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• How does training affect performance? (Energy Systems,
Types of Training, Principles of Training, Adaptations to
Trainin...
• Examine the relationship between body temperature
regulation and fluid intake 2002, 2005, 2009,2011,2012
• Evaluate how ...
For highly active people, in hot weather, fluid loss can
increase significantly. Too little fluid intake can impact
perspi...
If you don't drink enough, you will become dehydrated and
your body's total blood volume will drop. Because the heart
has ...
WHAT ARE YOUR HYDRATION
RECOOMENDATIONS?
Stages of Skill of Acquisition
Evaluate how both rates of skill acquisition and the
learning environment affect physical p...
The learning environment can refer to:
• The nature of skill: closed v open, gross v fine, discrete,
serial, continuous , ...
Analyse the physiological adaptations that occur when an
untrained individual undertakes a 20 week aerobic training
progra...
Factor` Description
Increase or
decrease Reason
Resting Heart
Rate
• measured in beats per minute
•At rest, delivers blood...
Factor` Description
Increase or
decrease Reason
Haemoglobin
Level
•Haemoglobin is the protein of blood carrying the oxygen...
Explain how FOUR of the principles of training can be
used to develop aerobic fitness.
Principles of Training
Principles of
Training
Progressive
Overload
The principle of
progressive overload
implies that a tr...
Explain how FOUR of the principles of training can be
used to develop aerobic fitness.
• Choose 4 principles that relate t...
Analyse the psychological strategies athletes could
employ to enhance performance
Concentration: ability to focus on task
...
But how do they enhance performance?
Concentration: allows you to be ‘in the zone’, clears distractions,
allows you to foc...
• Describe recovery strategies used to improve
performance?
• Discuss the effectiveness of the use of
supplementation to i...
2017 Popular Core 2 HSC Questions
2017 Popular Core 2 HSC Questions
2017 Popular Core 2 HSC Questions
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2017 Popular Core 2 HSC Questions

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Outline of common questions asked in HSC examinations and how to tackle them.

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2017 Popular Core 2 HSC Questions

  1. 1. • How does training affect performance? (Energy Systems, Types of Training, Principles of Training, Adaptations to Training) • How can psychology affect performance? (Motivations) • How can nutrition and recovery strategies affect performance? (Carb Loading, supplements, recovery strategies) • How does the acquisition of skill affect performance? (Stages of skill acquisition, characteristics of learners, nature of skills)
  2. 2. • Examine the relationship between body temperature regulation and fluid intake 2002, 2005, 2009,2011,2012 • Evaluate how both rates of skill acquisition and the learning environment affect physical performance. 2007, 2008, 2010 • Analyse the physiological adaptations that occur when an untrained individual undertakes a 20 week aerobic training program 2003, 2005, 2009,2010,2011 trial • Explain how FOUR of the principles of training can be used to develop aerobic fitness. 2005, 2007, 2009,2010 • Analyse the psychological strategies athletes could employ to enhance performance 2003, 2004, 2007,2012
  3. 3. For highly active people, in hot weather, fluid loss can increase significantly. Too little fluid intake can impact perspiration (heat loss) and can leads to overheating & heat related physiological damage (heat stress, heat cramps, heat rash, dizziness, heat stoke, fainting). What about in the COLD: We lose a lot of fluid in cold weather through respiration (breathing out). Our bodies are working hard carrying the weight of layers of clothing and sweat evaporates quickly. As it is not hot, we don’t FEEL thirsty. And therefore do not replenish our fluid levels as regularly leading to dehydration. Examine the relationship between body temperature regulation and fluid intake
  4. 4. If you don't drink enough, you will become dehydrated and your body's total blood volume will drop. Because the heart has access to less blood, it has to pump faster to circulate the same amount of blood - and your heart rate will rise. If you don't replace the lost fluids by drinking, your heart rate will increase, and your ability to perform will decrease rapidly. So drinking fluids during exercise has several benefits: • Fights dehydration • Offsets body temperature increase (regulates temperature) • Minimises cardiovascular stress Examine the relationship between body temperature regulation and fluid intake
  5. 5. WHAT ARE YOUR HYDRATION RECOOMENDATIONS?
  6. 6. Stages of Skill of Acquisition Evaluate how both rates of skill acquisition and the learning environment affect physical performance. Cognitve: mental processing of information, requires visual cues & demonstrations, lots of mistakes Associative: connecting ideas, learnt skill but requires practice, smaller errors, requires feedback Autonomous: in full control of actions, automatic. Execution is sequenced and instinctive. Practice that simulates competition environment is essential.
  7. 7. The learning environment can refer to: • The nature of skill: closed v open, gross v fine, discrete, serial, continuous , self-paced v external paced • Performance elements: Game-centre approach, decision- making, strategy & tactic • Practice Method: Massed v Distributed, Whole v Part • Feedback: internal v extrinsic, concurrent v delayed, KR v KP Can you match these to the stages of acquisition??
  8. 8. Analyse the physiological adaptations that occur when an untrained individual undertakes a 20 week aerobic training program When an athlete begins participates in regular aerobic training the body begins to adapt physically to the demands placed upon it. These adaptations allow the body to function more comfortably at existing levels of stress and respond more efficiently to new levels of stress. This makes the body more efficient and capable of more work. Many of the changes occur in the cardiorespiratory system and lead to an improved ability to deliver oxygen to working muscles.
  9. 9. Factor` Description Increase or decrease Reason Resting Heart Rate • measured in beats per minute •At rest, delivers blood to body •Amount of oxygen needed is determined by BMR •Your resting heart rate will fall as your body adapts to the training program. •Heart rate will be lower during sub max work •Main reason for the fall is due to higher stroke volume •This allows more blood to be pumped every beat... Therefore, more oxygen is delivered with fewer beats. •Interestingly, athletes often have lower max HR Decrease •Trained athlete has more efficient cardiovascular system •Some pro athletes have resting HR as low as 35 per min. Stroke Volume and Cardiac Output •Stroke Volume Amount of blood that leaves the left ventricle in 1 beat •Body needs oxygen rich blood to muscles during exercise •The more blood that a person pushes out, the more work they can do because of more oxygen •Person could exercise faster and longer •Untrained person – 15-20L per min, Trained – 22-30L per min •Cardiac Output is the amount of blood pumped in 1 min Increase •Trained person physically has more blood in body. •Ventricles are more powerful and elastic to pump more/faster Oxygen Uptake and Lung Capacity •Oxygen uptake is the amount of oxygen absorbed into the blood stream during exercise. •Oxygen uptake is measured in litres per minute •If more oxygen reaches the working muscles, the muscles can work harder and longer. •Lung Capacity is the amount of air that can move in and out of the lungs during a single breath. Increase •Number of breathes can be increased •Max breathing rates increase from 40-50 per min •Size of the lungs significantly increase, allowing for more oxygen •Total amount of air breathed in during exercise increases •Number of capillaries will increase with training allowing more oxygen to be absorbed.
  10. 10. Factor` Description Increase or decrease Reason Haemoglobin Level •Haemoglobin is the protein of blood carrying the oxygen in red blood cells •Its main function is to absorb oxygen into blood stream •Plays a role in removing Co2 also. •Haemoglobin levels can be increased with altitude training. Increase •When training occurs, body becomes short of oxygen •Body adapts to this by producing more blood cells Muscle Hypertrophy •Refers to the increase of diameter of muscle. Muscle length stays the same, but muscle enlarges. •Muscle atrophy is the opposite to hypertrophy (gets smaller) Increase After training, muscles are able to contract with a greater force. This improves strength and power related sports. Effect on Slow/Fast twitch Fibres •Slow twitch are red – they contain large number of capillaries and produce large amounts of ATP slowly. Good for sports such as marathons •Fast Twitch are white – contain few capillaries and rapidly generate ATP anaerobically. Good for sports such as weightlifting and sprinting. Depends on training •Endurance training encourages slow twitch fibres to develop because it allows body to make more capillaries, allowing for more oxygen to be transported around the body.
  11. 11. Explain how FOUR of the principles of training can be used to develop aerobic fitness.
  12. 12. Principles of Training Principles of Training Progressive Overload The principle of progressive overload implies that a training effect is produced when the system or tissue is worked at a greater level that it is normally accustomed to working Reversibility Principal of training states that the effects of training are reversible Warm up & Cool down Warming up and cooling down are important components of all training and performance sessions. The warm up aims to prepare the body in readiness for the activity Variety The principle of variety states that athletes need to be challenged by not only the activity but also by the implementation of the activities Training Threshold The principle of training thresholds relates to levels of exercise intensity that are sufficient to produce a training effect. Specificity The principle of specificity implies that the greatest gains are made when activity in the training program replicates the movements in the game or activity.
  13. 13. Explain how FOUR of the principles of training can be used to develop aerobic fitness. • Choose 4 principles that relate to aerobic training • Give specific examples of activities • Must enhance aerobic capacity • Relate to physiological adaptations
  14. 14. Analyse the psychological strategies athletes could employ to enhance performance Concentration: ability to focus on task at hand Mental rehearsal: picturing performance before executing it Relaxation techniques: techniques to control the body’s response to stress Goal setting: targets that direct effort (must be SMART)
  15. 15. But how do they enhance performance? Concentration: allows you to be ‘in the zone’, clears distractions, allows you to focus on execution (doing) Mental rehearsal: provide clear idea of what is to be done, heightens concentration, narrows thoughts on task Relaxation techniques: allows athlete to reach optimal arousal eg. meditation, self-talk, centred breathing. Goal setting: provides focus, can be measured, gives feedback.
  16. 16. • Describe recovery strategies used to improve performance? • Discuss the effectiveness of the use of supplementation to improve performance? • Analyse the use of feedback to improve an athlete’s performance? • Outline the features of the alactacid (ATP/PC) and the lactic acid energy systems

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