Telecommunications - Beyond the Wires


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This is a birds-eye view of how telecommunications works from just after tin-cans and string, through Near Field Communications and posting slide-shows on the internet (like Slideshare), to where the next ideas are coming from.

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  • For frequencies other than 1 Hz, divide 300 million by the frequency in hertz and you'll get the wavelength in meters. Why is frequency so important? Many characteristics of a radio wave are dependent upon its frequency. For example, submarines use the ELF band (300 Hz to 3 kHz) because these low frequencies penetrate water to a greater depth than higher frequencies do. In everyday communications, frequency partially determines how far a transmission can propagate. Ham radio operators used low-frequency bands, such as 80 and 160 meters, to send transmissions around the world, whereas higher frequencies, like those used in many handheld two-way walkie-talkies, are limited to line-of-sight, which means they cannot reach beyond the horizon (except under certain atmospheric conditions). Cell phones don't generally approach the frequency used by microwave ovens, which is normally 2450 MHz. The closest that I'm aware of is the 1900 MHz PCS band in the U.S. Some cordless phones do operate near or even in excess of this range--the 2.8 GHz phones come closest, and now there are phones operating at 5.6 GHz. There is no fundamental physical difference between the radiation emitted by cell phones and cordless phones and that used by microwave ovens, as all are radio waves in the electromagnetic spectrum. Other than frequency, the main difference is power. Phones emit on the order of a few hundred milliwatts to a few watts maximum, while ovens use power levels in the neighborhood of 700-1000 watts. That's the difference between a cool conversation with your best friend and a hot roast beef sandwich.
  • Telecommunications - Beyond the Wires

    1. 1. How Telecommunications Works =-+ beyond wires
    2. 2. Schedule   
    3. 3. <ul><li>How do people in Nippon use smartphones to cheat their way into the subway? </li></ul>They use NFC. A short-range, standards-based wireless connectivity technology, based on RFID technology that uses magnetic field induction to enable communication between electronic devices in close proximity. Easynow.
    4. 4. HOW WOULD YOU… <ul><li>Q: </li></ul><ul><li>Pass slides of a presentation to the participants’ smartphones in real time </li></ul><ul><li> ? </li></ul>
    5. 5. the obvious  <ul><li>Telephone = the power to the wires fluctuates to match the sounds carried. </li></ul>Gower telephone Musée des Arts et Métiers Paris
    6. 6. And now for AM radio
    7. 7. <ul><li>Radio = a transmitter converts the sound waves to an analog or digital signal by modulation of frequency (FM), phase-shift (Bluetooth), or amplitude (AM). The electrons on the surface of the receiver move when the sound waves strike them, then the receiver processes them back into their original sound. </li></ul>the kind of obvious 
    8. 8. old TV, obvious in a Willy Wonka way <ul><li>old TV = a transmitter converts the recording to UHF (500 to 1000 Megahertz) or VHF (60 to 130 Megahertz) modulation which a receiver reverts. </li></ul>
    9. 9. <ul><li>Oblivious, really... cell phones (advanced, but not honors) </li></ul><ul><li>How do they work? </li></ul><ul><li>Magic. No, from Wikipedia, </li></ul><ul><li>“ The first handheld mobile phone was </li></ul><ul><li>demonstrated by Dr. Martin Cooper </li></ul><ul><li>of Motorola in 1973, using a handset </li></ul><ul><li>weighing 2 kg (4.4 lb). </li></ul><ul><li>( The first mobile telephone call made from a car occurred </li></ul><ul><li>in St. Louis, Missouri , USA on June 17, 1946, using the </li></ul><ul><li>Bell System 's Mobile Telephone Service , but the system was </li></ul><ul><li>impractical from what is considered a portable handset today. </li></ul><ul><li>The equipment weighed 80 lbs, and the AT&T service, </li></ul><ul><li>basically a massive party line, cost $30 USD per </li></ul><ul><li>month (equal to $337.33 today) plus 30 to 40 cents per </li></ul><ul><li>local call, equal to $3.37 to $4.5 today. ) “ </li></ul>
    10. 10. cell phones <ul><li>work by connecting to a cellular network owned by a mobile network operator . A key feature of the cellular network is that it enables seamless telephone calls even when the user is moving around wide areas via a process known as handoff or handover. Features of the advanced phones – </li></ul><ul><li>+ telephone (Alex Bell in an itty-bitty box) </li></ul><ul><li>+ voice recorder </li></ul><ul><li>+ alarm clock </li></ul>
    11. 11. SMS “text” messages <ul><li>SMS text messaging is the most widely used data application in the world, with 2.4 billion active users, or 74% of all mobile phone subscribers. </li></ul><ul><li>It was originated from radio telegraphy in radio memo pagers using standardized phone protocols as a means of sending messages to and from mobile handsets. </li></ul>
    12. 12. SMS “text” messages - Protocol Data Unit (PDU) <ul><li>Hackers of the world – unite! Here is what the phone sees. </li></ul>
    13. 13. and here is what the network does… (from SMPP V5.0 Specification)
    14. 14. the shortest path from A to B is TCP/IP  routers
    15. 15. <ul><li>Easy as cake (course, cake’s not that easy, is it?). </li></ul><ul><li>From Wikimedia commons artwork C. Burnett, author K. Brose </li></ul>
    16. 16. <ul><li>logged into a router </li></ul>
    17. 17. Money in the cloud <ul><li>The old credit swipe </li></ul>SMS Text Message and a premium charge is applied to cell phone bill or online wallet. Airlines use Multimedia Messaging Service to deliver barcodes which can then be scanned as tickets. Online Wallets – get an “account” with Paypal , Amazon or Google Checkout using phone and credit card numbers. Use the internet by entering “account” info or cell phones with PINs (unless integrated into unified mobile web payment platform).
    18. 18. <ul><li>Direct Mobile Billing a after two-factor authentication involving a PIN and one-time password, consumers cellphone account is charged. </li></ul><ul><li>WAP (or mobile web payments) consumer uses web pages displayed or additional applications downloaded and installed on the mobile phone to make a payment. It uses WAP (Wireless Application Protocol) as underlying technology, which leads to follow-on sales at that webpage. </li></ul>$
    19. 19. $ <ul><li>Direct operator billing - a direct connection to the operator billing platform requires integration with the operator. This yields the lowest payout % of any electronic method. </li></ul><ul><li>Near Field Communications (NFC) – pay close attention, this is the future, a short-range, standards-based wireless connectivity technology, based on RFID technology that uses magnetic field induction to enable communication between electronic devices in close proximity. (from Wikipedia, Mobile payment) Used mostly in paying for purchases made in physical stores or transportation services. A consumer using a special mobile phone equipped with a smartcard waves his/her phone near a reader module. Most transactions do not require authentication, but some require authentication using PIN, before transaction is completed. The payment could be deducted from pre-paid account or charged to mobile or bank account directly. </li></ul>
    20. 20. tomorrow starts today
    21. 21. The cloud  Smart Phones <ul><li>When the phones entered the next generation of technology, 2G, the first smartphone was introduced, the Nokia 9000 Communicator (1996). It added PDA functionality to the basic mobile phone at the time. This brought the phones beyond calls, cameras and kind letters. </li></ul><ul><li>Most have “SIM” cards or an R-UIM, which give the phones internationally unique serial number identifiers. </li></ul><ul><li>Features now stretch beyond SMS text, and third generation now has standard software applications using High-Speed Download Packet Access that makes possible fast GPS navigation , music ( MP3 ) and video ( MP4 ) playback, RDS radio receiver , alarms , memo recording, personal digital assistant functions, ability to watch streaming video , video download, video calling , built-in cameras (1.0+ Mpixel ) and camcorders (video recording), with auto focus and flash, ring tones , games, PTT , memory card reader (SD), USB (2.0), dual line support, infrared , Bluetooth (2.0) and WiFi connectivity, instant messaging , Internet e-mail and browsing and serving as a wireless modem . Nokia and the University of Cambridge demonstrated a bendable cell phone called the Morph . </li></ul><ul><li>4G should reach speeds of one-third of a Gig / second Quarter in 2011… </li></ul>
    22. 22. Digital Television <ul><li>Digital Television (HD and IPTV), the CPU meets world, on your TV! HD is a format (one of many compression algorithms used worldwide). The US has finally adopted one for HD TV, and incidentally, adopted one for HD DVD, BluRay. </li></ul>
    23. 23. IPTV <ul><li>I don’t know how this works, and I work for AT&T! Actually, AT&T sends a video stream to the residential gateway (router) which then sends your internet protocol Television video stream to your TV (‘s set top box and then to your TV). </li></ul>
    24. 24. The future <ul><li>Peer-to-peer – parts of the data package are stored on individual’s computers across the web and an application grabs from each computer and sends it to you. </li></ul><ul><li>Automated </li></ul><ul><li>TED is a small nonprofit devoted to Ideas Worth Spreading -- through TED .com, our annual conferences, the annual TED Prize and local TEDx events. www. ted .com </li></ul><ul><li>CMU, USC, and MIT (yippee) – check their sites. </li></ul>
    25. 25. The future <ul><li>Actually – tomorrow starts today. The FCC is determining its stance, which will hopefully in the US continue on the same track of how the telecommunications act update in the 1990s balanced previous large-scale capital investments with potential future equity to start-ups, all with the idea to develop a national “wire-up”. </li></ul>
    26. 26. The future <ul><li>In an all together different (oxymoron) presentation, I will present my ideas of how we could: </li></ul><ul><li>House data at central locations and simply rent keys to unlock and stream bi-directionally, wired or not, to whatever local device. </li></ul><ul><li>Money and maintenance could be automated. </li></ul>
    27. 27. A: <ul><li>How would you send a slideshow in real-time to the audience? This. Use slideshare. </li></ul><ul><li>Other online slide presentation sites are: </li></ul><ul><li>youtube, smilebox, kizoa, </li></ul><ul><li>(and maybe, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>It’s not about wires, it’s about information! </li></ul>