 117. WHO IS RAY ALLEN?
    • 118. How did he get this good? Ray Allen shoots a minimum of 500, 3-point shots per day. This would be referred to as Massed Practice. What are the disadvantages of this? What can be done to adapt his training to make it distributed practice? • Break it into sub-skills – shoot, follow through, rebound • Vary position shot is taken • Add defender • Add shot clock, count how many successful, stop for feedback, repeat, try to beat record
    • 119. Massed practice is preferable for: Massed practice occurs when one skill is continuously practiced in a session with only brief rest periods or none at all. This may involve a variety of drills aimed at improving the one skill performed one after the other. Distributed practice is preferable for: Distributed practice can follow one of two forms. 1)First, when one skill is practised, either through a single drill or a variety of skill drills, and broken up by moderate rest periods. 2)Second form is when a range of skills are practised, for example soccer dribbling, passing, and shooting
    • 120. Massed and distributed practice There is no real difference between the two methods in learning basic skills. However, for improving performance, distributed practice is more effective than massed practice because it allows for feedback to be given, and decreases the likelihood of fatigue. Massed practice is preferable for: • highly skilled performers • highly motivated performers. Distributed practice is preferable for: • the novice • in situations where energy demands are high • when the task is difficult or boring.
    • 121. Whole Practice •Whole practice method refers to practising a skill in its entirety, such as a softball pitch Part Practice •Part method involves a skill being broken into smaller components and each subskill practised separately, such as a basketball layup.
    • 122. Whole and part practice •Another way of practising is to use the whole-or-part method. This method refers to whether skills should be practised in parts or as a whole. •It is not uncommon to use a combination of whole and part practice (learning skills as a whole at times, and in part at other times) or progressive part practice. •Part practice is useful for novices, or when learning a new skill.
    • 123. Feedback refers to any form of information an athlete receives about their performance. It is an essential part in allowing athletes achieve their best. Feedback has three functions: 1)Provide a basis for correcting aspects that need improvement 2)Reinforce what is done well 3)Motivate for continued effort and improvement. Feedback can be gained via internal and external sources Internal: feedback comes from individual/athlete External: feedback comes from outside source eg. coach
    • 124. External Feedback – gained from outside the body. •May come from a coach, parent, crowd, opposition, video replay •Provides short term motivation. •Coaches should aim to develop internal feedback mechanisms Internal Feedback – is received from the athlete. •Can be from receptors in the muscles and inner ear. •Relays info about how the movement ‘feels’ (proprioceptive) •Early stages of skill acquisition rely on external feedback
    • 125. Knowledge of Results (KR) – refers to the outcome of a performance •For example, Sam scored 4 goals, Dan jumped 5.6m. •Comes from external sources – usually measurements •Negatives: Athlete seeing scoreboard can be pleased or disheartened Knowledge of Performance (KP) – refers to how the skill was executed •For example, ‘Matt had a good follow through on that drive’, ‘He looked fast’ •KP is information that is received either internally or externally concerning the movement executed •KP informs about the performance of the movement pattern itself, or how it looked.
    • 126. Concurrent Feedback: occurs during the performance For example, in aerial skiing, coach giving instructions whilst athlete is preparing for landing It can be difficult for a beginner to cope with as it can be a distraction from the task http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0s3tERuE3Wk&list=PLC5815998F4AAB0CF&index=2&playnext=2 Delayed Feedback: occurs after the performance •This can occur immediately after, or days after the event •Replays and coach feedback are usual methods Concurrent and delayed feedback can therefore be provided both internally and externally
    • 127. External Feedback – gained from outside the body. •May come from a coach, parent, crowd, opposition, video replay •Provides short term motivation. •Coaches should aim to develop internal feedback mechanisms Internal Feedback – is received from the athlete. •Can be from receptors in the muscles and inner ear. •Relays info about how the movement ‘feels’ (proprioceptive) •Early stages of skill acquisition rely on external feedback
    • 128. “Discuss the role of feedback in the teaching and learning of physical skills” Due end of lesson.

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