Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
Third stage of labor for undergraduate
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

Third stage of labor for undergraduate

1,244

Published on

Undergraduate course lectuers in Obstetrics&Gynecology,Faculty of medicine ,Zagazig UNIVERSIRY ,Prepared by DR MANAL BEHERY

Undergraduate course lectuers in Obstetrics&Gynecology,Faculty of medicine ,Zagazig UNIVERSIRY ,Prepared by DR MANAL BEHERY

Published in: Education
0 Comments
7 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
1,244
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
2
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
100
Comments
0
Likes
7
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. Defintion: Defintion 3rd stage of labor: commences with the delivery of the fetus and ends with delivery of the placenta and its attached membranes.Duration:- normally 5 to15 minutes.- 30 minutes have been suggested if there is no evidence of significant bleeding.
  • 2. Cause of placental separation After delivery of the fetus,the uterus retracts and theplacental bed diminished. As the placenta is inelasticand does not diminish insize it separates.
  • 3. primary and secondarymechanism for placental separation
  • 4.  Primary mechanism is the reduction in surface area of placental site as the uterus shrinks
  • 5.  Secondary mechanism is the formation of haematoma due to venous occlusion and vascular rupture in the placental bed caused by uterine contractions
  • 6. Placental Site during Separation
  • 7. Methods of Placental Separation
  • 8. Schultze MethodPlacenta separates in the centre and folds in on itself as it descends into the lower part of uterus (80%).Fetal surface appears at vulvawith membranes trailing behindMinimal visible blood loss as retroplacental clot contained within membranes (inverted sac)
  • 9. Duncan Method separation starts at thelower edge of placentalateral border separates (20%). maternal surface appears first at vulva Usually accompanied by more bleeding from placental site due to slower separation and no retro placental clot.
  • 10. Signs of Separation and Descent lengthening of theumbilical cord outside. The uterus becomesfirm and globular (Descent). The uterus rises in theabdomen. A gush of blood(separation ).
  • 11. Assess the uterus1-To exclude an undiagnosed twin2-To determine a baselinefundal height3-to detect the signs of placenta separation4- to detect an atonic uterus.
  • 12. Control of Bleeding 1. Normal blood flow through placenta site is 500-800 ml/minute (10-15% of cardiac output) 2.Strong contraction/retraction of uterus constrict blood vessles by interlacing muscle fibres in myometrium (“living ligature”) 3. Pressure exerted on placental site by walls of contracted uterus 4. Blood clotting mechanism (sinuses and torn vessels)
  • 13. Management of the Third Stage of Labour
  • 14. Physiologic or Active
  • 15. Active vs physiologic managementActive management includes a prophylactic oxytocic drug,early clamping and cutting of cord and controlled cord tractionPhysiological management involves no prophylactic oxytocic drugs, no cord clamping until after placental delivery and no cord traction
  • 16. Physiological ActivePlacental By gravity and By controlled corddelivery maternal effort traction with counter traction on fundsUterotonic after placenta delivery With birth of anterior ShoulderUterus Assessment of size Assessment of size and tone and toneCord Clamping Variable Early
  • 17. Physiological Management Passive or expectant management No prophylacticoxytocics Cord clamped afterdelivery of placenta No Controlled Cord Traction (CCT)
  • 18. Physiological Management Upright/kneeling/squatting position best- easy to observe blood loss Hands off just check uterus contracted and observe PV loss waits and watches for signs of separation and descent Mother expels placenta when she feels contraction and placenta in vagina
  • 19. Active Management Reduceslength of 3rd stage and incidence of PPH (blood loss and need for transfusion)Oxytocic given after birth ofShoulder (check for a twin/no shoulder dystocia) Cord clamped and cut Placenta delivered by Controlled Cord Traction
  • 20. Guarding the Uterus
  • 21. Controlled cord traction
  • 22. Placental delivery
  • 23. Delivering the Membranes
  • 24. Controlled Cord Traction CHECKS FIRST! Check that an oxytocic (uterotonic) has been given Why? Check that the uterus is well contracted Why? Check that countertraction is applied (Brandt- Andrews manoeuvre) Why? Check for signs of separation & descent Why? Check that cord traction is released before countertraction is stopped Why?
  • 25. Which is better active or physiologic management ? Active management is superior to physiological in terms of blood loss Physiological management is only appropriate for women with low risk of PPH and who have normal physiological labour If physiological management is attempted but intervention is subsequently required ( the placenta is retained after one hour) active management should be considered.
  • 26. Manual removal of retained placenta
  • 27. After Care: Before leaving to check placenta and membranes Check the uterus is well contracted Check that PV loss is minimal Inspect perineum, vulva and vagina in good light (? Repair) Babyshould be pink (respirations; heart rate) warm, fed, cord clamp secure
  • 28. check placenta and membranesfor completeness and normality
  • 29. Abnormal placenta (accessory lobe)Succentriatelobe
  • 30. Effects of labor on the mother
  • 31.  1 st stage: anxiety & mild tachycardia. 2 nd stage Pulse: up to 100 b.p.m. Temp: mild increase (37.5 - 37.7). B.P. systolic increased during pains.Conjunctiva; edematous & congested. Birth canal: minor lacerations in the cervix or perineum especially in PG.
  • 32. 3rd StageBlood loss from Placental site = 200-300 C.C due to placental separation. Lacerations or episiotomy = about 100 - 200 C.C
  • 33. Effects of labor on the Fetus
  • 34. Moulding Overlap of the flat bonesof the vault of the skull due to compression ofthe head during labourleading to alteration inits shape
  • 35. Types & Degrees a. Physiological: "beneficial“ decreases the size of head & facilitates its passage through the birth canal. 1. First degree: 2. Second degree
  • 36. Pathological : may lead to intracranial hemorrhage3 rd degree:Overriding of one parietalbone over the other withContractions but it is notReducible inbetween. 4 th degree: overriding of the 2 parietal bones over each others & both override the occipital
  • 37. Caput Succedaneum:
  • 38. Types A: Natural Cervical: with cervical dystocia. Pelvic: with obstructed labour usually formed in prolonged labour after rupture of membranes.
  • 39. Cehalnematoma
  • 40. Cehalhematoma(subperiosteal hemorrhage
  • 41. Thank You

×