Ap think lang ss

4,201 views
3,950 views

Published on

Published in: Education, Technology
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
4,201
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
30
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
0
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • Divergent thinking: Thinking in different directions- What is half of 13?; How many uses can you think of for a brick
    Convergent thinking: Creating Multiple solutions trying to find the right one
  • 1. Back to back, 2. all in a row, 3. yy = two wise, 4. $20
  • Mental set: Assume that you are the engineer of a passenger train. (bolt resources p.12)
  • Answer: 59th day
  • Heuristics worksheet: more likely to die from.
  • 1) B 2) A
  • 6000 human languages
  • 10 months – about 18 months lose all phonemes
  • The shooting of the psychologist was terrible.
  • Con against Skinner: How can children make up new sentences without hearing them first?
    Con against Chomsky: How does the LAD work, where is it located?
  • Ap think lang ss

    1. 1. Thinking & Language 1
    2. 2. Learning Objectives • Students will be able to: – Describe how humans organize thoughts. – Distinguish between concepts and prototypes. – Identify different types of thinking. 2
    3. 3. How do we organize thoughts? • We organize thoughts and memories into hierarchies: 3
    4. 4. Concepts v. Prototypes • Concept: The mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, or people. There are a variety of chairs but their common features define the concept of a chair. • Prototype: Best example of a concept – we form concepts with mental images or typical examples (prototypes). For example, a robin is a prototype of a bird, but a penguin is not. 4
    5. 5. Types of Thinking • Convergent Thinking: Deliberate, purposeful thinking that is useful for solving problems with only one correct solution • Divergent Thinking: also known as creative thinking, it follows no set plan and is more useful for solving problems that have multiple solutions in different directions. • Metacognition: Thinking about thinking. Example: thinking about your strategy to solve an algebra problem 5
    6. 6. Learning Objectives in Review • Students will be able to: – Describe how humans organize thoughts. – Distinguish between concepts and prototypes. – Identify different types of thinking. 6
    7. 7. Section Assessment 1. In pairs, develop your own novel concept and prototype pairing. 2. What type of thinking did you use to come with that concept/prototype pair? 7
    8. 8. Learning Objectives • Students will be able to: – Describe the methods humans use to solve problems. – Explain the obstacles people encounter when solving problems. – Describe insight and incubation as it relates to problem-solving. 8
    9. 9. Problem Solving Examples 1. How can you physically stand behind your father while he is standing behind you? 2. What occurred on the 6th of May, 1978 at 12:34PM? 3. Can you translate this: Y Y U R Y Y U B I C U R YY4ME 4. A man bought a horse for $60 and sold it for $70. Then he bought the same horse back for $80 and sold it again for $90. How much money did he make in the horse business? 9
    10. 10. Problem Solving • Algorithms: Methodical, logical rules or procedures that guarantee solving a particular problem. – Algorithms, which are very time consuming, exhaust all possibilities before arriving at a solution. Computers use algorithms. SPLOYOCHYG If we were to unscramble these letters to form a word using an algorithmic approach, we would face 907,208 possibilities. 10
    11. 11. Insight & Incubation • Insight: involves a sudden novel realization of a solution to a problem. Humans and animals have insight. – Example: Wolfgang Kohler & Sultan the Ape • Incubation Effect: Walking away from the problem only to have insight set in • Brain imaging and EEG studies suggest that when an insight strikes (the “Aha” experience), it activates the right temporal cortex • The time between not knowing the solution and realizing it is 0.3 seconds. 11
    12. 12. Obstacles in Problems Solving • • • Confirmation Bias: A tendency to search for information that confirms a personal bias Fixation: An inability to see a problem from a fresh perspective. This impedes problem solving. Two examples of fixation are mental set and functional fixedness. Mental Set: A tendency to approach a problem in a particular way, especially if that way was successful in the past. – Example: O-T-T-F… – Example: J-F-M-A Using these materials, how would you mount the candle on a bulletin board and be able to light it? 12
    13. 13. Working Backwards • Working Backwards is another way to solve problems like this one: The water lilies on the surface of a small pond double in area every 24 hours. From the time the first water lily appears until the pond is completely covered takes 60 days. On what day is half the pond covered in water lilies? 13
    14. 14. Hill-Climbing Problem-Solving • For Fun: Your mission is to rearrange the coins so that each coin touches exactly two others. You are limited to three moves. Each move must entail sliding a coin to a position in which it touches exactly two others, without disturbing any coins. 14
    15. 15. Learning Objectives in Review • Students will be able to: – Describe the methods humans use to solve problems. – Explain the obstacles people encounter when solving problems. – Describe insight and incubation as it relates to problem-solving. 15
    16. 16. Section Assessment • Using the handouts and games provided by the instructor, students will work in groups to solve various brain teasers and puzzles. • Students should be able to discuss with the instructor how the problem-solving terms relate to solving the brain teasers and puzzles. • Complete the problem-solving analysis worksheet on your own paper. 16
    17. 17. Learning Objectives • Students will be able to: – Describe how decision making is affected by framing. – Distinguish between representativeness heuristic and availability heuristic. 17
    18. 18. Decision Making • Framing Effect: Decisions and judgments may be significantly affected depending upon how an issue is framed. “5% fat or 95% fat free” Doctors may use framing effect to help patients elect to do surgeries Other Framing: Condoms have a 95% success rate in stopping HIV infections. (90% college students rate condoms as effective) Condoms have a 5% failure rate (4% rate condoms as effective) 18
    19. 19. How do we make decisions using heuristics? • Heuristics are simple, thinking strategies that allow us to make judgments and solve problems efficiently. Heuristics are less time consuming, but more error-prone than algorithms. (AKA- Rules of Thumb or Shortcuts) – Representativeness Heuristic: Judging the likelihood of things or objects in terms of how well they seem to represent, or match, a particular prototype. – Which would you pick for a six question T/F Test? 1. T T T T T T 2. T T T F F F 3. T F F T T F 19
    20. 20. How do we make decisions using heuristics? • Representativeness Heuristic (con’t) – Tom W. is of high intelligence, although lacking in true creativity. He has a need for order and clarity, and for neat and tidy systems in which every detail finds its appropriate place. His writing is rather dull and mechanical, occasionally enlivened by somewhat corny puns and by flashes of imagination of the sci-fi type. He has a strong drive for competence. He seems to feel little sympathy for other people and does not enjoy interacting with others. Self-centered, he nonetheless has a deep moral sense." – Which major is Tom? Most Popular Majors • Psychology 1. Psychology • Biological Sciences (Pre-Med) 2. Business 3. Biosciences • Education/Teaching 4. Education • Business/Management 9. Engineering • Engineering 20
    21. 21. How do we make decisions using heuristics? • Availability Heuristic – Whatever increases the ease of retrieving information increases its perceived availability. – Is it safer to fly or drive? – 2002-2004 • 34 deaths by plane • 128,000 by car 21
    22. 22. Learning Objectives in Review • Students will be able to: – Describe how decision making is affected by framing. – Distinguish between representativeness heuristic and availability heuristic. 22
    23. 23. Section Assessment 1. Breast cancer has recently received a great deal of attention in the news. This may lead us to believe that breast cancer is a much bigger risk of death than is heart disease, which would not be the case. This overestimation of risk effect is an example of: (A) Representativeness heuristic (B) Availability heuristic (C) Stereotyping (D) Confirmation bias 2. A math student consistently tries to answer a problem using the same solution, but is unable to generate any new approaches to the problem. This is best illustrated by: (A) A Mental Set (B) Overgeneralization (C) The Framing Effect (D) Metacognition 23
    24. 24. Learning Objectives • Students will be able to: – Describe general language structure and its flaws. – Identify the stages of language development. – Distinguish between Noam Chomsky and B.F. Skinner’s views of language development. – Develop an understanding of linguistic determinism. 24
    25. 25. Language David Hume Kennerly/ Getty Images • Synthesize how biological, cognitive, and cultural factors converge to facilitate acquisition, development, and use of language 25
    26. 26. Language Structures • Phonemes: The smallest distinct sound unit in a spoken language. For example: t, ch (40 in the English lang.) • Morpheme: The smallest unit that carries a meaning. It may be a word or part of a word. (Ex. –ed, un-, s) • Grammar: is the system of rules in a language that enable us to communicate with and understand others. – Syntax: consists of the rules for combining words into grammatically sensible sentences – Semantics: is the set of rules by which we derive meaning from morphemes, words, and sentences. The future of language?: (Jeet, Jew) 26
    27. 27. Chomsky’s Language Structures • Surface Structure: The actual words, symbols or signs (phonemes, morphemes and syntax) • Deep Structure: The meaning of the words (semantics) • More Flaws in Grammar: – “Jack The Giant Killer” – “Astronaut takes blame for gas in spacecraft.” – “Stolen painting found by tree.” – “Safety experts say school bus passengers should be belted.” 27
    28. 28. Flaws in Semantics and Syntax • Grammar Flaws – Can we eat Grandma? – He eats shoots and leaves. – Try our hotdogs. None like them. – Can’t sleep, come to our informational meeting. 28
    29. 29. Developmental Language Flaws • Overextensions – ‘Ball’ is used to describe anything round like the moon. • Underextensions – ‘Doll’ might describe only their doll but not other dolls • Overregularizations – overuse of rules that do not fit – ‘Goed’ or ‘hitted’ 29
    30. 30. Language Flaws: Lost in Translation 30
    31. 31. Stages of Language Development Pre-Linguistic Stage: Cooing and Babbling (3 months- 12 months) Holophrastic Stage: One-word (12 months) Telegraphic Stage: Two Word (age 2) Complete Sentences: 2 Years + 31
    32. 32. Language Development Theories 1. 2. Operant Learning: Skinner (1957, 1985) believed that language development may be explained on the basis of learning principles such as association, imitation, and reinforcement. Inborn Universal Grammar: Noam Chomsky (1959, 1987) opposed Skinner’s ideas and suggested that the rate of language acquisition is so fast that it cannot be explained through learning principles, and thus most of it is inborn. Language Acquisition Device. Chomsky says that all children need to learn language is to be introduced to it Based on the ideas above, answer the following: 1.Who views language from the nature perspective? Nurture Perspective? 2.In a debate, who would raise the question, “How can children make up new sentences without hearing them first?” 3.In a debate, who would raise the question, “How does the LAD work, where is it located?” 32
    33. 33. Learning Language with Age FACTS OF LANGUAGE -Babbling before 8 months occurs with multiple language syllabus, after 8 months they only babble in their native language. -Deaf babies babble with their hands. -The sensitive period of language tends to occur between birth and age 7. -Children who hear a second language before age 7 generally don’t speak with an accent. Vocabulary By Age 18 months: 50 1st grade: 10,000 5th grade: 40,000 “Fast-mapping” helps in adding words to about age 7. 33
    34. 34. Thinking and Language • Linguistic Determinism: Whorf (1956) suggested that language determines the way we think. For example, he noted that the Hopi people do not have the past tense for verbs. Therefore, the Hopi cannot think readily about the past. • Some cultures count: 1, 2, many… When a language provides words for objects or events, we can think about these objects more clearly and remember them. It is easier to think about two colors with two different names (A) than colors with the same name (B) 34
    35. 35. Learning Objectives in Review • Students will be able to: – Describe general language structure and its flaws. – Identify the stages of language development. – Distinguish between Noam Chomsky and B.F. Skinner’s views of language development. – Develop an understanding of linguistic determinism. 35

    ×