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  1. 1. Helpful Research Theories for Classroom Management Are you ready to teach?
  2. 2. Effective Teaching and Research <ul><li>Since the 1960’s, much research has been done on education. </li></ul><ul><li>Until that time, teaching was based on myths, hearsay, and traditions handed down or recollections of how they were taught. </li></ul><ul><li>Many teachers tend to teach as they were taught throughout their schooling. </li></ul><ul><li>Most teachers tend to teach as their academic college professors taught them. </li></ul>Harry and Rosemary Wong
  3. 3. Importance of Research <ul><li>“ It may be dangerous to teach as you were taught.” </li></ul><ul><li>Research </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the process of critical thinking and solving problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the use of the human mind to search for and seek answers and “the truth.” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>People who know what to do and people who know how to do it will always be working for those who know why it is being done. </li></ul>Harry and Rosemary Wong
  4. 4. A Model of Teaching that has NO Research Support <ul><li>Assign chapters to read </li></ul><ul><li>Answer questions at the back of the chapter or worksheet </li></ul><ul><li>Deliver a lecture and have students take notes </li></ul><ul><li>Show a video or do an activity </li></ul><ul><li>Construct a test based on a number of points. </li></ul>Sage on the Stage? Or Guide on the Side? Harry and Rosemary Wong
  5. 5. Adolescent Psychology Review <ul><li>Review these famous research studies as you prepare to meet the needs of the students you teach </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What are the students’ key developmental factors to consider? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What developmental factors may influence instruction? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>TPA Whole Class Requirement – “Provide a general description of students within this age range and in the selected class.” </li></ul><ul><li>How will you use this information regarding developmental factors in planning academic instruction for this class in your selected subject matter? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>physical development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>social development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>emotional development </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Albert Bandura <ul><li>Child-rearing techniques influence personality development </li></ul><ul><li>Children imitate behavior and follow role models </li></ul><ul><li>Children learn by observing </li></ul><ul><li>Aggressive interactions encourage aggression </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers need to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>model appropriate behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>know how to counteract negative media </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>reward calm, non-aggressive behavior </li></ul></ul>Are you a good role model for your students? YouTube Bobo Doll Experiment Social Learning Theories
  7. 7. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs <ul><li>Theory of Self-actualization (expressing one’s potentialities) </li></ul><ul><li>From biological needs to self-actualization (lower needs must be met before higher) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Physiological needs – hunger and thirst </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Safety needs, - security and support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Affiliation needs – affection and friendship </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Esteem needs – self-respect / self-confidence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-Actualization needs – self-motivation/independence </li></ul></ul>Is your teaching practice based on students’ needs? Learning Theories
  8. 8. Erik Erikson Psychosocial Development Stages Learning Theories Stage Basic Conflict Important Events Outcome Infancy (birth to 18 months) Trust vs. Mistrust Feeding Children develop a sense of trust when caregivers provide reliabilty, care, and affection. A lack of this will lead to mistrust. Early Childhood (2 to 3 years) Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt Toilet Training Children need to develop a sense of personal control over physical skills and a sense of independence. Success leads to feelings of autonomy, failure results in feelings of shame and doubt. Preschool (3 to 5 years) Initiative vs. Guilt Exploration Children need to begin asserting control and power over the environment. Success in this stage leads to a sense of purpose. Children who try to exert too much power experience disapproval, resulting in a sense of guilt. School Age (6 to 11 years) Industry vs. Inferiority School Children need to cope with new social and academic demands. Success leads to a sense of competence, while failure results in feelings of inferiority. Adolescence (12 to 18 years) Identity vs. Role Confusion Social Relationships Teens need to develop a sense of self and personal identity. Success leads to an ability to stay true to yourself, while failure leads to role confusion and a weak sense of self. Yound Adulthood (19 to 40 years) Intimacy vs. Isolation Relationships Young adults need to form intimate, loving relationships with other people. Success leads to strong relationships, while failure results in loneliness and isolation. Middle Adulthood (40 to 65 years) Generativity vs. Stagnation Work and Parenthood Adults need to create or nurture things that will outlast them, often by having children or creating a positive change that benefits other people. Success leads to feelings of usefulness and accomplishment, while failure results in shallow involvement in the world. Maturity(65 to death) Ego Integrity vs. Despair Reflection on Life Older adults need to look back on life and feel a sense of fulfillment. Success at this stage leads to feelings of wisdom, while failure results in regret, bitterness, and despair.
  9. 9. Carl Rogers <ul><li>Basic drive in human nature – to fulfill one’s potential (self-actualization) </li></ul><ul><li>Aggressive, anxious, selfish behavior occurs when actualization tendencies distorted/blocked </li></ul><ul><li>Reinforcement and satisfaction come from continuous growth experiences. </li></ul><ul><li>One needs to develop positive self concept </li></ul><ul><li>Continuous evolution of self-fulfillment </li></ul><ul><li>Goals for individuals based on self-direction. </li></ul><ul><li>Each child is an individual. </li></ul>Carl Rogers
  10. 10. Lawrence Kohlberg: Moral Development <ul><li>Preconventional Level of Moral Reasoning – cultural rules, labels (good/bad), consequences (reward/punishment) determine behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Conventional – conforms to expectations of group, family, and society (duty) </li></ul><ul><li>Postconventional – Behavior tied to moral choices: Moral Judgment </li></ul>Affective Domain Theories Studies in Social and Moral Development in Education Piaget and Kohlberg
  11. 11. William Glasser - Control Theory <ul><li>Students come into classroom with 5 basic needs: </li></ul><ul><li>Love: need to feel loved and VALUED. Need to belong (social/peers/cooperative groups) </li></ul><ul><li>Independence: Sense of freedom - make decisions on their own. </li></ul><ul><li>Fun: Will create their own fun if you don't make learning fun! </li></ul><ul><li>Security: Sense that things are right with the world. </li></ul><ul><li>Power: Need to feel in control of what happens to them - shape their own lives. </li></ul>WikEd
  12. 12. Glasser’s Choice Theory Habits <ul><li>Seven Caring Habits </li></ul><ul><li>Supporting </li></ul><ul><li>Encouraging </li></ul><ul><li>Listening </li></ul><ul><li>Accepting </li></ul><ul><li>Trusting </li></ul><ul><li>Respecting </li></ul><ul><li>Negotiating differences </li></ul><ul><li>Seven Deadly Habits </li></ul><ul><li>Criticizing </li></ul><ul><li>Blaming </li></ul><ul><li>Complaining </li></ul><ul><li>Nagging </li></ul><ul><li>Threatening </li></ul><ul><li>Punishing </li></ul><ul><li>Bribing, rewarding to control </li></ul>Examine yourself! What are your caring habits? What are your deadly habits?
  13. 13. How to be an Effective Teacher: The First Days of School Harry and Rosemary Wong If you dare to teach, then you must dare to learn.
  14. 14. THE STUDENTS MUST LEARN <ul><li>If the student cannot demonstrate learning or achievement, the student has not failed – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>WE have failed the student. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Schools exist and teachers are hired for one reason only – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>to help students achieve. </li></ul></ul>Harry and Rosemary Wong Harry Wong Publications http://www.effectiveteaching.com/
  15. 15. Research for Teachers <ul><li>Do what the research tells us is most effective. </li></ul><ul><li>Use proven research-based practices. </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the research process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Problem - What do I want to know? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prediction - What do I think is the case? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Procedure - How will I solve the problem? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data - What will I look for? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conclusion - What do the results tell me? </li></ul></ul>Harry and Rosemary Wong
  16. 16. Three Major Characteristics of Effective Teachers <ul><li>They have high expectations that ALL of their students will succeed. </li></ul><ul><li>They are extremely good classroom managers. </li></ul><ul><li>The know how to design lessons to help students reach mastery. </li></ul>Harry and Rosemary Wong
  17. 17. A Well-Managed Classroom <ul><li>Effective Teachers MANAGE their classrooms. </li></ul><ul><li>Ineffective teachers DISCIPLINE their classrooms </li></ul>Harry and Rosemary Wong
  18. 18. What is Classroom Management? <ul><li>All things that a teacher does to organize students, space, time, and materials so that instruction in content and student learning can take place. </li></ul><ul><li>Must foster student involvement and cooperation in all classroom activities </li></ul><ul><li>Must establish a productive working environment. </li></ul>Harry and Rosemary Wong
  19. 19. Most Teachers Do Not Teach <ul><li>Most teachers do activities and when problems arise, they discipline. </li></ul><ul><li>Most classrooms are nonmanaged. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>And because of this - little is accomplished. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Teachers almost never think about managing the classroom - they only think of presenting lessons. </li></ul>Harry and Rosemary Wong
  20. 20. Characteristics of a Well-Managed Department Store <ul><li>The Store - layout, organization, and cleanliness </li></ul><ul><li>The Merchandise - display, accessibility, and availability </li></ul><ul><li>The Help - management, efficiency, knowledge, and friendliness </li></ul><ul><li>Security - procedures and routines </li></ul>Harry and Rosemary Wong
  21. 21. Characteristics of a Well-Managed Classroom <ul><li>Students are deeply involved with their work - especially with academic instruction </li></ul><ul><li>Students know what is expected of them and are generally successful </li></ul><ul><li>There is relatively little wasted time, confusion, or disruption </li></ul><ul><li>The climate is work-oriented, but relaxed and pleasant </li></ul>Harry and Rosemary Wong
  22. 22. Effective Teachers <ul><li>Effective teacher has a minimum of student misbehavior problems to handle </li></ul><ul><li>Ineffective teacher is constantly fighting student misbehavior problems. </li></ul><ul><li>Effective teacher prepares, prepares, prepares . </li></ul><ul><li>Effective teacher maximizes proximity to students and materials. </li></ul>Harry and Rosemary Wong
  23. 23. Classroom Procedures <ul><li>The number one problem is not discipline, but the lack of procedures and routines. </li></ul><ul><li>Discipline </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No learning takes place </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>concerns how students behave </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>has penalties and rewards </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Procedures - what the teacher wants done </li></ul><ul><li>Routines - what students do automatically </li></ul>Harry and Rosemary Wong
  24. 24. Procedures <ul><li>Effective Teachers manage with procedures </li></ul><ul><li>Procedures benefit the students </li></ul><ul><ul><li>helps them do work with less confusion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>helps them succeed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>are a part of life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>demonstrate how people are to function in an acceptable and organized manner </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Essential for first day of school </li></ul>Harry and Rosemary Wong
  25. 25. Three Step Approach <ul><li>Explain Classroom Procedures Clearly - </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Define </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Demonstrate Step by Step </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rehearse Until Procedure becomes Routine </li></ul><ul><li>Reinforce Correct Procedure and Reteach Incorrect One </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Give corrective feedback </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Praise when rehearsal is acceptable </li></ul></ul>Harry and Rosemary Wong
  26. 26. Increasing Student Learning and Achievement <ul><li>Instructional Time </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the time you observe a teacher instructing class </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>teacher focus </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Engaged Time </li></ul><ul><ul><li>observe student involved or engaged in a task – </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Student On Task” - student focus </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Academic Learning Time – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the amount of time you can prove or demonstrate that the student comprehended or learned the content or mastered the skill. </li></ul></ul>Harry and Rosemary Wong
  27. 27. Increase Student Learning <ul><li>Increase the amount of time the student is working and you increase learning </li></ul><ul><li>The person who does the work is the ONLY one who learns </li></ul><ul><li>People who work and put in effort always achieve more than those who do not. </li></ul><ul><li>The student should be the worker! </li></ul>Harry and Rosemary Wong
  28. 28. Wong Publications <ul><li>Website - http://www.effectiveteaching.com/cart.php </li></ul><ul><li>Going Beyond Folders - http://www.effectiveteaching.com/cart.php?m=content&page=12 </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers.Net Gazette Columns - http://teachers.net/wong/JAN11/ </li></ul><ul><li>Take the Teacher Quiz: </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.effectiveteaching.com/cart.php?m=content&page=7 </li></ul><ul><li>Check Your Teacher Effectiveness! </li></ul>
  29. 29. Watch a Video Interview with the Wongs! <ul><li>Click on Learn with </li></ul><ul><li>Harry and Rosemary Wong: </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.effectiveteaching.com/cart.php?m=content&page=11 </li></ul>