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Planning Speed Training for Team Sports

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This is Dr. Mike Young's presentation on Planning Speed Training for Team Sports from the 2015 Southwest Speed Summit. Dr. Young is the owner and Director of Performance at Athletic Lab sports performance training center. He has served as the fitness coach for 2 North American professional soccer clubs and consults for teams and schools in various other capacities. In this presentation, Dr. Young discussed the best practices for planning speed training sessions in the context of a team setting.

Published in: Sports, Health & Medicine
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Planning Speed Training for Team Sports

  1. 1. PLANNING SPEED TRAINING FOR TEAM SPORTS Mike Young, PhD @mikeyoung #speedsummit
  2. 2. The Outline Game Requirements Annual Planning Means & Methods Logistics Session Guidelines Complementary Elements
  3. 3. UNDERSTANDING GAME REQUIREMENTS
  4. 4. “Speed” means different things to different sports
  5. 5. “Speed” means different things to different sports continuous. repeated very short bursts. acc (rarely maximal) intermittent. short & intermediate bursts. max acc & maxV continuous (RSA). short bursts. occasional max acc & maxV intermittent. short & intermediate bursts. max acceleration
  6. 6. ACKNOWLEDGE & RESPECTTHE PHYSICAL STIMULUS OF GAMES
  7. 7. BUT KNOWTHAT GAMES ARE NOTTHE BEST STIMULUS FOR FITNESS
  8. 8. RATES OF DECAY • Aerobic capacity • Anaerobic lactic capacity • Power • Speed • Maximum strength
  9. 9. RATES OF DECAY • Aerobic capacity • Anaerobic lactic capacity • Power • Speed • Maximum strength When it comes to speed- power training & maintenance, a little goes a long way
  10. 10. THINGSTO CONSIDER • Varying physical readiness • Different playing positions • Chronological age • Training age • Injury history • Burners vs Donkeys
  11. 11. PLAN AHEA
  12. 12. B u t w r it e in p e n c il
  13. 13. •Overload •Rest & recovery •Biomotor Balance •Compatible & complimentary Training is a Process
  14. 14. OverloadOVERLOAD
  15. 15. IN PERFORMANCE ORIENTED INDIVIDUAL SPORTS, TRAINING CAN BE PRISTINELY STRUCTURED
  16. 16. HARD / EASY DAYS Traditional training methods have alternated hard and easy days to facilitate recovery New technology and better understandings of the body and training stimulus permit better options
  17. 17. ALTERNATION OFTRAINING MEANS • By alternating high and low CNS an athlete can allow some systems of the body to rest while others are recovering • Alternatively, one could split activities by eccentric and concentric dominance
  18. 18. High-Low CNS • High CNS: higher intensity, maximal efforts of higher load or speed of movement • Low CNS: lower intensity, aerobic, higher work capacity Ecc-Conc Demand • Eccentric dominant: typically higher velocity involving decelerative forces • Concentric dominant: typically higher force, lower velocity involving accelerative forces
  19. 19. INTEAM SPORTS, PRISTINETRAINING ORGANIZATION IS OFTEN NOT POSSIBLE
  20. 20. Rest & Recovery
  21. 21. U N D E R S T A N D T H IS
  22. 22. Due to the nature of today’s seasons, traditional periodization models with clear cut in-seasons & off-seasons are antiquated & obsolete
  23. 23. IT’S MORE APPROPRIATE TO THINK OF AN ONGOING PROCESS WITH WINDOWS OF OPPORTUNITY
  24. 24. FINDING WINDOWS REQUIRES LOOKING FORTHEM • Game load • Travel stress • Strength training load • Objective indicators • Subjective indicators • Schedule
  25. 25. SESSION GUIDELINES
  26. 26. SPEED • Linear Sprint Speed • Change of Direction
  27. 27. SPEED TRAINING GUIDELINES When training speed the emphasis should ALWAYS be on quality rather than volume Quality of Movement Quality of Effort
  28. 28. Adding changes of direction, start-stops, turns, lateral movement, change of tempo, jumps, etc are all appropriate but should not come at the expense of developing linear speed SPEED TRAINING GUIDELINES
  29. 29. SPEED SESSION GUIDELINES • Active-dynamic warmup • Emphasis on quality of movement and effort • Appropriate distances, volumes & rests to achieve desired stimulus • Incorporate changes of direction, stops, jumps as appropriate for sport • Incorporate cognitive processing, decision making, and reaction • Follow best practices for order of operations 1. Technical 2. Speed 3. Power 4. Strength 5. Conditioning
  30. 30. MEANS & METHODS
  31. 31. IFYOU WANTTO BE FASTER….
  32. 32. ! <40m per rep ~1’ rest / 10m <300m total volume
  33. 33. STARTING POSITIONS & GENERAL MECHANICS SHOULD BE EMPHASIZED
  34. 34. Resisted Sprints
  35. 35. •Resisted sprints can improve speed* •When load is appropriate kinematics are unaffected •Optimal load produces ~10-20% speed decrement
  36. 36. •Length: 10-40m •Load: Base on quality of movement & speed •Rest: 30-60 sec / 10m •Volume: 200-360m •~10% Rule
  37. 37. SPEED TRAINING GUIDELINES • Emphasize appropriate mechanics and maximal intensity • Work : rest ratios = 1 : 20 - 40 • Rep lengths of 10-40m (~ 1 - 5 sec) • Total volume should be constrained (160m - 300m)
  38. 38. SPORT SPEED MULTI-DIRECTIONAL, CHANGE OF DIRECTION, DECELERATION CAPACITY, REACTION
  39. 39. Off-Season • Focus on acceleration first • Resisted runs & moderate hills are appropriate methods for developing both mechanics of speed as well as physical qualities • Respect the necessary rest requirements
  40. 40. In-Season • Speed training must persist throughout the season • Incorporate the ball, reaction and thought- processing when feasible but do so in an appropriate manner
  41. 41. Complementary Elements
  42. 42. Strength Proven to improve sprint, jump, throw and endurance capacities
  43. 43. “...there is sufficient evidence for strength training programs to continue to be an integral part of athletic preparation.” “Do I really need to lift?”
  44. 44. BASIC GUIDELINES FOR RESISTANCE TRAINING
  45. 45. • Muscles don’t act in isolation • Train movements not muscles….“sport specific strength” is nonsense • Address asymmetries and imbalances TRAIN HOLISTICALLY
  46. 46. • Multi-joint exercises through complete ranges of motion • For strength & power, lower rep ranges, higher loads, and moderate volumes are suggested • ~40 / 60 split upper / lower body • For hypertrophy, moderate reps and load with higher volume is suggested BASIC GUIDELINES
  47. 47. Exercise Absolute Power (Watts) 100kg Male 75kg Female Bench Press 300 Back Squat 1100 Deadlift 1100 Snatch 3000 1750 Snatch 2nd Pull 5500 2900 Clean 2950 1750 Clean 2nd Pull 5500 2650 Jerk 5400 2600 POWER DEVELOPMENT *Total pull: Lift-off until maximal vertical velocity **2nd pull: Transition until maximal vertical barbell velocity
  48. 48. Exercise Absolute Power (Watts) 100kg Male 75kg Female Bench Press 300 Back Squat 1100 Deadlift 1100 Snatch 3000 1750 Snatch 2nd Pull 5500 2900 Clean 2950 1750 Clean 2nd Pull 5500 2650 Jerk 5400 2600 POWER DEVELOPMENT *Total pull: Lift-off until maximal vertical velocity **2nd pull: Transition until maximal vertical barbell velocity Even if use of Olympic lifts are inappropriate due to lack of equipment, low teachingexpertise, or athleteinexperience; the basicprincipals should still be incorporated (externally loaded, multi-joint, lower body explosive movement)
  49. 49. Heavy-Low Rep vs. Light-High Rep
  50. 50. • 1-3x/ week • Short but intense workouts • 20-40 minutes per session is sufficient • High load / low rep and / or explosive emphasis • Train the entire body • Use appropriate rest intervals Weight Training Guidelines
  51. 51. Bodyweight strength exercises are great for muscular endurance, work capacity, strength maintenance and when facility / equipment access is limited
  52. 52. Off-Season • Teach first • Development of work & functional capacity before strength • Individualize to needs • Strength and power • Lower extremity and core emphasis • Full range movements
  53. 53. In-Season • 1-3x per week • Reduced volumes • Eliminate novel exercises or training stimuli • Evolution rather than revolution to reduce DOMs • On-field incorporation sessions can be useful
  54. 54. OLYMPIC LIFTS vary starting position. power clean emphasis. 1-3 reps / set. 5-10 sets.
  55. 55. SQUATS all variants. full depth. 2-6 reps / set. 4-7 sets.
  56. 56. RESISTANCE TRAINING UPPER BODY PULL, PUSH, CORE, AND UNILATERAL STRENGTH Chelly et al (2010). Relationships between power and strength of the upper and lower limb muscles and throwing velocity in male handball players.
  57. 57. TRAIN THE CHAIN (THE POSTERIOR CHAIN)
  58. 58. PLYOS
  59. 59. PLYOMETRIC BENEFITS EFFECTS OF 8-WEEK IN-SEASON PLYOMETRIC TRAINING ON UPPER AND LOWER LIMB PERFORMANCE OF ELITE ADOLESCENT HANDBALL PLAYERS MOHAMED SOUHAIEL CHELLY,1,2 SOUHAIL HERMASSI,2 RIDHA AOUADI,1,2 AND ROY J. SHEPHARD 3 1 Research Unit Sport Performance & Health, Higher Institute of Sport and Physical Education of Ksar Saıˆd, University of La Manouba, Tunis, Tunisia; 2 Higher Institute of Sport and Physical Education of Ksar Said, University of La Manouba, Tunis, Tunisia; and 3 Faculty of Kinesiology and Physical Education, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada ABSTRACT Chelly, MS, Hermassi, S, Aouadi, R, and Shephard, RJ. Effects of 8-week in-season plyometric training on upper and lower limb performance of elite adolescent handball players. J Strength Cond Res 28(5): 1401–1410, 2014—We hypothesized that replacement of a part of the normal in-season regimen of top- evel adolescent handball players by an 8-week biweekly course yometric training would enhance char- ower output INTRODUCTION H andball is an intermittent sport where physio- logical characteristics, particularly the ability to make and to repeat the explosive muscular con- tractions required for sprinting, jumping, turn- ing, changing pace, and throwing a ball, are important to performance not only in adults but also in adolescent players (5,11,35). Single-bout explosive efforts are as important as maximal aerobic power (15); although high-speed sprinting accounts for only 11% of the total distance covered in junior (35), vital moments such as winning posses- end on such actions
  60. 60. •Introduction of bi-weekly plyometric training improves sprinting, jumping and ball throwing velocities EFFECTS OF 8-WEEK IN-SEASON PLYOMETRIC TRAINING ON UPPER AND LOWER LIMB PERFORMANCE OF ELITE ADOLESCENT HANDBALL PLAYERS MOHAMED SOUHAIEL CHELLY,1,2 SOUHAIL HERMASSI,2 RIDHA AOUADI,1,2 AND ROY J. SHEPHARD 3 1 Research Unit Sport Performance & Health, Higher Institute of Sport and Physical Education of Ksar Saıˆd, University of La Manouba, Tunis, Tunisia; 2 Higher Institute of Sport and Physical Education of Ksar Said, University of La Manouba, Tunis, Tunisia; and 3 Faculty of Kinesiology and Physical Education, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada ABSTRACT Chelly, MS, Hermassi, S, Aouadi, R, and Shephard, RJ. Effects of 8-week in-season plyometric training on upper and lower limb performance of elite adolescent handball players. J Strength Cond Res 28(5): 1401–1410, 2014—We hypothesized that replacement of a part of the normal in-season regimen of top- evel adolescent handball players by an 8-week biweekly course yometric training would enhance char- ower output INTRODUCTION H andball is an intermittent sport where physio- logical characteristics, particularly the ability to make and to repeat the explosive muscular con- tractions required for sprinting, jumping, turn- ing, changing pace, and throwing a ball, are important to performance not only in adults but also in adolescent players (5,11,35). Single-bout explosive efforts are as important as maximal aerobic power (15); although high-speed sprinting accounts for only 11% of the total distance covered in junior (35), vital moments such as winning posses- end on such actions
  61. 61. PLYOMETRICS • GREAT STIMULUS FOR POWER & MAINTENANCE OF STRENGTH • INTENSITY DIRECTLY RELATED TO VERTICAL DISPLACEMENT & TYPE OF CONTACT (1 LEG VS 2) • COMBINE WITH RUNNING & CHANGE OF DIRECTION • QUALITY OVER QUANTITY • APPROPRIATE MECHANICS ARE CRITICAL
  62. 62. Mobility
  63. 63. Endurance •Aerobic •Anaerobic-Glycolytic •Repeat Sprint Ability •Work Capacity
  64. 64. REPEAT SPRINT ABILITY
  65. 65. LIMITERS OF RSA •Fatigue from repeat efforts is inversely correlated to initial sprint performance •Limitations in energy supply, which include energy available from phosphocreatine hydrolysis, anaerobic glycolysis and oxidative metabolism, and the intramuscular accumulation of metabolic by- products, such as hydrogen ions are key factors in performance decrement •Neural factors (magnitude and strategy of recruitment) are related to fatigue •Stiffness regulation, hypoglycemia, muscle damage and environmental conditions may also compromise repeat sprint ability (Bishop et al, 2011)
  66. 66. 1. Include traditional sprint training to improve an athlete’s capacity in a single sprint effort 2. Some high intensity interval training is beneficial to improve the athlete’s ability to recover between sprint efforts. (Bishop et al, 2011) TRAINING RSA
  67. 67. RSA Training Guidelines Intensity: 95-100% Reps: 10-30m Volume: <300m total Work:Rest Ratio: 1:5-10 Frequency: 1-2x / week RSA is addressed indirectly through other training methods but specific training is also recommended
  68. 68. Off-Season • Aerobic qualities must be in place first • Speed should be emphasized over RSA • Immediately prior to the season dedicated RSA work may be useful
  69. 69. In-Season • Very little is necessary • HIIT + speed training may help preserve
  70. 70. WORK CAPACITY is often overlooked but plays an important role in developing speed & power Body Weight Strength General Endurance Circuits Weight Circuits Kettlebell Complexes Med Ball Circuits
  71. 71. Understand Game Requirements Use the Correct Tool for the job Follow Best Practice Session Guidelines Keep the Goal the Goal Consider Logistics. Balance Art & Science.
  72. 72. MIKE@ATHLETICLAB.COM @MIKEYOUNG

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