Each one to come up with 1 -2 qns related to area of research.
Group 5 PBL - scenario 1
Problem Based Learning
TG8 Group 5 members:
Chan Hui Wen Nichol
Png Jian Shun Shaun
Ong Pei Ling
Sim Ya En Avery Rhoda
1. Introduction of Scenario
2. List of Questions Generated
3. Key Points & Problems Identified
4. Theories Used
5. Recommended Solutions
Andy, Ms Wong, Ahmad, Bee Chu
From middle-SES; mother is a home-maker and father is a
Andy has a younger sister of 7 who attends the same
school as he does.
2. List of Questions
• What are the positive and negative outcomes from Erikson’s
“Industry vs. Inferiority” stage due to accomplishment and
• How to increase Andy’s desirable behavior and decrease
• How to increase Andy’s intrinsic motivation?
• How can Ms Wong and Andy’s peers contribute towards a
better learning environment for Andy?
• What can Ms Wong do to increase the self-esteem of the
Our Focus Statement
As beginning teachers, it is crucial to understand the
effective methods of motivation and to create a
conducive learning environment for the student.
4. Theories Used
1. Bronfenbrenner’s Bioecological Theory
2. Bandura’s Social Cognitive Theory
3. Erikson’s Psychosocial Development Theory
6. Behavioral Approach
7. Social Cognitive Theory
8. Social Constructivism
Andy has direct interaction with parents, peers and
teachers in the microsystem.
Andy constructs the microsystem
by influencing others around him
through interaction as much as
others influence him.
4.2. Bandura’s Social Cognitive
Social (Environmental) factors,
Cognitive (Personal) factors
and Behavior interact
and influence learning.
Ms Wong and his peers become social factors that affect Andy’s
cognitive thinking and behavior.
Andy demonstrated low self-efficacy (cognitive) when he commented
that he should have gone to play soccer instead of studying (behavior)
4.3. Erikson’s psychosocial
“Industry vs Inferiority” stage
Builds upon competencies and skills
Sense of accomplishments and achievements
Failure to strike a balance: narrow virtuosity and inertia
Primary school student
Issues: academic results
Relationships: peers, family and teachers
4.3. Erikson’s psychosocial
Andy may be at risk of feeling inferior:
Has tried to study
Has not been doing well in academic
Often receives scolding from Ms Wong
Being looked down by Bee Chu
Potential negative outcome: Inertia
Apathetic towards academic matters
Nonchalant towards teachers and peers
• Self-Esteem is the individual evaluation of the gap between self-
image and ideal self. Self-esteem is not fixed and we are all
constantly engaged in the processes that test, modify and restructure
• Ms Wong often shouts and makes negative comments when her
students fail to meet her expectation in their academic
• How her current behaviour will affect the self-esteem of the pupils
towards Science and towards her? (Negative)
• How self-esteem will affect an individual’s ability to perform to their
fullest? (Positive correlated)
• What should be done to increase the pupils self- esteem?
• Motivation is the force that energizes and directs a behavior
towards a goal (Baron, 1992;Schunk, 1990;Schunk, Pintrich &
• Motivation is a crucial element to the learning process (Perry,
Turner & Meyer, 2006). The research clearly shows a positive
correlation between motivation and achievement (Ringness,
1965; Ugurogulu & Walberg, 1979; Wang, Haertel, &
Walberg, 1993). Therefore, knowledge of the factors that
facilitate motivation to learn and achieve is crucial for a
teacher to be truly effective or for a student to achieve.
Andy is not motivated to study for the test as her
presume that he will still fail regardless of the fact that he
did study for the test.
How the students can be motivated extrinsically by the
teacher to increase their desirable behavior.
The need for both a belief that the action will to goal
attainment (expectancy), and that the goal has value
4.6. Vygotsky’s Theory
The importance of social influence on a child’s cognitive
development is reflected in the concept of the ZPD
Adequate scaffolding should be provided by adjusting
of guidance to fit the
Teacher or even a more advanced peer could provide scaffolding
support and assistance to weaker pupils like Andy.
By breaking the problem into smaller, realizable chunks, it will help
Andy to feel a greater sense of accomplishment.
To slowly increase the difficulty of the task – setting increasing level
of targets for the child to achieve (successive level of approximation)
Erikson’s psycho-social development theory
Help to build on Andy’s competencies and skills to achieve sense of
Provide opportunities for pupils to tap on the expertise of
Activity plan should cater to the different learning styles/
multiple intelligences so that all pupils can be engaged in
Consideration when forming collaborative groups (Mix of
1) Activation Theory
Mental arousal is necessary for effective functioning.
We need a certain level of activation in order to be
sufficiently motivated to achieve goals.
When a teacher is seeking to get Andy to learn in class,
she should ensure that work is stimulating and retain
2) Cognitive Evaluation Theory
We evaluate how well a task will meet our needs to feel
competent and being in control when we look at it. If we
think that we are able to complete the task, we will be
intrinsically motivated to complete it.
When the teacher wants Andy to be motivated, she
should ensure that it falls within his current level of
3) Expectancy Theory
As we are constantly predicting likely futures, we create
expectation about future events. We will be motivated to
act if we know how to get there and we believe we can
“make the difference”
By motivating Andy to do something by showing him
something desirable, indicating how straightforward it is
to get it and to further support his self belief that he can
4) Drive Theory
We possess needs which lead to internal stimuli prodding
us into action, driving us to reduce those stimuli by
satisfying relevant needs.
Teacher has to understand what drives Andy and
stimulate these in order to get him into action. She would
have to ensure that she motivate the drive in him such
that he would act in a way that she would like him to.
5) Extrinsic motivation
Motivation by external factors drives people to do things
for rewards/through pressure.
Praises when improvements are being observed
Acknowledge of effort and achievement made.
6) Intrinsic motivation
Providing an interesting, relevant curriculum, with
projects incorporated that students genuinely want to do.
Creating a positive classroom climate. Research
shows that what educational scholars term “a positive
affective environment” promotes student learning and
motivation in a statistically significant way.
Create an atmosphere of high expectations, both
behaviorally and academically. If you expect greatness, often
you will receive it. Students’ motivation will decline if the
teacher’s expectations are too low.
5.4. Stress Management
Provide opportunities and channels for children
to express their feelings
journals, blogs or through drawings
Practice positive self-talk
"I can do it"
School counseling sessions for pupils
1) The way I learn
In the past, learning was more of a teacher directed process. The teacher will go
through the problem with the class and thereafter some guidelines will be given to
solve the problem. However, this was very different from the concept of PBL.
2) The way I solve problem
Through PBL, it allows me to look at the problem from all angles with my very own
perspectives and thereafter to generate various possible solutions.
3) What makes group learning effective
The different expertise that we have help us to view the problem from various angles.
4) How it has nurtured my competencies as a beginning teacher
I have learned to consider students’ background knowledge, environment, and
5) What is my present belief on how students learn best
As a teacher, we will have to adopt various strategies to cater to the needs of different
students. There is no one best solution, this is because of the different problem
encountered as well as the different environments that they are in.
6.1 Pei Ling’s reflection
6.2 Yaen’s Reflections
TThe problem-based learning requires looking into a real life scenario. This has
provided us with the need to look for different theories and to put them into
he process of solving the problem in the scenario has made these theories more than
just an impression. There is now more familiarity and appreciation for these theories.
The fact that there are always more than one way to look at and to solve a problem
was also reinforced during the process of this learning experience.
Group work facilitated much of this Problem Based Learning by enabling us to see a
problem through the eyes of different people and learning from each other. This helps
us to broaden our perspectives and diversify our approaches towards solving the
A collaborative effort from all the group members also allowed us to explore deeper
into each of the theories that were applicable to the given PBL scenario.
6.3. Hui Wen’s
The way I learn:
given greater autonomy in our own learning; taking on a very active role in learning
The way I solve problem:
Breaking to problem into different stages and smaller tasks, evaluating each process and
always reflecting on the bigger picture later
Analyzing from different angles
Effective group learning
The sum of all parts is greater than the whole itself
Active contributions – work attitudes, knowledge, initiatives
Personal belief about how students learn best:
Every child is different; get to know students better
Setting a constructivist learning environment
Motivating students to learn positively
Use of e-portfolio
Facilitates collaborative learning but not compatible with MS word; alignments and tables
6.4. Shaun’s Reflections1. PBL changed me
Learning: understand the problem first before researching on theories
Solving Problem : gather and apply what I have learnt to solve the problem
Group Learning : engage in collaborative learning & piece up different knowledge
2. Nurtured my competencies
Pedagogical Skills : Meaningful and engaging lessons; Use of IT; Differential learning needs
Interpersonal Skills : Effective communication; Positive relationships
Reflective Skills : Effectiveness of lessons for learning
Personal Skills: Personal emotions ; Use of language
Organizational and Mgmt Skills : Keep track of students’ learning process; Classroom mgmt
3. More scaffolding and guidance towards working on the PBL group project
Strengths: Easy communication of ideas; Work at own free time; Updating info in real time
Limitations: Not compatible with Microsoft Word; Alignment; Decreases interaction
5. Authentic classroom footage
Strengths: Relate to the problem easily through dramatisation and visual learning
Limitations: Lack of information
6. Present Belief: Students learn best when learning is meaningful and engaging.
Students learn best when their teacher understands and meets their different learning needs