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HSC PDHPE Option 1: Health of Young People

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Class of 2017: Updated PowerPoint of content covered in class with current data.

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HSC PDHPE Option 1: Health of Young People

  1. 1. 1) What is good health for young people? 2) To what extent do Australia’s young people enjoy good health? 3) What skills and actions enable young people to attain better health?
  2. 2. What is good health for young people?
  3. 3. Young people are considered to be individuals aged between 12 – 24 years of age. Between these ages, the individual makes the transition from child to adult, the life stage known as adolescence. Adolescence is characterised by rapid physical growth and is accompanied by emotional, mental and social maturation. As teenagers’ bodies reach adult proportions, their ability to think and reason becomes more developed. This is often when values are clarified and, after puberty, when adult sexual urges begin. Name the changes for males and females during puberty?
  4. 4. Society generally regards adolescents as relatively inexperienced in life, so they are not always given the opportunity to make decisions for themselves. Adolescents’ rapid mood swings, attributed mainly to changes in hormones, might also arise out of the frustration of feeling like adults but not being in full control of their lives. This can lead to experimentation with risk taking behaviour. In response to this behaviour society often enforces limits on their behaviours. For example, the high number of premature deaths due to driving with excessive speed has led to the government amending the law to protect adolescents from harm. For example, P-plater hours, speed limits and vehicle limits. The difficulties encountered during adolescence do, however, have a benefit in that they give adolescents experience in dealing with problems and developing skills that improve resilience
  5. 5. Define the following: •Adolescence •Puberty •Hormones •Resilience
  6. 6. Key Term Definition Adolescence Transition period between childhood and adulthood Puberty A stage in the life cycle when rapid physical changes occur that signify that a person has reached sexual maturity. Hormones Chemical messengers in the body. They are essential for physical growth and maintenance. Resilience The ability to ‘bounce back’ after difficult times or bad experiences
  7. 7. CASE STUDY: P-PLATE MOBILE DEVICE BAN An example of the Government’s response to adolescent behaviour & risk taking are the new Learner, P1 and P2 licence holders are not permitted to use a mobile phone at all while driving or riding law. This includes when waiting at traffic lights or stuck in traffic. You must be parked out of the line of traffic to use your phone in any way. These laws encourage learner and provisional drivers and riders to concentrate on developing their vehicle control and hazard-perception skills. Mobile phone use can distract novice drivers and riders from the driving task. Learner and P1 drivers and riders penalised for illegally using a mobile phone (four demerit points) will exceed their demerit point threshold and face a three-month licence suspension. P2 drivers and riders will have three demerit points remaining if they are penalised for illegally using a mobile phone. This includes: GPS, playing music
  8. 8. NSW 2015 road toll was the highest in three years.
  9. 9. STATS DON’T LIE • Crash data from 2010 to 2014 showed there were 236 crashes where hand-held mobile phone use by drivers was identified as a contributing factor. This included seven fatal crashes and 116 injury crashes. • These crash numbers are considered to be under-reported because of the difficulty of finding evidence of illegal mobile phone use at crash scenes. This suggests the size of the problem could be much greater. • From July 2014 to June 2015, more than 35,300 fines were issued to drivers in NSW for using hand-held mobile phones, showing the problem is still prevalent.
  10. 10. CASE STUDY: P-PLATE MOBILE DEVICE BAN • Watch link: http://www.smh.com.au/nsw/all- pplaters-banned-from-using-phone-gps- directions-while-driving-20160725- gqd21g.html •AUSTRALIA: http://bit.ly/2mRWF6N •NEW ZEALAND: http://bit.ly/1SaHC5r •UK: http://bit.ly/2lM95Mv •USA: http://bit.ly/1JbQW2M
  11. 11. The impact Australia’s health promotion response to ‘mobile phone usage whilst driving’ that of one other country.
  12. 12. MIND MAP TIME • For the next few slides: • LISTEN • MIND MAP CONCEPTS
  13. 13. Although we can group young people under the one label, they are in fact a diverse group in terms of characteristics and backgrounds: •Rate of physical development: individuals mature at different rates, with rapid growth spurts affecting some individuals earlier than others. A young person’s physical maturity may not always match be matched by emotional maturity. •Level of motivation: A person’s level of motivation is a result of their mental attitude and their emotional maturity. These can be affected by life experiences, family values and self esteem. •Socioeconomic Background: distribution of wealth impacts the opportunities young people have made available to them. •Sociocultural Background: multicultural nature of Australian society means that a variety of customs, beliefs, and traditions influence young people’s lifestyles.
  14. 14. Although we can group young people under the one label, they are in fact a diverse group in terms of characteristics and backgrounds: •Rate of physical development: individuals mature at different rates, with rapid growth spurts affecting some individuals earlier than others. A young person’s physical maturity may not always match be matched by emotional maturity. •Level of motivation: A person’s level of motivation is a result of their mental attitude and their emotional maturity. These can be affected by life experiences, family values and self esteem. •Socioeconomic Background: distribution of wealth impacts the opportunities young people have made available to them. •Sociocultural Background: multicultural nature of Australian society means that a variety of customs, beliefs, and traditions influence young people’s lifestyles.
  15. 15. Family & Peers The influence of family can differ for young people in Australia. For example, some families place a strong emphasis on the obligations to care for the elderly relatives or younger siblings. Communication and shared respect between parents and sons or daughters becomes important in dealing with issues that arise during adolescence. Influences of the peer group grows during adolescence due to increased time spent with peers, influences can be either: •Positive: when peers support each other in not smoking •Negative: when they encourage each other to take risks on the road.
  16. 16. The influence of prevailing youth cultures Historically, as young people search for identity, youth cultures based on similar language, interests, dress and music have been developed. In some cases the media has escalated these cultures to broad popularity, e.g. hippies in the 60s. Whereas others may be local youth cultures that take hold with smaller groups of young people. The youth age group has always had a culture of its own that makes it unique from other age groups. Within youth culture there are a variety of different subcultures or subgroups that have their own distinct identity, for example skate culture, surf culture and emos. These groups satisfy a young person's need to belong that is of great importance during adolescence.
  17. 17. Youth cultures can be a powerful influence on the behaviour of young people because these groups: •confirm a young person's identity •enable a young person to express their feelings about the world around them •are a way for a young person to resist the established order •create a language and lifestyle to live by for young people - excluding adults and non-members •dictate behaviour, looks, styles that identifies themselves to society.
  18. 18. Other influences of Young People You will be given 20 minutes. No more, no less. You need to research the given influence on Young People and explain: 1.Influence on Young People 2.Influence on Young People’s health 3.Positive Impact v Negative Impact 4.Strategies to cope with the influence Produce a 1 A4 page document (one-sided) that outlines the above information PRESENT INFORMATION TO CLASS
  19. 19. Influence of global events and trends Globalisation has been recognised as a significant issue that affects young people. Modern communication and technology has meant world events and world influences are closer to our lives than ever before. Globalisation, technological advances and improved communication will strongly influence how young people view the world and hence their health. Young people are often involved in forums and debates around issues relevant to their health, for example changes to driving restrictions or the 2020 summit to gather ideas for creating a sense of future for young people.
  20. 20. Examples of global events and trends that may influence the lives of young people include fashion, climate change, world economic downturn, recreational activities, music, sports, the influence of other cultures, fast food availability, advances in technology (iphones, mp3 players, and multimedia) and greater access to communication (internet).
  21. 21. Influence of technology There have been rapid advances in communications technology over thelast few decades that have resulted in wide use of the internet, email, blogs, mobile phones, Mp3 players, games and social networking mediums such as Facebook and Twitter. These new technologies have great social, economic and personal benefits for young people. Young people have far greater access to global information than their parents did. Most young people are more skilled at using new technologies than other age groups and often manage to negotiate the challenges technology presents in an easier manner.
  22. 22. The advances in technology and excessive use by young people can also have negative impacts on the health of young people. Young people who do not use technology, either through choice or lack of access may become increasingly isolated as the importance of technology continues to grow.
  23. 23. Health Status of infants & young children Health status of people aged 65 years The major factors affecting the health of young children and infants (aged from birth to 14 years) are: • congenital malformations • accidents and injuries • perinatal (around the time of birth) conditions • juvenile diabetes. • infections and parasitic diseases The main conditions resulting in hospitalisations of this age group are: • boys aged 1–4 — diseases of the ear and mastoid process, acute respiratory infections and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) • girls aged 1–4 — diseases of the ear and mastoid process • boys aged 5–14 — fractures, dislocations, sprains and strains • girls aged 5–14 — upper respiratory diseases. The leading causes of death are cancer, cardiovascular disease and stroke. Older people are living longer and some health problems are associated with longevity (the longer life span). The most common general health problems experienced by the elderly are: • arthritis • vision and hearing problems • hypertension • circulatory diseases • dementia. The elderly population continues to have higher rates of hospitalisation than other age groups and they tend to stay in hospital for longer periods.
  24. 24. Effects of the determinants of health on young people • As a result of the trend towards permanent part-time or casual work, young people can no longer rely on guaranteed full-time work throughout their lifetime. Being employed allows young people to achieve a sense of identity and a feeling of being valued by the community. • When this is not achieved, young people’s self-esteem can be damaged. Society encourages a strong work ethic, but young people unable to find work for a long time may be stereotyped as ‘dole bludgers’. Young people often negatively react to labelling either withdrawing from society or developing unhealthy practices such as smoking and drinking, or loses interest in participating in physical activities. These behaviours contribute to the onset of depression. Socioeconomic Status Employment
  25. 25. Effects of the determinants of health on young people • Many young people, either while they are still in full- time study or after leaving school, take on relatively unskilled jobs in fast-food outlets, service industries or as machine operators. These jobs have the potential for accidents and in some there is a risk of serious injury. Food outlets are often open late, which means the chance of fatigue-related accidents is increased. • Young people who find employment also find independence from the family does mean that young people are forced to become more resilient and to develop teamwork skills to survive. Socioeconomic Status Employment
  26. 26. Effects of the determinants of health on young people Each student will be given a determinant to analyse. You need to read through the information 1)Summarise information to 3-4 key dot points 2)Identify the health determinant area 3)Create 1-2 slides 4)Explain the determinant to the class in 1-2 minutes. Activity
  27. 27. REVIEW: UPS & DOWN Mortality & Morbidity •Identify three positive trends and three negative trends for the health of young people
  28. 28. REVIEW: DETERMINANT IMPACT On your coloured square, •Identify the determinant you studied •State its impact on the health of young people
  29. 29. The very first relationship we have is with our parents, followed by other family members and friends. This relationship has a permanent influence and may be positive and nurturing, or negative and abusive. The role an individual plays in a relationship varies according to age, gender, attitudes, expectations and type of personality. A family’s cultural and religious traditions also have a bearing on this role. If circumstances force separation within a family, a young person may feel compelled to take on an added role of father (protector) or mother (nurturer) in the family, resulting in role overload. During adolescence, a young person continues to be a son or daughter to their parents, but the role and expectations in the family might change. Increasing age is usually met with an increasing level of responsibility
  30. 30. A young person might be expected to take on the role of carer for siblings or relatives, or to help maintain the household. They may appear to be ready according to age, but they may be emotionally unprepared, which can cause stress. This stress can be intensified if the division between their roles becomes blurred. This is called ‘role ambiguity’ and is a source of much conflict within some families. Further role conflict arises when adolescents, as they grow older, seek greater independence and a more equal balance of power in the relationship with their parents. Parents are sometimes reluctant to accept that their children are making the transition to adulthood.
  31. 31. This transition involves the development of a greater sexual desire for the opposite sex or possibly the same sex. Friendships become more intimate and the peer group has less importance than one-on-one relationships. If, during a relationship, a pregnancy occurs, then there can be a further change in roles as the young people adopt new roles as father, mother, single parent or wage earner.
  32. 32. Throughout life, there are aspects of development that affect people’s health and their ability to maintain good health. As lives change, individuals make adjustments to their relationships, their self-identity, their feelings of self-worth and their level of autonomy. Self-identity is the picture you have of yourself, and it is made up of your thoughts, feelings, emotions and past experiences. Self-worth is the value a person places on his or her own importance. Autonomy is the freedom to determine one’s own actions or behaviour.
  33. 33. For young people, particularly adolescents, as they develop and go through various challenges their self esteem can similarly go through dips & highs. The roles they take on – daughter, son, sister, brother, friend and so on can also impact their self – identity or how they see themselves. WHAT ROLES DO YOU TAKE ON? Self identity should be seen as dynamic, reflective of life and relationship changes, but more importantly reflective of the environment you are in. For young people, school becomes an important environment where success can promote a positive self identity. IS THIS ALWAYS THE CASE FOR EVERYONE?
  34. 34. People use the following identity markers to make up a description of themselves: •Name: •Age: •Gender: •Sexuality: •Socioeconomic Status: •Job: •Interests: •Religion: •Geographic location: •Ethnicity: •A past experience that influenced your development: USING THE IDENITY MARKERS, CREATE YOUR OWN IDENTITY PROFILE
  35. 35. Exam Structure Section 1: 20 multiple choice questions – 20 marks Section 2: Core 1 & Option 1 – 21 questions worth 80 marks total Includes a mixture of short response, extended response, essay (2 page) Allocating Your Time Use marks as a guide Check your work if time permits
  36. 36. What's Your Strategy? What will you read in reading time? what section will you start first? What core/questions will you do first? What will you do if you draw a blank on a question? Managing Your Time Keep your eyes on the clock Know how much time to spend on each question Use the space provided as a guide to how much you need to write If you are running out of time-write relevant information in point form
  37. 37. Organising Your Answer Identify key words Consider the rubric Plan your answer Write your answer Identifying Key Words Know your syllabus terms Underline the key intent words Underline the key content words
  38. 38. Consider the rubric Your answer will be assessed on how well you: •Demonstrate an understanding of health and physical activity concepts •Apply the skills of critical thinking and analysis •Illustrate your answer with relevant examples •Present ideas in a clear and logical way [8 mark & 12 mark questions]
  39. 39. The better answers tend to: •Have written a plan on the exam paper (this will get marked) •Have answered all parts of the question •Do as the question asks - eg: outline •Have a logical and coherent structure •Provide depth of detail in discussion, which includes accurate and relevant info •Provide logical argument that is supported with relevant examples
  40. 40. The mental health of a young person is enhanced when they are able to achieve self- sufficiency and autonomy. This marks their ‘rite of passage’ to the adult world. Achieving autonomy enhances self-confidence and self-esteem, and a young person's sense of identity becomes more complete. They become responsible for making important decisions about their work, diet and health. The frustration of not having any autonomy leads to some young people, and their families, living with high levels of stress. Activity: Define Self-Sufficiency
  41. 41. A solid education can provide the foundation for achieving personal potential and positive self-esteem. The wide range of options now available creates flexibility in education, reduces the stress for young people, promotes greater self-confidence and enables young people to have a clearer career pathway and be more prepared for work. These options include: •TAFE traineeships, which enable a young person to learn on the job and earn a small income •Australian School-based Apprenticeships, which allow year 11 and 12 students to start an apprenticeship while still at school •VET (Vocational Education and Training), which allows young people to establish links with TAFE and university courses while still at school
  42. 42. • TAFE HSC Pathways, which enable young people to do HSC and TAFE courses over two years and still attain a UAI • part-time work, which allows young people to develop job skills that are transferable to other areas of employment
  43. 43. Personal support structures give assistance in times of stress or trauma. Family and friends often provide the strongest support as they have a vested interest in the individual and the greatest insight into the person. Families can provide personal support structures in the following ways: •financially — setting up a flat, helping with credit card debt, being a guarantor or supporting further education costs •emotionally — giving support when there is a breakdown in a relationship •physically — providing food and accommodation if unemployed or still studying, or care during illness •mentally — helping a young person cope with the stress of exams. •Personal support structures enable a person to cope with stress, allow them to have time out if needed and provide someone to turn to for advice.
  44. 44. Personal support structures enable a person to cope with stress, allow them to have time out if needed and provide someone to turn to for advice. Adolescents who are in a rush to achieve independence risk leaving unresolved conflicts with the family, which can damage their personal support structures. Should their personal support structures fail, they need to seek alternative support through government agencies, community groups or professionals. Because of the high demand for these services, there are limits to the depth and length of support they can offer. The family has the most to gain by promoting the good health of its members.
  45. 45. To what extent do Australia’s young people enjoy good health?
  46. 46. Homework WRITE A 1 PAGE REPORT ANSWERING THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS: 1)Describe the extent of health concern that has an impact on the health of young people 2)Outline risk factors & protective factors for the health concern 3)Describe which health determinants may affect young people experiencing this health concern 4)Evaluate a health promotion strategy aimed at supporting young people & the health concern HEALTH CONCERNS FOR YOUNG PEOPLE • mental health problems and illnesses: depression, self-harm, suicide, anxiety • body image • alcohol consumption • violence • road safety • sexual health • emerging health issues; for example, gambling, cyberbullying, party crashes, drink spiking Activity Must be done for examination preparation. Will be marked.
  47. 47. Major issues affecting Young People HEALTH CONCERNS FOR YOUNG PEOPLE • mental health problems and illnesses: depression, self-harm, suicide, anxiety • body image • alcohol consumption • violence • road safety • sexual health • emerging health issues; for example, gambling, cyberbullying, party crashes, drink spiking Need to be able to explain 1)Describe the extent of health concern that has an impact on the health of young people 2)Outline risk factors & protective factors for the health concern 3)Describe which health determinants may affect young people experiencing this health concern 4)Evaluate a health promotion strategy aimed at supporting young people & the health concern Activity
  48. 48. What skills and actions enable young people to attain better health?
  49. 49. WHY WOULD A POSITIVE SELF CONCEPT HELP YOUNG PEOPLE? Giving someone the responsibility to carry out particular tasks, grows their own confidence in themselves, this is known as self-efficacy. As a result, they have a strong self-worth. This has particular effect for mental health issue such as body image, depression and anxiety. WHY?
  50. 50. When a person feels a sense of belonging to an organisation or group of individuals then they share a common set of values, beliefs and sense of purpose. Young people need to feel they are a valuable resource in their community. WHY?
  51. 51. Identifying the need for support A young person may need their support network when they show the physical, social, mental or emotional symptoms of being unable to cope with circumstances. In the case of stress, a young person may display symptoms that are: •physical — muscle aches, headaches, stomach in knots, fatigue, elevated heart rate, loss of appetite or overeating •social — withdrawal, substance abuse or aggressive behaviour towards others •mental — low self-esteem, inability to concentrate or negative self-talk •emotional — constant feelings of anxiety or fear, rapid mood swings or persistent worrying. WHO IS YOUR SUPPORT NETWORK? RANK YOUR TOP 5
  52. 52. Social action is any deliberate activity aimed at enhancing the well-being of others and oneself by acting collectively and bringing about change Give examples…

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