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Training the
Anaerobic and
Aerobic Energy
Systems
Dr. AMRIT KAUR
Professor ,
MVP college of physiotherapy
• Aerobic respiration During aerobic respiration
your heart and lungs work to supply the
muscles with oxygen.
• The aerobic system is used in moderate to
hard continuous activities.
• The formula for aerobic respiration is: glucose
+ oxygen = Energy + CO2 + H2O
• To help you remember: Extra air = aerobic
respiration
• As long as enough oxygen is supplied to the
muscles you can use the aerobic system.
• Anaerobic respiration glucose + NO oxygen
lactic acid + energy
• During anaerobic respiration the muscles are
NOT supplied with oxygen.
• To help you remember: No air = anaerobic
respiration
• Athletic field events are good examples of
anaerobic exercise.
• These activities use one all-out burst of maximum
effort to complete the event; the time it takes to
complete the attempt is very short.
• The demand for oxygen is so great that the cardiovascular
system does not have time to supply the demand.
• When an athlete stops after a sprint, they continue to
breathe more heavily for a while to take in ‘extra’ oxygen.
This is in order to break down the accumulated lactic acid,
which makes your muscles feel tired.
• The shortage of oxygen is called oxygen debt, and the body
is paying back the oxygen built up during the sprint.
GENERAL TRAINING PRINCIPLES
• Overload Principle
• Specificity Principle
• Individual Differences Principle
• Reversibility Principle
ADAPTATIONS TO EXERCISE TRAINING
Anaerobic System Changes
• Increased levels of anaerobic substrates-increases
in the trained muscle’s resting levels of ATP, PCr, free
creatine, and glycogen, accompanied by an
improvement in muscular strength.
• Increased quantity and activity of key enzymes that
control the anaerobic phase of glucose catabolism-
The most dramatic increases in anaerobic enzyme
function and fiber size occur in fast-twitch muscle
fibers. The changes do not reach the magnitude
observed for oxidative enzymes with aerobic
training.
• Increased capacity to generate high levels of
blood lactate during all-out exercise. Enhanced
lactate producing capacity probably results from
a training-induced increased levels of glycogen
and glycolytic enzymes and improved motivation
and “pain” tolerance to fatiguing exercise.
Aerobic System Changes-
Metabolic Adaptations
• Metabolic Machinery An increase in mitochondrial
size and number in aerobically trained skeletal
muscle improves its capacity to generate ATP by
oxidative phosphorylation.
• Enzymes A twofold increase in the level of aerobic
system enzymes complements the increase in
mitochondrial size and number and coincides with
increased mitochondrial capacity to generate ATP.
These adaptations likely allow the trained person to
sustain a high percentage of aerobic capacity during
prolonged exercise without accumulating blood
lactate
• Fat Catabolism Regular aerobic exercise profoundly
improves ability to oxidize fatty acids, particularly
triacylglycerols stored within active muscle during
steady-rate exercise.
• Lipolysis increases from greater blood flow within
trained muscle and a higher quantity of fat-
mobilizing enzymes from adipocytes and fat-
metabolizing within muscle fibre's enzymes.
• This allows endurance athlete to exercise at a
higher absolute level of submaximal exercise before
experiencing the fatiguing effects of glycogen
depletion compared with an untrained person.
• Carbohydrate Catabolism-Aerobically trained
muscle exhibits an enhanced capacity to oxidize
carbohydrate. A trained muscle’s greater
mitochondrial oxidative capacity and increased
glycogen storage contribute to the enhanced
capacity for carbohydrate breakdown.
• Increased carbohydrate catabolism during
intense aerobic exercise serves two important
functions:
• 1. Provides a considerably faster aerobic energy
transfer than from fat breakdown
• 2. Liberates about 6% more energy than fat per
quantity of oxygen consumed
• Muscle Fiber Type and Size-
Highly trained endurance athletes have larger
slow- than fast-twitch fiber in the same muscle.
Conversely, for athletes trained in anaerobic-
power activities, fast-twitch fibers occupy more
of the muscles’ cross-sectional area.
Cardiovascular Adaptations
• Heart Size-Long-term aerobic training generally
increases the heart’s mass and volume with greater
left ventricular enddiastolic volumes during rest and
exercise. This enlargement, characterized by increased
size of the left ventricular cavity (eccentric
hypertrophy) and modest thickening of its walls
(concentric hypertrophy), improves the heart’s stroke
volume.
• Plasma Volume -Only four training sessions increase
plasma volume up to 20%. This adaptation enhances
circulatory and thermoregulatory dynamics and
facilitates oxygen delivery to muscle during exercise.
The rapid increase in plasma volume with aerobic
training also contributes to training induced eccentric
hypertrophy with concomitant increases in stroke
volume.
• Stroke Volume-An endurance athlete’s heart has a
considerably larger stroke volume at rest and during
exercise than an untrained person of similar age.
• Heart Rate-decrease HR at rest. A linear
relationship between heart rate and oxygen uptake
exists for both groups throughout the major portion
of the exercise range. As exercise intensity
increases, the heart rates of the athletes accelerate
to a lesser extent than untrained adults;
• Oxygen Extraction-Aerobic training increases the
maximum quantity of oxygen extracted from
arterial blood during exercise.
• Blood Flow and Distribution-Three factors explain
why aerobic training causes large increases in
muscle blood flow during maximal exercise:
1. Improvements in maximum cardiac output
2. Redistribution (shunting) of blood from non-
active areas
• 3. Increased capillarization within the trained
muscle tissues
• Blood Pressure-Aerobic exercise training decreases
systolic and diastolic blood pressures during rest
and submaximal exercise.
• A training-induced reduction in sympathetic
nervous system hormones (catecholamines)
contributes to the lowering effect of regular
exercise on blood pressure, perhaps via a reduction
in peripheral vascular resistance to blood flow.
Exercise training also facilitates the kidneys’
elimination of sodium, which subsequently reduces
fluid volume and blood pressure
Pulmonary Adaptations
• Maximal Exercise-
Improvements in maximal oxygen uptake with
training increase maximal exercise minute
ventilation. This adaptation makes sense
physiologically because improved aerobic capacity
reflects larger oxygen utilization and the need to
eliminate greater quantities of carbon dioxide by
increased alveolar ventilation.
• Submaximal Exercise-Exercise training improves the
ability to sustain high levels of submaximal
ventilation.
• For example, 20 weeks of regular run training
increased the endurance of ventilatory muscles by
16% in healthy adult men and women. Less lactate
accumulated during submaximal breathing exercise,
probably from the increase in aerobic enzyme levels
in the ventilatory musculature.
• Enhanced ventilatory endurance reduces the feeling
of breathlessness and pulmonary discomfort
frequently experienced by untrained persons who
perform prolonged submaximal exercise
• The precise mechanism for the reduced
ventilatory equivalent during submaximal
exercise after training remains unresolved In
general, tidal volume increases, breathing
frequency decreases, and air remains in the
lungs for a longer time interval between breaths.
Slower breathing increases the amount of
oxygen the alveoli extracts from the inspired air
volume.
• Blood Lactate Concentration-effect of endurance
training in lowering blood lactate levels and
extending exercise duration before onset of blood
lactate accumulation (OBLA) during exercise of
increasing intensity. The explanation underlying
this effect centers on three possibilities related to
central and peripheral adaptations to training
1. Decreased rate of lactate formation during
exercise
2. Increased rate of lactate clearance (removal)
during exercise
3. Combined effects of decreased lactate clearance
and increased lactate removal
• Body Composition Changes-For overfat or
borderline overfat people, regular aerobic
exercise reduces body mass and body fat.
Increases in fatfree body mass also
accompany a regular program of resistance
training.
• Exercise only, or exercise combined with
calorie restriction, reduces body fat more than
fat lost with only dieting because exercise
conserves the body’s lean tissue mass.
• Temperature Regulation Well-hydrated,
aerobically trained individuals exercise more
comfortably in hot environments because of a
larger plasma volume and more-responsive
thermoregulatory mechanisms.
• Trained men and women dissipate heat faster
and more effectively than untrained persons
• Psychologic Benefits Regular exercise, either
aerobic or resistance training produces
psychologic benefits regardless of age.
FACTORS AFFECTING THE AEROBIC
TRAINING RESPONSE
• Initial Level of Cardiorespiratory Fitness
• Training Frequency-In general, a training
response occurs with exercise performed at
least three times weekly for at least 6 weeks.
• Training Duration
• Training Intensity
• Genes
FORMULATING AN AEROBIC
TRAINING PROGRAM
General Guidelines
• Start slowly.
• Allow a warm-up period
• Allow a cool-down period
METHODS OF TRAINING
• Anaerobic Training
• The Intramuscular High-Energy Phosphates-
Engaging specific muscles in repeated 5- to 10-secon
maximum bursts of effort overloads the phosphagen
pool.
• The intramuscular high-energy phosphates supply
energy for intense but brief exercise, so little lactate
accumulates, and recovery progresses rapidly.
• Thus, exercise can begin again after about a 30-
second rest. Brief, all-out exercise interspersed with
recovery represents a specific application of interval
training for anaerobic conditioning.
• The activities selected to enhance ATP–PCr energy
transfer capacity must engage the specific muscles at
the movement speed and power output for which
the athlete desires improved anaerobic power
(specificity principl ).
• Lactate-Generating Capacity-As the duration of
maximal effort extends beyond 10 seconds,
dependence on anaerobic energy from the
intramuscular high-energy phosphates decreases,
with a proportionate increase in anaerobic energy
transfer from anaerobic glycolysis.
• To improve energy transfer capacity by the short-
term lactic acid energy system, training must
overload this aspect of energy metabolism.
• Repeated bouts of up to 1-minute maximum
exercise stopped 30 seconds before subjective
feelings of exhaustion cause blood lactate to
increase to near-maximum levels.
• The individual repeats each exercise bout after
3 to 5 minutes of recovery. Repetition of
exercise causes “lactate stacking,” which results
in a higher blood lactate level than with just one
bout of exhaustive effort.
• As with all training regimens, one must exercise
the specific muscle group that require enhanced
lactate-producing capacity
Aerobic Training
• Continuous Training Continuous long slow
distance (LSD) training requires sustained,
steady-rate aerobic exercise.Because of its
submaximal nature, exercise continues for
considerable time in relative comfort.
• This makes LSD training ideal for people
beginning an exercise program or wanting to
enhance calorie burning to reduce excess
body fat.
• Interval Training-Interval exercise training
simulates this variation in energy transfer
intensity through specific spacing of exercise and
rest periods. continuously.
• Rest-to-exercise intervals vary from a few
seconds to several minutes depending on the
energy system(s) overloaded.
• Four factors formulate the interval training
prescription:
• 1. Intensity of exercise interval
• 2. Duration of exercise interval
• 3. Duration of recovery interval
• 4. Repetitions of exercise-recovery interval
• Fartlek Training-Fartlek training workouts do not
require systematic manipulation of exercise and
relief intervals in contrast tothe precise exercise-
interval training prescription.
• In fartlek, the performer determines the training
schema based on “how it feels” at the time, in a
way similar to gauging exercise intensity based on
one’s rating of perceived exertion.
• If used properly, this method will overload one or
all of the energy systems.
• Fartlek training provides an ideal means of
general conditioning and off-season training, but
it lacks the systematic quantified approache of
interval and continuous training.

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Aerobic and anaerobic

  • 1. Training the Anaerobic and Aerobic Energy Systems Dr. AMRIT KAUR Professor , MVP college of physiotherapy
  • 2. • Aerobic respiration During aerobic respiration your heart and lungs work to supply the muscles with oxygen. • The aerobic system is used in moderate to hard continuous activities. • The formula for aerobic respiration is: glucose + oxygen = Energy + CO2 + H2O • To help you remember: Extra air = aerobic respiration
  • 3. • As long as enough oxygen is supplied to the muscles you can use the aerobic system.
  • 4. • Anaerobic respiration glucose + NO oxygen lactic acid + energy • During anaerobic respiration the muscles are NOT supplied with oxygen. • To help you remember: No air = anaerobic respiration
  • 5. • Athletic field events are good examples of anaerobic exercise. • These activities use one all-out burst of maximum effort to complete the event; the time it takes to complete the attempt is very short.
  • 6. • The demand for oxygen is so great that the cardiovascular system does not have time to supply the demand. • When an athlete stops after a sprint, they continue to breathe more heavily for a while to take in ‘extra’ oxygen. This is in order to break down the accumulated lactic acid, which makes your muscles feel tired. • The shortage of oxygen is called oxygen debt, and the body is paying back the oxygen built up during the sprint.
  • 7.
  • 8. GENERAL TRAINING PRINCIPLES • Overload Principle • Specificity Principle • Individual Differences Principle • Reversibility Principle
  • 9.
  • 10.
  • 11. ADAPTATIONS TO EXERCISE TRAINING Anaerobic System Changes • Increased levels of anaerobic substrates-increases in the trained muscle’s resting levels of ATP, PCr, free creatine, and glycogen, accompanied by an improvement in muscular strength. • Increased quantity and activity of key enzymes that control the anaerobic phase of glucose catabolism- The most dramatic increases in anaerobic enzyme function and fiber size occur in fast-twitch muscle fibers. The changes do not reach the magnitude observed for oxidative enzymes with aerobic training.
  • 12. • Increased capacity to generate high levels of blood lactate during all-out exercise. Enhanced lactate producing capacity probably results from a training-induced increased levels of glycogen and glycolytic enzymes and improved motivation and “pain” tolerance to fatiguing exercise.
  • 13. Aerobic System Changes- Metabolic Adaptations • Metabolic Machinery An increase in mitochondrial size and number in aerobically trained skeletal muscle improves its capacity to generate ATP by oxidative phosphorylation. • Enzymes A twofold increase in the level of aerobic system enzymes complements the increase in mitochondrial size and number and coincides with increased mitochondrial capacity to generate ATP. These adaptations likely allow the trained person to sustain a high percentage of aerobic capacity during prolonged exercise without accumulating blood lactate
  • 14. • Fat Catabolism Regular aerobic exercise profoundly improves ability to oxidize fatty acids, particularly triacylglycerols stored within active muscle during steady-rate exercise. • Lipolysis increases from greater blood flow within trained muscle and a higher quantity of fat- mobilizing enzymes from adipocytes and fat- metabolizing within muscle fibre's enzymes. • This allows endurance athlete to exercise at a higher absolute level of submaximal exercise before experiencing the fatiguing effects of glycogen depletion compared with an untrained person.
  • 15. • Carbohydrate Catabolism-Aerobically trained muscle exhibits an enhanced capacity to oxidize carbohydrate. A trained muscle’s greater mitochondrial oxidative capacity and increased glycogen storage contribute to the enhanced capacity for carbohydrate breakdown. • Increased carbohydrate catabolism during intense aerobic exercise serves two important functions: • 1. Provides a considerably faster aerobic energy transfer than from fat breakdown • 2. Liberates about 6% more energy than fat per quantity of oxygen consumed
  • 16. • Muscle Fiber Type and Size- Highly trained endurance athletes have larger slow- than fast-twitch fiber in the same muscle. Conversely, for athletes trained in anaerobic- power activities, fast-twitch fibers occupy more of the muscles’ cross-sectional area.
  • 17.
  • 18. Cardiovascular Adaptations • Heart Size-Long-term aerobic training generally increases the heart’s mass and volume with greater left ventricular enddiastolic volumes during rest and exercise. This enlargement, characterized by increased size of the left ventricular cavity (eccentric hypertrophy) and modest thickening of its walls (concentric hypertrophy), improves the heart’s stroke volume. • Plasma Volume -Only four training sessions increase plasma volume up to 20%. This adaptation enhances circulatory and thermoregulatory dynamics and facilitates oxygen delivery to muscle during exercise. The rapid increase in plasma volume with aerobic training also contributes to training induced eccentric hypertrophy with concomitant increases in stroke volume.
  • 19. • Stroke Volume-An endurance athlete’s heart has a considerably larger stroke volume at rest and during exercise than an untrained person of similar age. • Heart Rate-decrease HR at rest. A linear relationship between heart rate and oxygen uptake exists for both groups throughout the major portion of the exercise range. As exercise intensity increases, the heart rates of the athletes accelerate to a lesser extent than untrained adults;
  • 20. • Oxygen Extraction-Aerobic training increases the maximum quantity of oxygen extracted from arterial blood during exercise. • Blood Flow and Distribution-Three factors explain why aerobic training causes large increases in muscle blood flow during maximal exercise: 1. Improvements in maximum cardiac output 2. Redistribution (shunting) of blood from non- active areas • 3. Increased capillarization within the trained muscle tissues
  • 21. • Blood Pressure-Aerobic exercise training decreases systolic and diastolic blood pressures during rest and submaximal exercise. • A training-induced reduction in sympathetic nervous system hormones (catecholamines) contributes to the lowering effect of regular exercise on blood pressure, perhaps via a reduction in peripheral vascular resistance to blood flow. Exercise training also facilitates the kidneys’ elimination of sodium, which subsequently reduces fluid volume and blood pressure
  • 22. Pulmonary Adaptations • Maximal Exercise- Improvements in maximal oxygen uptake with training increase maximal exercise minute ventilation. This adaptation makes sense physiologically because improved aerobic capacity reflects larger oxygen utilization and the need to eliminate greater quantities of carbon dioxide by increased alveolar ventilation.
  • 23. • Submaximal Exercise-Exercise training improves the ability to sustain high levels of submaximal ventilation. • For example, 20 weeks of regular run training increased the endurance of ventilatory muscles by 16% in healthy adult men and women. Less lactate accumulated during submaximal breathing exercise, probably from the increase in aerobic enzyme levels in the ventilatory musculature. • Enhanced ventilatory endurance reduces the feeling of breathlessness and pulmonary discomfort frequently experienced by untrained persons who perform prolonged submaximal exercise
  • 24. • The precise mechanism for the reduced ventilatory equivalent during submaximal exercise after training remains unresolved In general, tidal volume increases, breathing frequency decreases, and air remains in the lungs for a longer time interval between breaths. Slower breathing increases the amount of oxygen the alveoli extracts from the inspired air volume.
  • 25. • Blood Lactate Concentration-effect of endurance training in lowering blood lactate levels and extending exercise duration before onset of blood lactate accumulation (OBLA) during exercise of increasing intensity. The explanation underlying this effect centers on three possibilities related to central and peripheral adaptations to training 1. Decreased rate of lactate formation during exercise 2. Increased rate of lactate clearance (removal) during exercise 3. Combined effects of decreased lactate clearance and increased lactate removal
  • 26. • Body Composition Changes-For overfat or borderline overfat people, regular aerobic exercise reduces body mass and body fat. Increases in fatfree body mass also accompany a regular program of resistance training. • Exercise only, or exercise combined with calorie restriction, reduces body fat more than fat lost with only dieting because exercise conserves the body’s lean tissue mass.
  • 27. • Temperature Regulation Well-hydrated, aerobically trained individuals exercise more comfortably in hot environments because of a larger plasma volume and more-responsive thermoregulatory mechanisms. • Trained men and women dissipate heat faster and more effectively than untrained persons
  • 28. • Psychologic Benefits Regular exercise, either aerobic or resistance training produces psychologic benefits regardless of age.
  • 29. FACTORS AFFECTING THE AEROBIC TRAINING RESPONSE • Initial Level of Cardiorespiratory Fitness • Training Frequency-In general, a training response occurs with exercise performed at least three times weekly for at least 6 weeks. • Training Duration • Training Intensity • Genes
  • 30. FORMULATING AN AEROBIC TRAINING PROGRAM General Guidelines • Start slowly. • Allow a warm-up period • Allow a cool-down period
  • 31. METHODS OF TRAINING • Anaerobic Training • The Intramuscular High-Energy Phosphates- Engaging specific muscles in repeated 5- to 10-secon maximum bursts of effort overloads the phosphagen pool. • The intramuscular high-energy phosphates supply energy for intense but brief exercise, so little lactate accumulates, and recovery progresses rapidly. • Thus, exercise can begin again after about a 30- second rest. Brief, all-out exercise interspersed with recovery represents a specific application of interval training for anaerobic conditioning.
  • 32. • The activities selected to enhance ATP–PCr energy transfer capacity must engage the specific muscles at the movement speed and power output for which the athlete desires improved anaerobic power (specificity principl ). • Lactate-Generating Capacity-As the duration of maximal effort extends beyond 10 seconds, dependence on anaerobic energy from the intramuscular high-energy phosphates decreases, with a proportionate increase in anaerobic energy transfer from anaerobic glycolysis. • To improve energy transfer capacity by the short- term lactic acid energy system, training must overload this aspect of energy metabolism.
  • 33. • Repeated bouts of up to 1-minute maximum exercise stopped 30 seconds before subjective feelings of exhaustion cause blood lactate to increase to near-maximum levels. • The individual repeats each exercise bout after 3 to 5 minutes of recovery. Repetition of exercise causes “lactate stacking,” which results in a higher blood lactate level than with just one bout of exhaustive effort. • As with all training regimens, one must exercise the specific muscle group that require enhanced lactate-producing capacity
  • 34. Aerobic Training • Continuous Training Continuous long slow distance (LSD) training requires sustained, steady-rate aerobic exercise.Because of its submaximal nature, exercise continues for considerable time in relative comfort. • This makes LSD training ideal for people beginning an exercise program or wanting to enhance calorie burning to reduce excess body fat.
  • 35. • Interval Training-Interval exercise training simulates this variation in energy transfer intensity through specific spacing of exercise and rest periods. continuously. • Rest-to-exercise intervals vary from a few seconds to several minutes depending on the energy system(s) overloaded. • Four factors formulate the interval training prescription: • 1. Intensity of exercise interval • 2. Duration of exercise interval • 3. Duration of recovery interval • 4. Repetitions of exercise-recovery interval
  • 36. • Fartlek Training-Fartlek training workouts do not require systematic manipulation of exercise and relief intervals in contrast tothe precise exercise- interval training prescription. • In fartlek, the performer determines the training schema based on “how it feels” at the time, in a way similar to gauging exercise intensity based on one’s rating of perceived exertion. • If used properly, this method will overload one or all of the energy systems. • Fartlek training provides an ideal means of general conditioning and off-season training, but it lacks the systematic quantified approache of interval and continuous training.