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  1. 1. MotivationAn internal state that arouses, directs, and maintains behavior.
  2. 2. Five areas of motivation Choices Persistence Getting started Feelings Intensity of involvementHow do these five areas relate to your motivation to learn Educational Psychology?
  3. 3. Intrinsic and extrinsic motivationIntrinsic motivation: motivation associated with activities that are their own reward.Extrinsic motivation: motivation created by external factors, such as rewards andpunishments. Intrinsic: I want to learn. Extrinsic: You must learn. Mnemonic: Intrinsic—comes from the inside of me, “internal.” Extrinsic comes from the outside, like “external.”
  4. 4. Locus of causality The location—internal or external—of the cause of behavior.
  5. 5. Locus of causality That teacher I should havemade the test too studied harder. I hard. My made a bad choice roommate going to that party wouldn’t let me last night. study. Which one has an internal locus of causality? Which one is external?
  6. 6. Other views of locus of causality I practice I practice because it’s I practice because I fun and it’ll because my love to help me get mom makes play. a college me. scholarship. Locus of causality is a continuum.Internal External
  7. 7. Locus of causality is NOT a continuum To understand this argument, you need to understand approach/avoidance. We tend to have two reactions to something—we tend to approach it or we tend to avoid it. Actually, we may have a combination of approach and avoidance feelings, as the following diagram will show.
  8. 8. Locus of causality is NOT a continuum Approach High Success-oriented students: people who Overstrivers: people are trying for success who are trying for and not worried about success but also trying Avoidance failure.Avoidance to avoid failure. LowHigh Failure avoiders: Failure accepters: people who people whose main have given up on anything to do motivation is to avoid with success and are not even failure—they aren’t trying to avoid failure. seeking success primarily. Approach Covington and Mueller (2001). Intrinsic vs. Extrinsic Motivation: an Approach/Avoidance Reformulation. Low Educational Psychology Review, v. 13, n. 2, 158-176.
  9. 9. Approach/avoidance This is a more complex formulation of motivation. It has profound implications for the classroom—if you have failure accepters among your students, you will need to work with them differently from, say, the overstrivers.
  10. 10. Approaches to motivation Behavioral Humanistic Maslow Cognitive and Social Cognitive Expectancy x value Sociocultural conceptions
  11. 11. Behavioral Reward: an attractive object or event supplied as a consequence of a behavior. Incentive: an object or event that encourages or discourages behavior.
  12. 12. Behaviorism Advantages Disadvantages Rewards increase  If the reward is not good behaviors rewarding, the behavior will not increase.  Rewards encourage extrinsic motivation.Therefore: use only for things that students don’t like. Be sure to include quality ofwork, not just participation. Use rewards to let students know they are getting betterat something.
  13. 13. Humanistic Views of Motivation Humanistic interpretation: approach to motivation that emphasizes personal freedom, choice, self-determination, and striving for personal growth. Humanistic psychology—views motivation as people’s attempts to fulfill their total potential as human beings. This psychology deals with the whole person. If you want to motivate someone in this way, encourage inner resources—self- esteem, competence, etc. Chief theorists: Rogers, Maslow
  14. 14. Carl RogersUnconditional Creating an emotionally safepositive regard: climate in the classroom:believing in the •Treat students as people firstinherent worth of a and students secondperson—every person •Provide students withhas something of value unconditional positive regard byinside just because he separating behavior fromor she is a human intrinsic worth.being. •Create safe and orderly classrooms where students believe they can learn and Can you think of examples of teachers in your where they are expected to do experience who have done these things? How so about teachers who haven’t? How did those •Consider classroom classrooms feel? experiences from the students’ point of view.
  15. 15. Self-actualization: fulfilling one’s potential Humanistic views of motivationHierarchy of needs:Maslow’s model of 7 levelsof human needs, frombasic physiologicalrequirements to the needfor self-actualization.Deficiency needs:Maslow’s 4 lower-levelneeds, which must besatisfied first.Being needs:Maslow’s 3 higher-level needs,sometimes calledgrowth needs.Bottom line: hungry kids cannot learn very well. Feed them.Also, kids need achievement, beauty, and the chance to learn tobe themselves, not just an endless drill for the Proficiency test.
  16. 16. Cognitive Theories of Motivation Based on Piaget’s theory (equilibrium, adaptation, accommodation). We all have a need to understand our world. When something occurs that we don’t understand, we are motivated to try to figure it out. This is why people work at puzzles, video games, etc. Five cognitive theories: expectancy x value theory, self-efficacy theory, goal theory, attribution theory, self-determination theory
  17. 17. Expectancy x value theory How you expect to do at the The value of that success to you task: success or failure “Passing the Praxis II will make me feel “I expect to be able to pass the proud and will help me to take the next Praxis II” step in my professional career.” Therefore, I am motivated to study the material for that test.If either term is zero, then motivation is zero because anything times zero is zero.
  18. 18. Expectancy for success Self-schema #1: Self-schema #2: •I don’t know how to do this. •This looks hard, but I have done hard •Last year I failed this subject. things before. •I hate trying to do something •I have done well in this subject before. that will take a long time. •If I do a little at a time, I know I can do •I’m not a very good learner. this. •No one is going to help me with •I do pretty well in school. I like this. learning. •There are more important things •If I have trouble, I know my parents will than school. explain this to me. •School is important to me and my family. Which schema will lead to a student being motivated to try a new task? What are your schemas about yourself as a learner?Expectancy for success: depends on how difficult the taskseems and your schemas about yourself as a learner.
  19. 19. Factors influencing task value Intrinsic interest Importance Utility value Cost
  20. 20. Intrinsic interest This topic relates tothings I care about. I can’t wait to learn more about it.
  21. 21. Importance It’s important for me to stay inIt’s important for shape so I can me to stay in competeshape so I can be effectively in myhealthy for a long sport. time. People can have different reasons for something to be important.
  22. 22. Utility value I can see that this class is going to help me achieve my goal of being a doctor.
  23. 23. Cost I’m not sure I have the time to This class is put into studying going to take a for this class. lot of time, but I Besides, I hate think I can do it. making speeches. I’ve never made I think I’ll drop a speech before, this class. It’s too but I guess I can hard. learn.Perceivednegative aspectsof engaging in atask.
  24. 24. Cost: an exampleVery often as teachers we set up barriers to learning that increase cost. Ilearned about removing barriers at vacation Bible school this summer.
  25. 25. Cost, an example Each night there was a Bible verse to learn and there was a central Bible verse that was connected to the whole theme. For each Bible verse memorized, a child would receive a small prize. If the child memorized all six verses, he/she would get a large prize.
  26. 26. Cost, an example This year, the vast majority of children chose to memorize verses. What contributed to that? I spent part of my music teaching time teaching the verses. We chanted them over and over again and we broke them down, learning them phrase by phrase. As soon as a child had a verse memorized, I sent him/her to the VBS director to recite the verse and receive the prize.
  27. 27. Cost, an example What worked? Why did the kids get so enthusiastic about this? First, students were given time within the classes to learn their verses. It wasn’t homework and yet many of the children then opted to practice at home on top of what we did in the class. Secondly, I modeled over and over again how to break down the verse and learn it a little at a time. As the fast learners got the verse, they left the room to go recite. That gave me a chance to work even more with the students who needed extra help. There was immediate reinforcement—students could go at any time to recite and get their prizes.
  28. 28. Cost, an example Almost all students succeeded, across grades 1-7. The fast learners got what they needed. The slow learners got what they needed. The success spawned a desire for more success. I learned that it is really worth using class time on the things you want students to learn and do. I learned that when I remove barriers (homework, an overwhelming task), even students who clearly have a history of learning struggles are able to succeed.
  29. 29. Cost I love to dance. I remember how good it felt the first time I tried it. Affective memory: past emotional experiences related to a topic or activity. Affective memory contributes to cost: bad memories increase cost and good memories decrease cost.How can we as teachers help students to have good memories of theirlearning with us?
  30. 30. Sociocultural conceptions of motivation Perspectives that emphasize participation, identities, and interpersonal relations within communities of practice. Legitimate peripheral participation: genuine involvement in the work of the group, even if your abilities are undeveloped and contributions are small.
  31. 31. An exampleThis is me, in 1974, a ninth grader at Lexington Junior High School. I wore thissweatshirt on this day because I knew this picture would be taken. The sweatshirt wasfor the Central Kentucky Youth Symphony Orchestra. I had just become a member (aslast chair second violin I was definitely in the camp of “legitimate peripheralparticipation”—you couldn’t get more peripheral than that). I was so proud to be amember of the Youth Symphony Orchestra—that identity was very important to me. I have no idea if any the rest of these students became teachers or not…
  32. 32. Classrooms as communities You can use sociocultural forms of motivation by creating classroom communities. Students in these classes identify with their classmates—being part of the class is part of who they are. Students work together to learn—to develop and test hypotheses, etc.
  33. 33. Needs: competence, autonomy, relatedness Self-determination—we need to feel competent and capable. Need for autonomy: the desire to have our own wishes, rather than external reward or pressures, determine our actions. In other words, we need to be in charge of our own lives.
  34. 34. Self-determination in the classroom When classrooms are organized around the idea of self-determination, students tend to be more interested and to do better. Ironically, students tend to prefer more controlling teachers, even though they learn more from teachers who support student autonomy.
  35. 35. Self-determination Theory The process of deciding how to act on one’s environment. Includes competence, control (autonomy), and relatedness.
  36. 36. Competence I know how to read, how to I can swim, get learn, and my own food, and how to behave keep away from in school. preditors.The ability to function effectively in an environment.
  37. 37. Helping students to feel competentAttributional If you try, You did a good jobstatements are you will be naming the parts. Accuratecomments by teachers able to do You need to work feedbackabout causes of this on understanding (praise andstudents’ performances. problem. the life cycle. criticism) helps They help students to students to knowknow that they can where they haveinfluence the outcomes succeeded andof their work. what to work on. Wow! Look If you need help, what you have just let me know. done! That’s Otherwise, I’ll really neat. assume you are okay.Emotional displays of theteacher give studentsimportant messages about Offering unsolicited help can give atheir competence. The negative message, that the teacher feelsteacher’s frustration can lead the student is incompetent.students to feel incompetent.
  38. 38. Information and control Cognitive evaluation theory: suggests that events affect motivation through the individual’s perception of the events as controlling behavior or providing information.
  39. 39. Information and control Events tend to be informational (providing the student with information) or controlling (telling the student what to do). Informational Controlling Increases intrinsic motivation Decreases intrinsic motivationExamples: Examples:You did well on that test because you You did well on that test becauseworked hard. you followed directions.We are going to present our projects The project is due next week sonext week, so you may want to think get to work!about what you need to get done on it.
  40. 40. I can choose what I practice and how much Control effort I put into it. I can choose where I do my homework and which subject I work on first.Control (autonomy) is the ability to alter the environment when necessary.
  41. 41. Helping students to have a sense of What rules do you control I see you using the learning strategies think we need in this we have been class? working on.. How are you From your work I doing on the can tell that yougoals you set? have learned a lot about this topic. It’s great to see everyone so involved in this project.
  42. 42. The need for relatedness Students need to feel that others (especially the teacher, but also other students) care about them and are responsive to their needs.
  43. 43. Relatedness This is related to some ideas onThe feeling of connectedness to Maslow’s hierarchy of needs.others in one’s social environmentresulting in feelings of worthiness oflove and respect.
  44. 44. Needs: lessons for teachers Students need to feel competent and connected.
  45. 45. Goal orientations and motivation Goal: what an individual strives to accomplish. Goal orientation: patterns of beliefs about goals related to achievement in school.
  46. 46. Goals and Goal-orientation This subject is I’d like to do so interesting as little as I —I’d like to can in order learn more to get a about this. decent grade.Both of these students have goals. Can you see how their goals will influence howthey learn?
  47. 47. Types of Goals  Mastery goal—focuses on mastering information, increasing understanding (not concerned with performance)  Performance goal—a personal intention to seem competent or perform well in the eyes of others.  Approach goals are goals focused on achievement (learning- approach is a goal to increase achievement, performance-approach is a goal to increase performance).  Avoidance goals are goals focused on avoiding something. Performance-avoidance is a focus on performing in order to avoid looking dumb.  Task-involved learners: students who focus on mastering the task or solving the problem.  Ego-involved learners: students who focus on how well they are performing and how they are judged by others.The type of goal a student has determines a lot about how that student learns.
  48. 48. An example I had a violin student whose goal was to get a 93 in his academic classes. According to him, a 93 is the “perfect A” because it is an A with the least amount of work. His goal was basically performance-avoidance: he was avoiding any grade his parents could give him trouble over (such as a B). As you might imagine, his performance in class was lackluster because he didn’t get excited about learning anything. School was a game to play and he knew how to win in such a way that most authorities would leave him alone. A couple of years later, he appeared to have abandoned this particular goal—he was involved in college-level classes and enjoying them.
  49. 49. Work-avoidant learners: students who don’t want to learn or to look smart, but justwant to avoid work. Work-avoidance goals This is SO boring. I’m going to get through this reading as fast as I can so I can watch Survivor on TV. What do you think she will remember about the text she is reading? If she were your student, what could you do to help her?
  50. 50. Social goals: a wide variety of needs and motives to be connected to others or part of agroup. Social goals Ryan said he signed up for Algebra II. He’s so cute. I guess I’ll sign up so I can be with him in class. How do you think she will do in algebra II? How can you, as a teacher, harness the social goals your students have?
  51. 51. Feedback and goal acceptance Students need accurate, positively-stated (e.g., you have achieved 75% of your goal rather than you have fallen short by 25%) feedback to help them with their goals. Students need to accept and commit goals if they are going to work on them. Commitment matters.
  52. 52. Effective goal setting: Specific My goal is to My goal is to spend do better in one hour every school. evening studying.Why are specific goals better than general goals? Which student will be able tomonitor his progress better on his goal?
  53. 53. Effective Goal Setting: Immediate I want to My goal is to graduate with make dean’s list honors four years this semester. from now. Why might immediate goals work better than goals that are far away?
  54. 54. Effective Goal Setting: Challenging I want to graduate in I think I can four years with a maintain a high B perfect 4.0 average. average for the next four years. What happens whenI don’t care what students setmy grades are in goals that arefour years—I just toowant to get out of challenging? here. What happens when the goals are not challenging enough?
  55. 55. Goal monitoring I studied for an hour yesterday and today. Two days in a row! That’s pretty good. It’s helpful to do it right after supper and to get into a habit. Why do you think monitoring goals would be important?
  56. 56. Strategy Use Why is it important to beEven though I studied an strategic in the process of hour a day, I still didn’t achieving goals?do very well on the test.My teacher says I need to do more than just readthe text. I think I’ll make a goal of working on 5 problems per day.
  57. 57. Metacognition The t.v. is too distracting. I had better study here in my room where it is quieter. Can you see how metacognitive strategies are critical for effective goal setting and achievement? How can you help students to develop metacognitive strategies?
  58. 58. Interests and emotions When students are not interested in a topic, they will not learn. Personal interests: enduring interests that a person has. Situational interest: more temporary interest—something that catches the eye of the student.
  59. 59. Capturing student interest Find out about their interests—if a group of them have a personal interest in something, perhaps you can use that topic. Work with situational interest—find interesting ways to approach curricular topics (e.g., using a computer program, using a puzzle, using an unexpected event).
  60. 60. Capturing student interest This is critical, particularly for students who are at risk for failure. Students from strongly academic backgrounds have a degree of tolerance for boredom, but students who don’t have a strong academic background do not have this tolerance.
  61. 61. Capturing student interest This takes some creativity—but it is one of the most fun aspects of teaching. Further, when you teach something that is interesting, you will really enjoy the teaching process and watching the students get into the activity.
  62. 62. For example For several years I have been part of an Appalachian project that involves an urban school and my students in Education 214, Integrating the arts in the elementary classroom. In this project, we build dulcimers, sing Appalachian songs, dance to a live band, perform a Jack tale, decorate quilt squares and sew a quilt, and learn about the culture in general. We meet a lot of social studies benchmarks in this project.
  63. 63. The Appalachian ProjectThe classroom teacher plays guitar. We had a volunteer banjo player, as well.
  64. 64. The Appalachian ProjectOur volunteer banjo player came every week and wasgenerous about sharing with the students (that’s a $2000banjo a child is holding).
  65. 65. The Appalachian Project The dance
  66. 66. The Appalachian Project Our quilt
  67. 67. You can do this, too Not every day has to be filled with something this special—but this sort of thing needs to happen periodically. We began with an interest I had. Because of my personal interest in Appalachian music, I had resources—I had books about it, I knew the music, and I knew people who could help us to pull this project off. Most of the students did not have an initial interest in this subject, but because of the nature of the activities (building a working musical instrument) they became interested.
  68. 68. Arousal: excitement and anxiety in learning Arousal: physical and psychological reactions causing a person to be alert, attentive, wide awake.
  69. 69. Arousal Curiosity: this is related to interest. People have studied curiosity and found that it often happens when we don’t fully understand something—there is a gap in our knowledge. Anxiety: general uneasiness, a feeling of tension.
  70. 70. Anxiety Can get in the way of learning and showing what one has learned. Anxiety gets in the way of our ability to pay attention. It’s a negative cycle—we feel anxious, struggle to pay attention, then become more anxious as we realize we are not comprehending the material.
  71. 71. Arousal and anxiety I’m so nervous I don’t know what to When people get nervous, do. All I can think they lose some of their of is how nervous I ability to think logically. In am. anticipation of a nervous situation, they may use poorer strategies to prepare.Anxiety: a general uneasiness andfeeling of tension. Anxiety can affectmotivation both positively andnegatively. A little anxiety can begood motivation. Too much anxietycan get in the way of effectivelearning.
  72. 72. Managing anxiety Problem-solving—trying to address the learning problems in an intelligent and do- able way. It is important for teachers to help students with problem solving. Emotional management—trying to reduce feelings of anxiety. Avoidance—avoiding situations that cause anxiety (not a good strategy to use in school).
  73. 73. Beliefs and self-schemas Beliefs about ability Beliefs about causes and control Beliefs about self-efficacy and learned helplessness Beliefs about self-worth
  74. 74. Intelligence Is intelligence a set characteristic like your height as an adult or the color of your eyes? Or can intelligence be influenced by what you do? How you answer these questions may influence how motivated you are as a learner.
  75. 75. Entity view of intelligence Since I can’t do anything about how smart I am, I will focus my efforts on how IThis means that approach tasks.intelligence is anunchangingcharacteristic. Performance goal This attitude “works” for learners who feel that they are pretty smart. Learners who feel non-intelligent are likely to give up because they feel hopeless.
  76. 76. Incremental view of intelligence If I work at learning this, I can get a lot smarter. Learning goal This view gives students a sense of control over their own destiny. If they work, they will be rewarded with increasing ability.
  77. 77. Does it work? Is it fair to get kids’ hopes up? There are limits. Most piano students aren’t going to become Vladimir Horowitz, no matter how hard they work. Most student athletes are not going to break world records at the Olympics. But the belief in learning and work increasing ability does go a long way, even in sports and music. Hard work can make up for a smaller amount of talent and no amount of talent can make up for the lack of practice.
  78. 78. Attribution Theory  Locus  Stability  ControlAttribution theory involves how we explain our successes and failures. Do weattribute them to ourselves or to factors outside ourselves? Do we attribute themto things that change or things that don’t change? How much control do we haveover these factors?Attribution theory: descriptions of how individuals’ explanations,justifications, and excuses influence their motivation and behavior.
  79. 79. Locus It’s not my fault. The teacher made the test too hard. If I had studied more, I would have done better on the test.Locus means“location.” It can beinternal or external.For which student isthe cause of not doingwell external? Forwhich is it internal?What are theimplications when astudent attributes herperformance to anexternal cause? Howabout to an internalcause?
  80. 80. Stability I don’t think I’m very I didn’t do so well good at this subject. this time, but It’s awfully hard for me maybe my luck to understand. will change. I’m bringing my rabbit’s foot the next time we have a test.Luck can change (with The point ofor without the rabbit’s stability is howfoot). Ability doesn’t changeable is thechange (although cause of theeffort can change and can make up forability to a certainextent).
  81. 81. Control I can Yeah, but you control how can’t control how much I hard the teacher study for makes the test. the test.Some things arecontrollable by theperson and others arenot. What implicationsdoes this have for yourstudents? Whatimplications does it havefor the strategies yousuggest?
  82. 82. Attribution Theory: Application Where does the student consider the locus of the problem to be? How stable is the cause? What kind of control does the student have? The answers to these questions influence how you respond to the student. For example, if the student is externalizing, you might guide him to think about his own contribution to the problem. Whatever the cause, you might want to help the student to focus on his effort. You need to be aware of what the student can control and what is beyond the student’s control.
  83. 83. Impact of Attributions on Learners I’ll never be I’m not going to able to do bother studying this for the next oneExpectations for Future effortfuture success I feel bad It’s not because I got surprising, then, a C- that I keep doing badly. Emotional AchievementFortunately, you can help students change this kind of attitude…
  84. 84. This is a review of a concept you had in the last chapter. Self Efficacy  Your beliefs about your abilities.  Four factors influence them:  Past performance  Observing others  Verbal persuasion (a teacher tells you you can do it)  Physiological and psychological factors (hunger, being upset, etc.)Guess what: students who are high in self-efficacy do better inschool. What can we do as teachers to help students develop self-efficacy?
  85. 85. The Learned Helplessnessexpectation,based on I can’t succeed,previous so I might as wellexperiences not even try.with a lack ofcontrol, thatall one’sefforts willlead to Learned helplessness isfailure. associated with low self- esteem, depression, and refusal to try.
  86. 86. Learned helplessness Learned helplessness is a psychological condition in which a human or animal has learned to believe that it is helpless. It thinks that it has no control over its situation and that whatever it does is futile. As a result it will stay passive when the situation is unpleasant or harmful and damaging. It is a well-established principle in psychology, a description of the effect of inescapable punishment (such as electrical shock) on animal (and by extension, human) behaviour. Learned helplessness may also occur in everyday situations where environments in which people experience events in which they feel or actually have no control over what happens to them, such as repeated failure, prison, war, disability, famine and drought may tend to foster learned helplessness. An example involves concentration camp prisoners during the Holocaust, when some prisoners, called Mussulmen, refused to care or fend for themselves. Present-day examples can be found in mental institutions, orphanages, or long-term care facilities where the patients have failed or been stripped of agency for long enough to cause their feelings of inadequacy to persist.
  87. 87. Learned helplessness Not all people become depressed as a result of being in a situation where they appear not to have control; in what Seligman called "explanatory style," people in a state of learned helplessness view problems as personal, pervasive, or permanent. That is, Personal - They may see themselves as the problem; that is, they have internalized the problem. Pervasive - They may see the problem affecting all aspects of life. Permanent - They may see the problem as unchangeable.
  88. 88. Learned helplessness Martin Seligmans foundational experiments and theory of learned helplessness began at the University of Pennsylvania in 1965, as an extension of his interest in depression, when, at first quite by accident, Seligman and colleagues discovered a result of conditioning of dogs that was opposite to what B.F. Skinners behaviorism would have predicted. A dog that had earlier been repeatedly conditioned to associate a sound with electric shocks did not try (later in another setting) to escape the electric shocks after that sound and a flash of light was presented, even though all the dog would have had to do is jump over a low divider within ten seconds, more than enough time to respond. The dog didnt even try to avoid the "aversive stimulus"; the dog had previously "learned" that nothing it did mattered.
  89. 89. Dealing with learned helplessness Seligman eventually taught the dogs how to escape—but they had to be dragged over the barrier to learn. Students who have experienced a lot of failure and who are in learned helplessness need to have lots of success in order to get out. They need immediate small successes and then to build up to longer term and larger successes.
  90. 90. An emotional reaction to or evaluation of the self (also known as self-esteem). Self-worth Theory What he says: What he says: I couldn’t work on the project ‘til the That project was too last minute. If I hard. It’s not fair to had had more time, be assigned such a it would have been difficult task. better. What he means: What he means: If I can blame someone else, If I really put in time on then I don’t have to look at the project, it might not my own contribution to the have been very good. So I failure of the project. This is didn’t put in the time so I how I maintain a sense that I have an excuse I can live am competent in the face of with for it not being good. possible evidence otherwise.How the maintenance of self-worth gets in the way of achievement.What can you do as a teacher to help a student like this?
  91. 91. Self-worth Master-oriented students: students who focus on learning goals because they value achievement and see ability as improvable. Failure-avoiding students: students who avoid failure by sticking to what they know, by not taking risks, or by claiming not to care about their performance. Failure-accepting students: students who believe their failures are due to low ability and there is little they can do about it.
  92. 92. Motivation to Learn in School The tendency to find academic activities meaningful and worthwhile and to try to benefit from them.
  93. 93. How motivated are you? In what classes or subjects do you find learning to be interesting? What has contributed to your motivation to learn in those classes or subjects? Is there anything you can learn from those situations that might help you to feel more motivated about other subjects or topics?
  94. 94. Learning from bad teaching Probably all of us have stories of “teachers from hell.” This is unfortunate, but remains true. When you find yourself in a bad situation, now that you are studying educational psychology, think to yourself: “what can I learn here about what NOT to do with other people—students, colleagues, etc.?” Remember that you can be motivated about a topic but not about a class, especially if a teacher has done a poor job. I loved French before and after high school but had a very bad teacher in high school. Even as many problems as this teacher had, she never stamped out my love of French.
  95. 95. Barriers to motivationCurriculum determined by state, not studentsSchool attendance is mandatory, not a choiceToo many students in classesClassrooms are a social setting where failurebecomes publicGrades“Daily grind”—routines that lead to boredom. What can you do as a teacher to get rid of the barriers?
  96. 96. TARGET Task Autonomy RecognitionGrouping practices Evaluation Time
  97. 97. Task Academic task: the work the student must accomplish, including the content covered and the mental operations required. Importance/attainment value: the importance of doing well on a task; how success on the task meets personal needs. Intrinsic or interest value: the enjoyment a person gets from a task. Utility value: the contribution of a task to meeting one’s goals.
  98. 98. Task valueInterest Importance Utility Cost
  99. 99. Task value and Educational Psychology Importance:Interest: Being able to understandIf you like people- why people do what theywatching, you’ll do is critical information.probably like It helps you to respond inEducational a more constructive way.Psychology. It Interest Importanceexplains WHY yousee what you areseeing. Utility CostUtility: Cost:If you are working with people in any Here’s the rub. It’s notsort of job, you will find Educational always easy to understandPsychology useful because it tells you all these theories andhow to teach and motivate people. ideas. It takes work toThis means you potentially can get absorb these ideas in ayour ideas accepted over someone way that makes them reallywho does not have the same people useful.skills, regardless of level of authority.
  100. 100. What does it mean to you to do well in this class? Perhaps it means that you are smart? Perhaps it means that the instructor likes you? Perhaps it means that you have achieved a goal you set for yourself? Perhaps it means that you have learned something interesting and useful? Perhaps it means that you will be able to maintain your high GPA? Perhaps it allows you to avoid the anger of your advisor or your parents?Doing well has different meaning for different people. This is the importance orattainment value.
  101. 101. Authentic tasks Tasks that have some connection to real- life problems the students will face outside the classroom. Problem-based learning: methods that provide students with realistic problems that don’t necessarily have right answers.
  102. 102. Authentic tasks are motivating… …because students can see the connection between what they are doing in the classroom and what they will be doing out in the “real world.”You will probably find your field placement classes to be really fun andinteresting because in those you will be doing what you plan to do as aprofessional. The further you move in your degree program, the moreauthentic the tasks of learning are likely to be.
  103. 103. Problem-based learning One way to create authenticity is to use problem-based learning, using real problems either within the community or problems students are likely to face (e.g., how to deal with the proficiency test). Students can research the problem and explore solutions. With community problems, students can express their opinions in local forums such as the letters to the editor of the local newspaper.
  104. 104. Supporting autonomy and recognizing accomplishment Students need a balance between structure and choice.“Bounded choice”—giving the students a range of options but not total freedom.
  105. 105. Choices For younger students, the choices need to be simpler: between fewer options. The same is true for students who have not had many choices in the past Older students can handle more choices.
  106. 106. Choices When students are resisting something, give them a choice about HOW they do it. They can work on their math facts at their desk or lying on the floor (if this is not a frequent option, it will make doing the math facts more fun). They can do their sustained silent reading in a chair or on the floor. Even high schools students like the opportunity to move around.
  107. 107. Portfolios and choicesPortfolio assessment (which you will learn about in a later chapter) allowsyou to offer many choices to students, including what gets assessed (notevery student work goes into a portfolio) and even how it gets assessed(e.g., choosing which work is to be assessed for which characteristic).Portfolios can be used in almost any subject area.
  108. 108. Recognizing accomplishments Students need feedback on their work. We need to recognize what is right along with helping students to work on problems. Instead of praise (“good job”) it is more effective to point out how a student might feel about the accomplishment (“Look what you did. You worked hard. I bet you feel proud of that.”) This encourages students to own the accomplishment and to attribute the accomplishment to their own efforts.
  109. 109. Grouping Goal structure: the way students relate to others who are also working toward a particular goal. Can be cooperative, competitive, or individualistic. Cooperation leads to higher achievement than competition.
  110. 110. Competition Competition is a zero-sum game: when someone wins, other(s) lose. This doesn’t work in a classroom where there is a commitment to teach everyone. Competition might be motivating for the people who are near the top but it is enormously demotivating for the people at the bottom. Their thinking tends to be: “I’ll never win, so why should I try?” Competition doesn’t work in the workplace. The best companies encourage employees to work cooperatively.
  111. 111. Evaluation There is a difference between evaluation and grading. Grades are simply one form of evaluation. A more valuable form of evaluation is constructive, detailed feedback given in a caring manner. This can be done in person or in writing if the student is able to read.
  112. 112. Evaluation Don’t make a test the reason students need to learn something. Think of the utility of what they are learning and use that as a primary reason. If at all possible, use authentic tasks as part of the learning process. Be prepared to re-think what you are asking students to do. Is it part of the curriculum or is it something you just always do? If it is part of the curriculum, in what other way can you teach it?
  113. 113. Time How do you feel when you are doing something engaging and have to stop to do something else? Students will be frustrated if they have to stop all the time. See what you can do to schedule relatively large blocks of time for students to work on important and interesting projects.
  114. 114. Time Another challenge with time is that some students move through work quickly and others desperately need more time. You need to plan learning activities for those who move through their work quickly. You need to plan how students might have more time on a topic when they need it.
  115. 115. Time Technology can help. Students who work quickly in an area might read a text that goes quickly over the material they need to learn. Students who need to consider things at a slower pace might benefit from a power point that covers the same material but with greater explanation. In other words, take the text, break it into smaller parts, and add explanations and examples.
  116. 116. Motivation and demotivation Motivation is based on an inner feeling. We cannot control other people’s feelings. SO it is hard to make someone feel motivated about something (although we can encourage it). On the other hand, it is EXTREMELY easy to DEMOTIVATE someone. Just give them a bad or unpleasant experience in some way.
  117. 117. Motivators Messages of accountability and high expectations Teacher communicates importance of work Clear goals/directions Connections across the curriculum Opportunities to learn about and practice dramatic arts Attributions to effort Encouraging risk-taking Uses games and play to reinforce concept Home-school connections Multiple representations of a task Positive classroom management, praise, private reprimands Stimulating creative thought Opportunities for choice Teacher communicates to students that they can handle challenging tasks Value students—communicate caring
  118. 118. Demotivators Attributions to intellect rather than effort Teacher emphasizes competition rather than cooperation Few displays of student work No scaffolding for learning a new skill Ineffective/negative feedback Lack of connections Easy tasks Negative class atmosphere Punitive classroom management Work that is much too difficult Slow pacing Emphasis on finishing, not learning Sparse, unattractive classroom Poor planning Public punishment
  119. 119. Motivation and culture Culture influences motivation. You need to be aware of this and the possibilities for the nature of the possible influence.
  120. 120. Encouraging Motivation Build confidence and positive expectations Help students to see the value in learning Help students stay focused.
  121. 121. Emphasize incremental views of intelligence The more you work on this, the better you are going to get.
  122. 122. Emphasize goals, strategies, and metacognition This piece is a real challenge. But if you work on it thoughtfully and every day, I know you’ll be able to do it.
  123. 123. Promote student interestI’m so glad you are readyto play the Paganini. It’s one of my very favorite pieces. Did you know that Paganini was somuch better than anyoneelse at his time, he had to write his own music? Nothing that had been written then was hard enough for him.
  124. 124. Emphasize the utility value of increased skills Because you have worked on this skill,it’s going to make the next unit SO much easier for you.
  125. 125. Give students the opportunity to practice Here are some problems that are like the ones on the test. Let’s see what you can do with these.
  126. 126. Deemphasize competition Let’s work on this together so everyone can succeed.
  127. 127. Model effort attributions The last time we had a test, all of you worked hard and did really well. I’m sure you can do this again.
  128. 128. Assess frequently Now tomorrow we are going to have a practice quiz to get you ready for Friday’s test.
  129. 129. Model efficacyIt wasn’t easy for me to learn to play, but Ipracticed and I began to use the techniques my teacher taught me.Pretty soon, I could see progress.
  130. 130. Provide Evidence of Accomplishment Look at what you have done!! Last week you couldn’t do this kind of problem and this week, you can!
  131. 131. Encourage internal attributions for successes and controllable attributions for failuresYou did this part of the test really well because youpracticed these problems. I think you’ll do better on the other part after some more practice.
  132. 132. Vocabulary Failure- Humanistic Learned PerformanceAcademic tasks Competence accepting Self-worth psychology helplessness goal students Failure- Affective Learning Problem-based Control avoiding Importance Social goals memories goal learning students Importance/ Legitimate Sociocultural Anxiety Cost Goal Attainment peripheral Relatedness views of value participation motivation Attribution Deficiency Goal Locus of Task-involved Incentive Reward theory needs orientation causality learners Attributional Ego-involved Incremental Self- Unconditional Goal structure Mastery goal statements learners view of ability actualization positive regard Mastery- Entity view of Growth Intrinsic Self-Authentic task oriented Utility value ability needs interest determination students Expectancy x Hierarchy of Intrinsic Work-avoidant Being needs Motivation Self-efficacy value theory needs motivation learners Cognitive Extrinsic Humanistic Intrinsic or Motivation to theories of Self-schemas motivation interpretation interest value learn motivation