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Mobile Phones to aid People in Disasters
 

Mobile Phones to aid People in Disasters

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Mobile Phones to aid People in Disasters

Mobile Phones to aid People in Disasters

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    Mobile Phones to aid People in Disasters Mobile Phones to aid People in Disasters Presentation Transcript

    • Mobile Phones to aid People in Disasters Markku Lauttamus, University of Jyvaskyla
    • Worldwide mobile phone sales 1Q/2009
      • 269.1 million units in the first quarter
        • 8.6 per cent decrease from the first quarter of 2008
      • Smartphone sales surpassed 36.4 million units
        • 12.7 per cent increase from the same period last year
      • Smartphone sales represented 13.5 per cent of all mobile device sales in the first quarter
        • 11 per cent in the first quarter of 2008. 
      • Much of the Smartphone growth during the first quarter of 2009 was driven by touch screen products
      Source: Gartner newsroom http://www.gartner.com/it/page.jsp?id=985912 Table 1 Worldwide Mobile Terminal Sales to End Users in 1Q09 (Thousands of Units)
    • ICT growth driven by mobile technologies Source : ITU World Telecommunication/ICT Indicators Database. http://www.itu.int/net/pressoffice/backgrounders/general/pdf/3.pdf Table 1 Worldwide Mobile Terminal Sales to End Users in 1Q09 (Thousands of Units) Mobile cellular has been the most rapidly adopted technology in history.
    • Smartphone features today Source: Nokia N8 spesification http://www.nokia.co.uk/find-products/all-phones/nokia-n8/specifications Table 1 Worldwide Mobile Terminal Sales to End Users in 1Q09 (Thousands of Units)
      • Capacitive touch screen
      • Orientation sensor (Accelerometer) Compass
      • GSM/EDGE 850/900/1800/1900
      • WCDMA 850/900/1700/1900/2100
      • Email and messaging Easy-to-use email client with attachment support for images, videos
      • RSS reader
      • GPS and navigation Integrated GPS, A-GPS receivers
      • Full web browsing of real web pages
      • Supported markup languages: HTML, XHTML MP, WML…
      • FM Radio FM Transmitter
      • Chat instant messaging support: Chat, Yahoo, AIM, Windows Live, Gtalk, MySpace*
      • SMS
      • camera
      Proximity sensor Video playback Video recording Video call Internal memory and external microSD memory card  Software platform & user interface Symbian ^3 for Nokia Java MIDP 2.1 Qt 4.6.2, Web Runtime 7.2 HTML 4.1 Software updates Over the Air (FOTA) & Over the internet (FOTI) Flash Lite 4.0 OMA DM 1.2, OMA Client provisioning 1.1 Personal Information Management (PIM) Calendar Notes Recorder Calculator Clock, music and documents .doc, .xls, .ppt, .pdf, .zip HTML support for email widget for home screen Conversational view for SMS Push email and expanded portal support available through Messaging for Email and Instant Messaging Browsing and internet CSS Supported protocols: HTTP v1.1, WAP TCP/IP support Visual history, HTML and JavaScript support Flash Lite 4 will support a majority of Flash Player 10.1 content Nokia Mobile Search Support for streaming video Maps with free car & pedestrian navigation Wi-Fi Positioning Compass and accelerometer for correct orientation of display Applications Key applications: Calendar, Contacts, music player, internet, messaging, photos, Ovi Store, Maps, Videos, ebTV, Office document editors, Video & photo editor, Mail, Chat, Radio Bluetooth 3.0 HDMI 2mm Charging connector Micro USB connector and charging High-Speed USB 2.0 (micro USB connector) USB On-the-Go 3.5 mm AV connector Data GPRS/EDGE class B, multislot class 33 HSDPA Cat9, maximum speed up to 10.2 Mbps, HSUPA Cat5 2.0 Mbps WLAN IEEE802.11 b/g/n TCP/IP support Capability to serve as data modem Support for MS Outlook synchronization of contacts, calendar and notes
    • Basic mobile phone features Table 1 Worldwide Mobile Terminal Sales to End Users in 1Q09 (Thousands of Units)
      • Dual-band EGSM 900/1800
      • GSM 850/1900
      • SMS
      • FM radio
      • Camera
      • Numeric keypad
      Personal Information Management (PIM) Calendar Notes Recorder Calculator Clock, music WAP Bluetooth Capability to serve as data modem 8MB internal memory, SMS storage: up to 250 messages on phone, Chat via SMS, Series 30  Source: Nokia 1661 spesification http://www.nokia.co.uk/find-products/all-phones/nokia-1661/specifications
    • Smartphone penetration will rise in future Table 1 Worldwide Mobile Terminal Sales to End Users in 1Q09 (Thousands of Units) 2010 201x
      • It will rise because:
      • cost of technology decrease
      • end-users will want more features
      • amount of local services rising
      • cost of data transfer decrease
      Smartphone Featured phone Basic phone Featured phone Smartphone Basic phone
    • Haiti – Worst Case Scenario
      • At home, earthquake strikes, building collapses.
      • You survive initial quake, but are trapped beneath collapsed structure, possibly injured
      • The clock is ticking – 72 hours survival window
      • You have your mobile phone
      • You’ll call to emergency telephone number
      • No answers or no network coverage
    • Haiti – Survival Timeline
      • Limiting Factors:
      • Your body – no food, water, possible injuries, shock, dehydration, position, strength, loss of dexterity, etc
      • Your mobile – battery state? Signal Strength? Damage to phone? Damages to cellular towers?
      • The network – operational? For how long?
    • Charge of Battery How often you usually charge your phone (% of users) Source: Questionare University of Jyvaskyla, Finland, Scope project % of users
    • How long does a phone work?
      • Standby Time  - The amount of time you can leave your fully charged cellular portable or transportable phone turned on before the phone will completely discharge the batteries.
      • Talk Time  - The length of time you can talk on your portable or transportable cellular phone without recharging the battery.
      Table 1 Worldwide Mobile Terminal Sales to End Users in 1Q09 (Thousands of Units)
      • Open questions
      • How much you need to talk during a disaster?
      • How many text messages need to send?
      • Do you feel that energy management profile may improve your connection during disaster?
      • What kind of features supports safety and survival in emergencies and how much they eats battery capacity?
      Phone Talk Time Standby Nokia 2330 4 192 iPhone 3g 5 288 Nokia 6301 3.5 348 Blackberry Pearl 4 360 HTC Android 7 384 Moto v195s 8 420 Blackberry 8820 5 528 Samsung t819 5 7200
    • How Long Does Cell Network Work?
      • If a cell tower has a battery back up (or generator), it may last up to 8 hours after electrical power is lost
      • Once towers are down, communications is lost
      • Evidenced by dramatic drop in SMS, twitter, phone calls emanating from Haiti in the two days after the quake.
      • By 7 days after the quake, 75% of the cell towers were back in operation, but traffic heavy
    • Haiti – simulated Survival Timeline Hours Since Event
    • End users comments It is important I receive alerts and notifications trough mobile alerting system that specifically concern me (% of users) Source: Questionare University of Jyvaskyla, Finland, Scope project % of users
    • Other scenarios
      • Accidents by location (traffic, chemical fire, flood, hurricane)
      • Municipal service (water, electricity)
      • Hikers Lost in Remote Location
      • Elderly individual at home
      • Missing Elderly individuals
      • Severe Weather (transportation)
      • Pandemics
      • Riot
      • public notifications
      • Security notifications during holiday or business trip abroad
    • Mobile device is solution for information sharing
      • YES
      • opportunity send one to many messages
      • Opportunity two way communication
      • Opportunity use social media via mobile devices -> situational awareness from different sources like Facebook, Twitter, Buzz, Ushahidi
      • Many different communication channels (cellular, WLAN, data transfer, sms, voice, pictures, etc.)
      • Cell broadcast or tailored security service by service provider?
      • Public or commercial service?
      Before, during and after disaster
    • Mobile device is solution for information sharing
      • YES
      • opportunity send one to many messages
      • Opportunity two way communication
      • Opportunity use social media via mobile devices -> situational awareness from different sources like Facebook, Twitter, Buzz, Ushahidi
      • Many different communication channels (cellular, WLAN, data transfer, sms, voice, pictures, etc.)
      • Cell broadcast or tailored security service by service provider?
      • Public or commercial service?
    • Mobile device is solution for information sharing
      • NO
      • infrastructure condition during disasters
      • Overloaded networks
      • How many messages authorities can send during the disaster?
      • Communication language (tourist season)
      • All information must be intelligibility to users within 160 char (sms)
      • Usability of security application if it is downloaded to the device
      • If communication based on data transfer. What is cost of service when you roaming other networks in abroad?
    • Client application – connection possibilities Traditional SMS message (Short message service Code based SMS message CB message (Cell broadcast) MBMS message (Multimedia Broadcast and Multicast Services) Internet based online connection like push email, chat, Twitter, pop-up window application Internet based online connection like push email, chat, Twitter or Facebook Your GPS navigator uses traffic information to minimize traffic delays and may warning you disasters.  Nokia and Google maps delivers real-time traffic information service. Device can re-route your route to avoid traffic events. GSM/3G/LTE WLAN TMC / GPS
    • Setup your phone for cell broadcast service  What is cell broadcast? Cell Broadcast (CB) is one-to-many geographically focused service. It enables messages to be communicated to multiple mobile phone customers who are located within a given part of its network coverage area at the time the message is broadcast. Short Message Service (SMS) is a one-to-one and one-to-a-few service. Cell broadcast looks nice tool for emergency notifications and it also works basic mobile phones.
    • Setup your phone! 
    • Client application – some customer requirements  Ease of Use (mobile device, application, Information presentation (priorities, categories)) Ease of taking into use (ease of personalization: predefined settings) Usefulness (Relevant information: content of notifications, location based notification, the system knows to some extent what you are/ what you might be interested 
    • Client application – some opportunities… http://archive.nlm.nih.gov/proj/lpf.php
      • The goal of the LPF project is to create a Web system that enables family, friends and neighbors to locate missing people during a disaster event.
      • Smart phone features:
      • Camera (with face recognition)
      • Data connection
      • GPS
      • Email/SMS/MMS