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  • 1. Motivation An internal state that arouses, directs, and maintains behavior.
  • 2. Five areas of motivation Choices Persistence Getting started Feelings Intensity of involvement How do these five areas relate to your motivation to learn Educational Psychology?
  • 3. Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation Intrinsic motivation: motivation associated with activities that are their own reward. Extrinsic motivation: motivation created by external factors, such as rewards and punishments. Intrinsic: I want to learn. Mnemonic: Intrinsic—comes from the inside of me, “internal.” Extrinsic comes from the outside, like “external.” Extrinsic: You must learn.
  • 4. Locus of causality  The location—internal or external—of the cause of behavior.
  • 5. Locus of causality That teacher made the test too hard. My roommate wouldn’t let me study. I should have studied harder. I made a bad choice going to that party last night. Which one has an internal locus of causality? Which one is external?
  • 6. Other views of locus of causality I practice because I love to play. Internal I practice because it’s fun and it’ll help me get a college scholarship. Locus of causality is a continuum. I practice because my mom makes me. External
  • 7. Locus of causality is NOT a continuum  To understand this argument, you need to understand approach/avoidance. We tend to have two reactions to something—we tend to approach it or we tend to avoid it. Actually, we may have a combination of approach and avoidance feelings, as the following diagram will show.
  • 8. Avoidance High Locus of causality is NOT a continuum Approach High Overstrivers: people who are trying for success but also trying to avoid failure. Failure avoiders: people whose main motivation is to avoid failure—they aren’t seeking success primarily. Success-oriented students: people who are trying for success and not worried about failure. Avoidance Low Failure accepters: people who have given up on anything to do with success and are not even trying to avoid failure. Approach Low Covington and Mueller (2001). Intrinsic vs. Extrinsic Motivation: an Approach/Avoidance Reformulation. Educational Psychology Review, v. 13, n. 2, 158-176.
  • 9. Approach/avoidance  This is a more complex formulation of motivation. It has profound implications for the classroom—if you have failure accepters among your students, you will need to work with them differently from, say, the overstrivers.
  • 10. Approaches to motivation  Behavioral  Humanistic  Maslow  Cognitive and Social Cognitive  Expectancy x value  Sociocultural conceptions
  • 11. Behavioral  Reward: an attractive object or event supplied as a consequence of a behavior.  Incentive: an object or event that encourages or discourages behavior.
  • 12. Behaviorism  Advantages Rewards increase good behaviors   Disadvantages If the reward is not rewarding, the behavior will not increase. Rewards encourage extrinsic motivation. Therefore: use only for things that students don’t like. Be sure to include quality of work, not just participation. Use rewards to let students know they are getting better at something.
  • 13. Humanistic Views of Motivation    Humanistic interpretation: approach to motivation that emphasizes personal freedom, choice, self-determination, and striving for personal growth. Humanistic psychology—views motivation as people’s attempts to fulfill their total potential as human beings. This psychology deals with the whole person. If you want to motivate someone in this way, encourage inner resources—selfesteem, competence, etc. Chief theorists: Rogers, Maslow
  • 14. Carl Rogers Unconditional positive regard: believing in the inherent worth of a person— every person has something of value inside just because he or she is a human being. Can you think of examples of teachers in your experience who have done these things? How about teachers who haven’t? How did those classrooms feel? Creating an emotionally safe climate in the classroom: •Treat students as people first and students second •Provide students with unconditional positive regard by separating behavior from intrinsic worth. •Create safe and orderly classrooms where students believe they can learn and where they are expected to do so •Consider classroom experiences from the students’ point of view.
  • 15. Self-actualization: fulfilling one’s potential Humanistic views of motivation Hierarchy of needs: Maslow’s model of 7 levels of human needs, from basic physiological requirements to the need for self-actualization. Deficiency needs: Maslow’s 4 lower-level needs, which must be satisfied first. Being needs: Maslow’s 3 higherlevel needs, sometimes called growth needs. Bottom line: hungry kids cannot learn very well. Feed them. Also, kids need achievement, beauty, and the chance to learn to be themselves, not just an endless drill for the Proficiency test.
  • 16. Cognitive Theories of Motivation     Based on Piaget’s theory (equilibrium, adaptation, accommodation). We all have a need to understand our world. When something occurs that we don’t understand, we are motivated to try to figure it out. This is why people work at puzzles, video games, etc. Five cognitive theories: expectancy x value theory, self-efficacy theory, goal theory, attribution theory, self-determination theory
  • 17. Expectancy x value theory How you expect to do at the task: success or failure “I expect to be able to pass the Praxis II” The value of that success to you “Passing the Praxis II will make me feel proud and will help me to take the next step in my professional career.” Therefore, I am motivated to study the material for that test. If either term is zero, then motivation is zero because anything times zero is zero.
  • 18. Expectancy for success Self-schema #1: •I don’t know how to do this. •Last year I failed this subject. •I hate trying to do something that will take a long time. •I’m not a very good learner. •No one is going to help me with this. •There are more important things than school. Self-schema #2: •This looks hard, but I have done hard things before. •I have done well in this subject before. •If I do a little at a time, I know I can do this. •I do pretty well in school. I like learning. •If I have trouble, I know my parents will explain this to me. •School is important to me and my family. Which schema will lead to a student being motivated to try a new task? What are your schemas about yourself as a learner? Expectancy for success: depends on how difficult the task seems and your schemas about yourself as a learner.
  • 19. Factors influencing task value  Intrinsic interest  Importance  Utility value  Cost
  • 20. Intrinsic interest This topic relates to things I care about. I can’t wait to learn more about it.
  • 21. It’s important for me to stay in shape so I can be healthy for a long time. Importance People can have different reasons for something to be important. It’s important for me to stay in shape so I can compete effectively in my sport.
  • 22. Utility value I can see that this class is going to help me achieve my goal of being a doctor.
  • 23. This class is going to take a lot of time, but I think I can do it. I’ve never made a speech before, but I guess I can learn. Perceived negative aspects of engaging in a task. Cost I’m not sure I have the time to put into studying for this class. Besides, I hate making speeches. I think I’ll drop this class. It’s too hard.
  • 24. Cost: an example Very often as teachers we set up barriers to learning that increase cost. I learned about removing barriers at vacation Bible school this summer.
  • 25. Cost, an example  Each night there was a Bible verse to learn and there was a central Bible verse that was connected to the whole theme.  For each Bible verse memorized, a child would receive a small prize. If the child memorized all six verses, he/she would get a large prize.
  • 26. Cost, an example    This year, the vast majority of children chose to memorize verses. What contributed to that? I spent part of my music teaching time teaching the verses. We chanted them over and over again and we broke them down, learning them phrase by phrase. As soon as a child had a verse memorized, I sent him/her to the VBS director to recite the verse and receive the prize.
  • 27. Cost, an example     What worked? Why did the kids get so enthusiastic about this? First, students were given time within the classes to learn their verses. It wasn’t homework and yet many of the children then opted to practice at home on top of what we did in the class. Secondly, I modeled over and over again how to break down the verse and learn it a little at a time. As the fast learners got the verse, they left the room to go recite. That gave me a chance to work even more with the students who needed extra help. There was immediate reinforcement—students could go at any time to recite and get their prizes.
  • 28. Cost, an example   Almost all students succeeded, across grades 17. The fast learners got what they needed. The slow learners got what they needed. The success spawned a desire for more success. I learned that it is really worth using class time on the things you want students to learn and do. I learned that when I remove barriers (homework, an overwhelming task), even students who clearly have a history of learning struggles are able to succeed.
  • 29. Cost I love to dance. I remember how good it felt the first time I tried it. Affective memory: past emotional experiences related to a topic or activity. Affective memory contributes to cost: bad memories increase cost and good memories decrease cost. How can we as teachers help students to have good memories of their learning with us?
  • 30. Sociocultural conceptions of motivation  Perspectives that emphasize participation, identities, and interpersonal relations within communities of practice.  Legitimate peripheral participation: genuine involvement in the work of the group, even if your abilities are undeveloped and contributions are small.
  • 31. An example This is me, in 1974, a ninth grader at Lexington Junior High School. I wore this sweatshirt on this day because I knew this picture would be taken. The sweatshirt was for the Central Kentucky Youth Symphony Orchestra. I had just become a member (as last chair second violin I was definitely in the camp of “legitimate peripheral participation”—you couldn’t get more peripheral than that). I was so proud to be a member of the Youth Symphony Orchestra—that identity was very important to me. I have no idea if any the rest of these students became teachers or not…
  • 32. Classrooms as communities  You can use sociocultural forms of motivation by creating classroom communities. Students in these classes identify with their classmates—being part of the class is part of who they are. Students work together to learn—to develop and test hypotheses, etc.
  • 33. Needs: competence, autonomy, relatedness  Self-determination—we need to feel competent and capable.  Need for autonomy: the desire to have our own wishes, rather than external reward or pressures, determine our actions.  In other words, we need to be in charge of our own lives.
  • 34. Self-determination in the classroom  When classrooms are organized around the idea of self-determination, students tend to be more interested and to do better.  Ironically, students tend to prefer more controlling teachers, even though they learn more from teachers who support student autonomy.
  • 35. Self-determination Theory  The process of deciding how to act on one’s environment.  Includes competence, control (autonomy), and relatedness.
  • 36. Competence I can swim, get my own food, and keep away from preditors. The ability to function effectively in an environment. I know how to read, how to learn, and how to behave in school.
  • 37. Helping students to feel competent Attributional statements are comments by teachers about causes of students’ performances. They help students to know that they can influence the outcomes of their work. If you try, you will be able to do this problem. Wow! Look what you have done! That’s really neat. Emotional displays of the teacher give students important messages about their competence. The teacher’s frustration can lead students to feel incompetent. You did a good job naming the parts. You need to work on understanding the life cycle. Accurate feedback (praise and criticism) helps students to know where they have succeeded and what to work on. If you need help, just let me know. Otherwise, I’ll assume you are okay. Offering unsolicited help can give a negative message, that the teacher feels the student is incompetent.
  • 38. Information and control  Cognitive evaluation theory: suggests that events affect motivation through the individual’s perception of the events as controlling behavior or providing information.
  • 39. Information and control Events tend to be informational (providing the student with information) or controlling (telling the student what to do). Informational Increases intrinsic motivation Examples: You did well on that test because you worked hard. We are going to present our projects next week, so you may want to think about what you need to get done on it. Controlling Decreases intrinsic motivation Examples: You did well on that test because you followed directions. The project is due next week so get to work!
  • 40. I can choose what I practice and how much effort I put into it. Control I can choose where I do my homework and which subject I work on first. Control (autonomy) is the ability to alter the environment when necessary.
  • 41. Helping students to have a sense see you using the of control Ilearning strategies What rules do you think we need in this class? How are you doing on the goals you set? It’s great to see everyone so involved in this project. we have been working on.. From your work I can tell that you have learned a lot about this topic.
  • 42. The need for relatedness  Students need to feel that others (especially the teacher, but also other students) care about them and are responsive to their needs.
  • 43. Relatedness The feeling of connectedness to others in one’s social environment resulting in feelings of worthiness of love and respect. This is related to some ideas on Maslow’s hierarchy of needs.
  • 44. Needs: lessons for teachers  Students need to feel competent and connected.
  • 45. Goal orientations and motivation  Goal: what an individual strives to accomplish.  Goal orientation: patterns of beliefs about goals related to achievement in school.
  • 46. Goals and Goal-orientation This subject is so interesting —I’d like to learn more about this. I’d like to do as little as I can in order to get a decent grade. Both of these students have goals. Can you see how their goals will influence how they learn?
  • 47. Types of Goals       Mastery goal—focuses on mastering information, increasing understanding (not concerned with performance) Performance goal—a personal intention to seem competent or perform well in the eyes of others. Approach goals are goals focused on achievement (learningapproach is a goal to increase achievement, performance-approach is a goal to increase performance). Avoidance goals are goals focused on avoiding something. Performance-avoidance is a focus on performing in order to avoid looking dumb. Task-involved learners: students who focus on mastering the task or solving the problem. Ego-involved learners: students who focus on how well they are performing and how they are judged by others. The type of goal a student has determines a lot about how that student learns.
  • 48. An example I had a violin student whose goal was to get a 93 in his academic classes. According to him, a 93 is the “perfect A” because it is an A with the least amount of work. His goal was basically performanceavoidance: he was avoiding any grade his parents could give him trouble over (such as a B). As you might imagine, his performance in class was lackluster because he didn’t get excited about learning anything. School was a game to play and he knew how to win in such a way that most authorities would leave him alone. A couple of years later, he appeared to have abandoned this particular goal—he was involved in college-level classes and enjoying them.
  • 49. Work-avoidant learners: students who don’t want to learn or to look smart, but just want to avoid work. Work-avoidance goals This is SO boring. I’m going to get through this reading as fast as I can so I can watch Survivor on TV. What do you think she will remember about the text she is reading? If she were your student, what could you do to help her?
  • 50. Social goals: a wide variety of needs and motives to be connected to others or part of a group. Social goals Ryan said he signed up for Algebra II. He’s so cute. I guess I’ll sign up so I can be with him in class. How do you think she will do in algebra II? How can you, as a teacher, harness the social goals your students have?
  • 51. Feedback and goal acceptance  Students need accurate, positively-stated (e.g., you have achieved 75% of your goal rather than you have fallen short by 25%) feedback to help them with their goals.  Students need to accept and commit goals if they are going to work on them. Commitment matters.
  • 52. Effective goal setting: Specific My goal is to do better in school. My goal is to spend one hour every evening studying. Why are specific goals better than general goals? Which student will be able to monitor his progress better on his goal?
  • 53. Effective Goal Setting: Immediate I want to graduate with honors four years from now. My goal is to make dean’s list this semester. Why might immediate goals work better than goals that are far away?
  • 54. Effective Goal Setting: Challenging I want to graduate in four years with a perfect 4.0 average. I don’t care what my grades are in four years—I just want to get out of here. I think I can maintain a high B average for the next four years. What happens when students set goals that are too challenging? What happens when the goals are not challenging enough?
  • 55. Goal monitoring I studied for an hour yesterday and today. Two days in a row! That’s pretty good. It’s helpful to do it right after supper and to get into a habit. Why do you think monitoring goals would be important?
  • 56. Strategy Use Even though I studied an hour a day, I still didn’t do very well on the test. My teacher says I need to do more than just read the text. I think I’ll make a goal of working on 5 problems per day. Why is it important to be strategic in the process of achieving goals?
  • 57. Metacognition The t.v. is too distracting. I had better study here in my room where it is quieter. Can you see how metacognitive strategies are critical for effective goal setting and achievement? How can you help students to develop metacognitive strategies?
  • 58. Interests and emotions  When students are not interested in a topic, they will not learn.  Personal interests: enduring interests that a person has.  Situational interest: more temporary interest—something that catches the eye of the student.
  • 59. Capturing student interest  Find out about their interests—if a group of them have a personal interest in something, perhaps you can use that topic.  Work with situational interest—find interesting ways to approach curricular topics (e.g., using a computer program, using a puzzle, using an unexpected event).
  • 60. Capturing student interest  This is critical, particularly for students who are at risk for failure. Students from strongly academic backgrounds have a degree of tolerance for boredom, but students who don’t have a strong academic background do not have this tolerance.
  • 61. Capturing student interest  This takes some creativity—but it is one of the most fun aspects of teaching.  Further, when you teach something that is interesting, you will really enjoy the teaching process and watching the students get into the activity.
  • 62. For example   For several years I have been part of an Appalachian project that involves an urban school and my students in Education 214, Integrating the arts in the elementary classroom. In this project, we build dulcimers, sing Appalachian songs, dance to a live band, perform a Jack tale, decorate quilt squares and sew a quilt, and learn about the culture in general. We meet a lot of social studies benchmarks in this project.
  • 63. The Appalachian Project The classroom teacher plays guitar. We had a volunteer banjo player, as well.
  • 64. The Appalachian Project Our volunteer banjo player came every week and was generous about sharing with the students (that’s a $2000 banjo a child is holding).
  • 65. The Appalachian Project The dance
  • 66. The Appalachian Project Our quilt
  • 67. You can do this, too    Not every day has to be filled with something this special—but this sort of thing needs to happen periodically. We began with an interest I had. Because of my personal interest in Appalachian music, I had resources—I had books about it, I knew the music, and I knew people who could help us to pull this project off. Most of the students did not have an initial interest in this subject, but because of the nature of the activities (building a working musical instrument) they became interested.
  • 68. Arousal: excitement and anxiety in learning  Arousal: physical and psychological reactions causing a person to be alert, attentive, wide awake.
  • 69. Arousal  Curiosity: this is related to interest. People have studied curiosity and found that it often happens when we don’t fully understand something—there is a gap in our knowledge.  Anxiety: general uneasiness, a feeling of tension.
  • 70. Anxiety  Can get in the way of learning and showing what one has learned.  Anxiety gets in the way of our ability to pay attention. It’s a negative cycle—we feel anxious, struggle to pay attention, then become more anxious as we realize we are not comprehending the material.
  • 71. Arousal and anxiety I’m so nervous I don’t know what to do. All I can think of is how nervous I am. Anxiety: a general uneasiness and feeling of tension. Anxiety can affect motivation both positively and negatively. A little anxiety can be good motivation. Too much anxiety can get in the way of effective learning. When people get nervous, they lose some of their ability to think logically. In anticipation of a nervous situation, they may use poorer strategies to prepare.
  • 72. Managing anxiety  Problem-solving—trying to address the learning problems in an intelligent and doable way. It is important for teachers to help students with problem solving.  Emotional management—trying to reduce feelings of anxiety.  Avoidance—avoiding situations that cause anxiety (not a good strategy to use in school).
  • 73. Beliefs and self-schemas  Beliefs about ability  Beliefs about causes and control  Beliefs about self-efficacy and learned helplessness  Beliefs about self-worth
  • 74. Intelligence  Is intelligence a set characteristic like your height as an adult or the color of your eyes? Or can intelligence be influenced by what you do? How you answer these questions may influence how motivated you are as a learner.
  • 75. Entity view of intelligence This means that intelligence is an unchanging characteristic. Since I can’t do anything about how smart I am, I will focus my efforts on how I approach tasks. Performance goal This attitude “works” for learners who feel that they are pretty smart. Learners who feel non-intelligent are likely to give up because they feel hopeless.
  • 76. Incremental view of intelligence If I work at learning this, I can get a lot smarter. Learning goal This view gives students a sense of control over their own destiny. If they work, they will be rewarded with increasing ability.
  • 77. Does it work? Is it fair to get kids’ hopes up? There are limits. Most piano students aren’t going to become Vladimir Horowitz, no matter how hard they work. Most student athletes are not going to break world records at the Olympics. But the belief in learning and work increasing ability does go a long way, even in sports and music. Hard work can make up for a smaller amount of talent and no amount of talent can make up for the lack of practice.
  • 78. Attribution Theory  Locus  Stability  Control Attribution theory involves how we explain our successes and failures. Do we attribute them to ourselves or to factors outside ourselves? Do we attribute them to things that change or things that don’t change? How much control do we have over these factors? Attribution theory: descriptions of how individuals’ explanations, justifications, and excuses influence their motivation and behavior.
  • 79. Locus It’s not my fault. The teacher made the test too hard. Locus means “location.” It can be internal or external. For which student is the cause of not doing well external? For which is it internal? What are the implications when a student attributes her performance to an external cause? How about to an internal cause? If I had studied more, I would have done better on the test.
  • 80. I didn’t do so well this time, but maybe my luck will change. I’m bringing my rabbit’s foot the next time we have a test. Luck can change (with or without the rabbit’s foot). Ability doesn’t change (although effort can change and it can make up for ability to a certain extent). Stability I don’t think I’m very good at this subject. It’s awfully hard for me to understand. The point of stability is how changeable is the cause of the situation.
  • 81. I can control how much I study for the test. Some things are controllable by the person and others are not. What implications does this have for your students? What implications does it have for the strategies you suggest? Control Yeah, but you can’t control how hard the teacher makes the test.
  • 82. Attribution Theory: Application Where does the student consider the locus of the problem to be? How stable is the cause? What kind of control does the student have? The answers to these questions influence how you respond to the student. For example, if the student is externalizing, you might guide him to think about his own contribution to the problem. Whatever the cause, you might want to help the student to focus on his effort. You need to be aware of what the student can control and what is beyond the student’s control.
  • 83. Impact of Attributions on Learners I’ll never be able to do this Expectations for future success I feel bad because I got a C- Emotional I’m not going to bother studying for the next one Future effort It’s not surprising, then, that I keep doing badly. Achievement Fortunately, you can help students change this kind of attitude…
  • 84. This is a review of a concept you had in the last chapter. Self Efficacy  Your beliefs about your abilities.  Four factors influence them:  Past performance  Observing others  Verbal persuasion (a teacher tells you you can do it)  Physiological and psychological factors (hunger, being upset, etc.) Guess what: students who are high in self-efficacy do better in school. What can we do as teachers to help students develop self-efficacy?
  • 85. Learned Helplessness The expectation, based on previous experiences with a lack of control, that all one’s efforts will lead to failure. I can’t succeed, so I might as well not even try. Learned helplessness is associated with low selfesteem, depression, and refusal to try.
  • 86. Learned helplessness   Learned helplessness is a psychological condition in which a human or animal has learned to believe that it is helpless. It thinks that it has no control over its situation and that whatever it does is futile. As a result it will stay passive when the situation is unpleasant or harmful and damaging. It is a well-established principle in psychology, a description of the effect of inescapable punishment (such as electrical shock) on animal (and by extension, human) behaviour. Learned helplessness may also occur in everyday situations where environments in which people experience events in which they feel or actually have no control over what happens to them, such as repeated failure, prison, war, disability, famine and drought may tend to foster learned helplessness. An example involves concentration camp prisoners during the Holocaust, when some prisoners, called Mussulmen, refused to care or fend for themselves. Present-day examples can be found in mental institutions, orphanages, or long-term care facilities where the patients have failed or been stripped of agency for long enough to cause their feelings of inadequacy to persist. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Learned_helplessness
  • 87. Learned helplessness     Not all people become depressed as a result of being in a situation where they appear not to have control; in what Seligman called "explanatory style," people in a state of learned helplessness view problems as personal, pervasive, or permanent. That is, Personal - They may see themselves as the problem; that is, they have internalized the problem. Pervasive - They may see the problem affecting all aspects of life. Permanent - They may see the problem as unchangeable. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Learned_helplessness
  • 88. Learned helplessness Martin Seligman's foundational experiments and theory of learned helplessness began at the University of Pennsylvania in 1965, as an extension of his interest in depression, when, at first quite by accident, Seligman and colleagues discovered a result of conditioning of dogs that was opposite to what B.F. Skinner's behaviorism would have predicted. A dog that had earlier been repeatedly conditioned to associate a sound with electric shocks did not try (later in another setting) to escape the electric shocks after that sound and a flash of light was presented, even though all the dog would have had to do is jump over a low divider within ten seconds, more than enough time to respond. The dog didn't even try to avoid the "aversive stimulus"; the dog had previously "learned" that nothing it did mattered. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Learned_helplessness 
  • 89. Dealing with learned helplessness  Seligman eventually taught the dogs how to escape—but they had to be dragged over the barrier to learn.  Students who have experienced a lot of failure and who are in learned helplessness need to have lots of success in order to get out. They need immediate small successes and then to build up to longer term and larger successes.
  • 90. An emotional reaction to or evaluation of the self (also known as self-esteem). Self-worth Theory What he says: What he says: That project was too hard. It’s not fair to be assigned such a difficult task. What he means: If I can blame someone else, then I don’t have to look at my own contribution to the failure of the project. This is how I maintain a sense that I am competent in the face of possible evidence otherwise. I couldn’t work on the project ‘til the last minute. If I had had more time, it would have been better. What he means: If I really put in time on the project, it might not have been very good. So I didn’t put in the time so I have an excuse I can live with for it not being good. How the maintenance of self-worth gets in the way of achievement. What can you do as a teacher to help a student like this?
  • 91. Self-worth    Master-oriented students: students who focus on learning goals because they value achievement and see ability as improvable. Failure-avoiding students: students who avoid failure by sticking to what they know, by not taking risks, or by claiming not to care about their performance. Failure-accepting students: students who believe their failures are due to low ability and there is little they can do about it.
  • 92. Motivation to Learn in School  The tendency to find academic activities meaningful and worthwhile and to try to benefit from them.
  • 93. How motivated are you?  In what classes or subjects do you find learning to be interesting?  What has contributed to your motivation to learn in those classes or subjects?  Is there anything you can learn from those situations that might help you to feel more motivated about other subjects or topics?
  • 94. Learning from bad teaching    Probably all of us have stories of “teachers from hell.” This is unfortunate, but remains true. When you find yourself in a bad situation, now that you are studying educational psychology, think to yourself: “what can I learn here about what NOT to do with other people—students, colleagues, etc.?” Remember that you can be motivated about a topic but not about a class, especially if a teacher has done a poor job. I loved French before and after high school but had a very bad teacher in high school. Even as many problems as this teacher had, she never stamped out my love of French.
  • 95. Barriers to motivation Curriculum determined by state, not students School attendance is mandatory, not a choice Too many students in classes Classrooms are a social setting where failure becomes public Grades “Daily grind”—routines that lead to boredom. What can you do as a teacher to get rid of the barriers?
  • 96. TARGET Task Autonomy Recognition Grouping practices Evaluation Time
  • 97. Task     Academic task: the work the student must accomplish, including the content covered and the mental operations required. Importance/attainment value: the importance of doing well on a task; how success on the task meets personal needs. Intrinsic or interest value: the enjoyment a person gets from a task. Utility value: the contribution of a task to meeting one’s goals.
  • 98. Task value Interest Utility Importance Cost
  • 99. Task value and Educational Psychology Importance: Interest: If you like peoplewatching, you’ll probably like Educational Psychology. It explains WHY you see what you are seeing. Interest Utility Utility: If you are working with people in any sort of job, you will find Educational Psychology useful because it tells you how to teach and motivate people. This means you potentially can get your ideas accepted over someone who does not have the same people skills, regardless of level of authority. Importance Cost Being able to understand why people do what they do is critical information. It helps you to respond in a more constructive way. Cost: Here’s the rub. It’s not always easy to understand all these theories and ideas. It takes work to absorb these ideas in a way that makes them really useful.
  • 100. What does it mean to you to do well in this class?       Perhaps it means that you are smart? Perhaps it means that the instructor likes you? Perhaps it means that you have achieved a goal you set for yourself? Perhaps it means that you have learned something interesting and useful? Perhaps it means that you will be able to maintain your high GPA? Perhaps it allows you to avoid the anger of your advisor or your parents? Doing well has different meaning for different people. This is the importance or attainment value.
  • 101. Authentic tasks  Tasks that have some connection to real- life problems the students will face outside the classroom.  Problem-based learning: methods that provide students with realistic problems that don’t necessarily have right answers.
  • 102. Authentic tasks are motivating…  …because students can see the connection between what they are doing in the classroom and what they will be doing out in the “real world.” You will probably find your field placement classes to be really fun and interesting because in those you will be doing what you plan to do as a professional. The further you move in your degree program, the more authentic the tasks of learning are likely to be.
  • 103. Problem-based learning  One way to create authenticity is to use problem-based learning, using real problems either within the community or problems students are likely to face (e.g., how to deal with the proficiency test). Students can research the problem and explore solutions. With community problems, students can express their opinions in local forums such as the letters to the editor of the local newspaper.
  • 104. Supporting autonomy and recognizing accomplishment Students need a balance between structure and choice. “Bounded choice”—giving the students a range of options but not total freedom.
  • 105. Choices  For younger students, the choices need to be simpler: between fewer options. The same is true for students who have not had many choices in the past  Older students can handle more choices.
  • 106. Choices  When students are resisting something, give them a choice about HOW they do it.  They can work on their math facts at their desk or lying on the floor (if this is not a frequent option, it will make doing the math facts more fun). They can do their sustained silent reading in a chair or on the floor. Even high schools students like the opportunity to move around.
  • 107. Portfolios and choices Portfolio assessment (which you will learn about in a later chapter) allows you to offer many choices to students, including what gets assessed (not every student work goes into a portfolio) and even how it gets assessed (e.g., choosing which work is to be assessed for which characteristic). Portfolios can be used in almost any subject area.
  • 108. Recognizing accomplishments    Students need feedback on their work. We need to recognize what is right along with helping students to work on problems. Instead of praise (“good job”) it is more effective to point out how a student might feel about the accomplishment (“Look what you did. You worked hard. I bet you feel proud of that.”) This encourages students to own the accomplishment and to attribute the accomplishment to their own efforts.
  • 109. Grouping  Goal structure: the way students relate to others who are also working toward a particular goal. Can be cooperative, competitive, or individualistic.  Cooperation leads to higher achievement than competition.
  • 110. Competition    Competition is a zero-sum game: when someone wins, other(s) lose. This doesn’t work in a classroom where there is a commitment to teach everyone. Competition might be motivating for the people who are near the top but it is enormously demotivating for the people at the bottom. Their thinking tends to be: “I’ll never win, so why should I try?” Competition doesn’t work in the workplace. The best companies encourage employees to work cooperatively.
  • 111. Evaluation  There is a difference between evaluation and grading.  Grades are simply one form of evaluation.  A more valuable form of evaluation is constructive, detailed feedback given in a caring manner. This can be done in person or in writing if the student is able to read.
  • 112. Evaluation     Don’t make a test the reason students need to learn something. Think of the utility of what they are learning and use that as a primary reason. If at all possible, use authentic tasks as part of the learning process. Be prepared to re-think what you are asking students to do. Is it part of the curriculum or is it something you just always do? If it is part of the curriculum, in what other way can you teach it?
  • 113. Time  How do you feel when you are doing something engaging and have to stop to do something else?  Students will be frustrated if they have to stop all the time. See what you can do to schedule relatively large blocks of time for students to work on important and interesting projects.
  • 114. Time  Another challenge with time is that some students move through work quickly and others desperately need more time.  You need to plan learning activities for those who move through their work quickly. You need to plan how students might have more time on a topic when they need it.
  • 115. Time   Technology can help. Students who work quickly in an area might read a text that goes quickly over the material they need to learn. Students who need to consider things at a slower pace might benefit from a power point that covers the same material but with greater explanation. In other words, take the text, break it into smaller parts, and add explanations and examples.
  • 116. Motivation and demotivation  Motivation is based on an inner feeling. We cannot control other people’s feelings. SO it is hard to make someone feel motivated about something (although we can encourage it).  On the other hand, it is EXTREMELY easy to DEMOTIVATE someone. Just give them a bad or unpleasant experience in some way.
  • 117. Motivators                Messages of accountability and high expectations Teacher communicates importance of work Clear goals/directions Connections across the curriculum Opportunities to learn about and practice dramatic arts Attributions to effort Encouraging risk-taking Uses games and play to reinforce concept Home-school connections Multiple representations of a task Positive classroom management, praise, private reprimands Stimulating creative thought Opportunities for choice Teacher communicates to students that they can handle challenging tasks Value students—communicate caring
  • 118. Demotivators                Attributions to intellect rather than effort Teacher emphasizes competition rather than cooperation Few displays of student work No scaffolding for learning a new skill Ineffective/negative feedback Lack of connections Easy tasks Negative class atmosphere Punitive classroom management Work that is much too difficult Slow pacing Emphasis on finishing, not learning Sparse, unattractive classroom Poor planning Public punishment
  • 119. Motivation and culture  Culture influences motivation. You need to be aware of this and the possibilities for the nature of the possible influence.
  • 120. Encouraging Motivation  Build confidence and positive expectations  Help students to see the value in learning  Help students stay focused.
  • 121. Emphasize incremental views of intelligence The more you work on this, the better you are going to get.
  • 122. Emphasize goals, strategies, and metacognition This piece is a real challenge. But if you work on it thoughtfully and every day, I know you’ll be able to do it.
  • 123. Promote student interest I’m so glad you are ready to play the Paganini. It’s one of my very favorite pieces. Did you know that Paganini was so much better than anyone else at his time, he had to write his own music? Nothing that had been written then was hard enough for him.
  • 124. Emphasize the utility value of increased skills Because you have worked on this skill, it’s going to make the next unit SO much easier for you.
  • 125. Give students the opportunity to practice Here are some problems that are like the ones on the test. Let’s see what you can do with these.
  • 126. Deemphasize competition Let’s work on this together so everyone can succeed.
  • 127. Model effort attributions The last time we had a test, all of you worked hard and did really well. I’m sure you can do this again.
  • 128. Assess frequently Now tomorrow we are going to have a practice quiz to get you ready for Friday’s test.
  • 129. Model efficacy It wasn’t easy for me to learn to play, but I practiced and I began to use the techniques my teacher taught me. Pretty soon, I could see progress.
  • 130. Provide Evidence of Accomplishment Look at what you have done!! Last week you couldn’t do this kind of problem and this week, you can!
  • 131. Encourage internal attributions for successes and controllable attributions for failures You did this part of the test really well because you practiced these problems. I think you’ll do better on the other part after some more practice.
  • 132. Vocabulary Academic tasks Competence Failureaccepting students Affective memories Control Failureavoiding students Importance Learning goal Legitimate peripheral participation Relatedness Sociocultural views of motivation Humanistic psychology Learned helplessness Performance goal Self-worth Problem-based learning Social goals Anxiety Cost Goal Importance/ Attainment value Attribution theory Deficiency needs Goal orientation Incentive Locus of causality Reward Task-involved learners Attributional statements Ego-involved learners Goal structure Incremental view of ability Mastery goal Selfactualization Unconditional positive regard Authentic task Entity view of ability Growth needs Intrinsic interest Masteryoriented students Selfdetermination Utility value Being needs Expectancy x value theory Hierarchy of needs Intrinsic motivation Motivation Self-efficacy Work-avoidant learners Cognitive theories of motivation Extrinsic motivation Humanistic interpretation Intrinsic or interest value Motivation to learn Self-schemas