Dossier m-learning1


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Dossier m-learning1

  1. 1. dossier m-learningGROUPE COMPAS
  2. 2. the questions why mobile? why learning?the chapters of the dossier facts about mobiles definitions of mlearningthe concepts and commentsexemplary cases & bibliography
  3. 3. why m?quantity & quality “One and a half billion people, all over the world, are walking around with powerful computers in their pockets and purses. The fact is they often do not realize it, because they call them something else. But today’s high-end cell phones have the computing power of a mid-1990s personal computer (PC)-while consuming only one one-hundredth of the energy. Even the simplest, voice-only phones have more complex and powerful chips than the 1969 on-board computer that landed a spaceship on the moon.” (Prensky, 2005) “These facts, and the range of computer-like functionality offered by top-of-the-range devices, are leading some observers to speculate that many people in the not so distant future will start to see the mobile phone as an alternative to a PC. For example Jeff Hawkins, inventor of the Palm Pilot, was recently quoted (Stone 2004) as saying, ‘One day, 2 or 3 billion people will have cell phones, and they are not all going to have PCs … The mobile phone will become their digital life’. Clearly, neither view is likely to be completely objective, but the fact that the debate is happening is an indication of how powerful and sophisticated mobile devices are becoming.” (Attewell, 2005)practices “As the citizens of the world use mobile technology to complete everyday tasks and to socialize with friends and colleagues, they will demand access to learning materials using mobile technology. Also, other sectors of society such as business, are allowing citizens around the world to use mobile technology to complete everyday transactions. Hence, education and training have no other choice but to deliver learning materials on mobile devices. ... Rather than acquiring another technology to receive learning materials, people throughout the world will want to access learning materials on their existing mobile devices.” (Ally, 009)
  4. 4. facts about mphones
  5. 5. facts 2008mobile phones over 4 billions = 61% penetration rate (number per 100 habitants) 1998 = 0 mpfixed telephone lines 1.3 billions = 19 %internet 6.7 billions = 23%broadband(fixed) = 6.1% ITU. Measuring the Information Society The ICT Development Index 2009mobile = 5%
  6. 6. astonishing growthThis is not only faster than any other technology in the past, but the mobilephone is also the single most widespread ICT todayThe number of Internet users, on the other hand, has grown at a much slowerrate, in particular in the developing world, where at the end of 2007 only 13 outof 100 inhabitants used the Internet. Fixed Internet access in developing countriesis still limited, and, where available, often slow and/or expensive. High-speed(broadband) connections are rare and mobile broadband, while increasingsteeply in high-income countries, is still insignificant in most developingcountries. Access to the Internet via mobile cellular networks has grown rapidly with theincreasing availability of IMT- 2000/3G networks and enabled devices, includingmobile handsets and data cards that allow users to access the Internet over themobile cellular network using their computers. ITU. Measuring the Information Society The ICT Development Index 2009 (p. 1)
  7. 7. mphones distributiondeveloping regions 39.2% penetration (2007) 64% of the world’s subscriptions (2007) 44% (2002) 28% Africa (2007) 4% (2002) the highest mobile growth but the lowest rate
  8. 8. reduction of mdivideSince growth rates continue to be strongest in those regions wherepenetration is relatively low, the mobile cellular divide is expected to bereduced further over time. (p. 3)
  9. 9. internet access fixed & mobile broadband/subscriptions 60% in the world (2007) 55.4% in developed countries (2007) 12.8% in developing countries (2007)internet 0.2% fixed broadband in Africa (2007)23% in the world (2007) 0.9% mobile broadband Africa (2007)55.4% in developed countries (2007)12.8% in developing countries (2007) 5% in Africa (2007)
  10. 10. minternet With limited availability of fixed networks in many developing countries, wherewired access is often restricted to major urban centers, it is difficult to provide peoplewith fixed broadband access. However, mobile broadband has a major potential toexpand the availability ofhigh-speed Internet access, especially given the spread of mobile cellular networks andtheir wide population coverage. This is also supported by the growing use ofmobile phones for data applications (SMS, MMS, m-commerce and m-banking), therise in the number of countries that are launching IMT-2000/3G networks and theincreased use of data cards that allow people to use the IMT-2000/3G networks toconnect their computer to the Internet. ITU estimates that by the end of 2008, therewere close to 335 million mobile broadband subscribers.
  11. 11. non-educational existing practices developed countries• vocal communication, SMS, internet, radio, TV, podcast, video (seeing, taking), pictures (seeing/taking), internet, emails, voice recording, agenda
  12. 12. non-educational existing practices developed countries• Augmented reality • Handheld augmented reality U. Graz • Savannah • Create a scape
  13. 13. non-educational existing practices developing countries• exchanging - receiving money • mpesa Safaricom
  14. 14. non-educational existing practices developing countries• communicating, even with no money • please call me
  15. 15. non-educational existing practices developing countries• setting up a business or making money • village phone • pedal phone • Selling airtime as currency • call box Cameroon • mobile phones in Kenia • hello Africa • mobile revolution African (Kenya)
  16. 16. non-educational existing practices developing countries• asking for advice • question box • AMIS: connecting farmers in Cameroon
  17. 17. non-educational existing practices developing countries• texting, chatting, sharing • MXIT free instant messaging for portable phones (GPRS/3G) and PCs, developed in South Africa • MXIT Swatziland
  18. 18. from non-educational to educational: innovation by colonisation the MXIT case in South Africa: big diffusion between children and teenagers big troubles with parents and teachers Meraka Institute invents a maths application• Dr. Math or Maths for MXIT, that is: Using MXIT to learn (2007)• Imfundo Yami Imfundo Yetho• the growth of a virus: “Although this project originated at one school, “word of mouth” advertising (also known as “viral” advertising) where learners told their friends about the MXit contact ensured that the number of learners grew and the geographical location of the learners spread throughout the country.” (Butgereit, 2007)• but no evidence about results: “At the time of writing this paper, we do not have any hard numerical data on whether any of the participants in Math on MXit actually increased their marks in mathematics or not.” (Butgereit, 2007)
  19. 19. mlesson: multiple practices portable phones are at the centre of multiple practices, including economic practices diffused practices are not necessarily the same in developed and developing countries, in rural and urban regions observing developing countries and rural regions is not a mere corollary action for the understanding of the mobile innovation, but a necessary condition
  20. 20. mlesson : innovationm seems to illustrate a trend: when an existing, diffused technology meets a need, newpractices seem to spread quite naturally remember that innovation is not the same as invention: invention = a new idea innovation = new ideas that are applied in practice, and successfullyso, what about innovation as colonisation? hypothesis: the fact that technologies are just there, and that they are part of a net of existing practices, is a facilitating condition for transforming invention into innovation suggestion: exploit existing practices (as MXIT) for introducing educational applications prediction : the mobile phone will beat OLPC machines for spreading mlearning in developing countries
  21. 21. madvantagesAdvantage of a technology which: is there yet, and almost everywhere is (potentially) multi-modal is part of a net of existing practices
  22. 22. mphones characteristics
  23. 23. technologies & products mobile phones - low cost handset gamephones PDA standalone Nintendo DSI HP iPaq Sony playstation portable PSP PDA phone RIM Blackberry • phone • 1G: voice Nokia N-Series T • 2G: SMS + media content HTC Touch • 2.5 G: higher data rates, internet Palm Pre • 3G: higher data rates, high bandwith internet smartphone Iphone
  24. 24. market• "Compared to the second quarter of 2008, global sales of mobile phones were down about 6.1 percent. This was the third consecutive quarter that fewer mobile handsets were sold worldwide when compared to the previous year. But analysts noted that the decline was at a much slower pace in the most recent quarter compared to the first quarter in 2009, in which the drop was 9.4 percent. Still, demand for smartphones remained high. And sales in this category actually grew 27 percent compared to the same quarter a year ago. For several quarters now, smartphones have represented the fastest growing segment of the mobile market, and this has been in spite of a global recession. Analysts believe the trend is the result of many consumers waiting to upgrade their phones, and those who do upgrade are gravitating toward more sophisticated smartphones. ... As the economy picks up again, low-cost cell phones are also expected to sell well over the next few years. Market research firm Juniper Research predicts in a recent report that low-cost handset shipments will increase by 31 percent in 2014. And as smartphone sales also increase, Juniper says that the high end and low end of the cell phone market will dominate, with these two categories accounting for 79 percent of the mobile devices sold by 2014. Meanwhile, sales of midrange devices are expected to fall more than 41 percent during that period." CNET, 2009
  25. 25. limits and problemsscreen: too smallbatteries: short lifeplatforms: too manycost: too high (in developing countries)no internet (in developing countries)resistance (teachers and parents of developed countries)
  26. 26. the futureSixth senseSamsung pico projector phoneSamsung crest solar
  27. 27. hot issues the future of TEL: telephone or computer (OLPC)? outsiders (developing countries, lifelong learning, schooldrop out) mobile phones in the classroom: distraction or help?repression or exploitation? a risk for health? context-responsiveness augmented reality
  28. 28. why learning?(why this quantitative condition should affect the world of education, or represent a new horizon for learning?) because mphones are more and more like computers because they are mobile, in the sense of anytime, anywhere in the sense of allowing fluid practices between technologies in the sense of allowing fluid practices between technology and the context of the real world because they are communication devices allowing collaboration between peers and between learners and educators
  29. 29. definitions of mlearning
  30. 30. a domain of e-leaning Mobile learning is a special domainof e-learning made possible by mobiletechnologies: portable phones, PDAs, “The evolution in education and training at a distance can be characterised as a move from dlearning (distancesmartphones, and in general what is learning) to elearning (electronic learning) to mlearningcalled ‘handheld devices’.  (mobile learning).” (Keegan, 2003) As computers, mphones make digitalcontents accessibles, to a greaternumber of people than computers do. “Cell phones are not just communications devices sparking new modalities of interaction between people;Doubting of the potential of mphones they are also particularly useful computers that fit infor learning is equivalent to your pocket, are always with you, and are nearly alwaysquestioning the role of computers in on. Like all communication and computing devices, cell phones can be used to learn. So rather than fight theeducation and learning. It is perfectly trend of kids coming to school carrying their ownunderstandable for digital natives. powerful learning devices—which they have already paid for—why not use the opportunity to their educational advantage?” (Prensky, 2005)
  31. 31. at the essence: mobilityBut theories of mobility go beyond the technological aspect, and also beyond themobile device.Mobility is rather a set of practices that start to expand in our lives: practices thatmake us access content and knowledge from different devices at different placesand times, to pass with fluidity from a formal way of learning to informal ones,differently distributed in the city or perfectly portable through handheld devices.Hence a new place becomes available through the web site which is consultedbefore, through the GPS which locates us on place, through information gatheredvia internet phone while on staying, or through variously uploaded programs thatare accessible via phone; through messaging with experts or friends; throughcontents accessed at various fixed points of the new location; these contents stayavailable on the way back, and they are enriched by notes taken on place.
  32. 32. a theory of mobility Mobility is synonymous of fluidity of practices. “patterns of social interaction [that] are dynamically reshaped and renegotiated through our everyday activities significantly freed from spatial, temporal and contextual constraints” (Kakihara and Sørensen, 2002, p. 1760). At the level of education and learning it is this “research attention should be directed at identifying thosefluidity, rather than technology itself that should be simple things that technology does extremely and uniquelyaddressed, and this with the aim of exploiting practices well, and to understanding the social practices by which thosemade possible by technology and technology only at its new affordances become powerful educationalbest. interventions.” (Roschelle, 2003, p.268) Mobile technologies are not bound to one specific “Research into mobile learning then becomes the study of howmethod and educational approach (say constructivist or the mobility of learners,   augmented by personal and publicsituated), but rather fits with all those educational technology, can contribute to the process of gaining   newpractices that require a personalized, situated, authentic knowledge, skills and experience. The challenge here is to defineand informal form of learning. the role of pedagogy and theory in this process.” (Kukulska- Hulme, A., Sharples, M., Milrad, M., Arnedillo-Sánchez, I. & Vavoula, G., 2009, p. 22)
  33. 33. informal learning anytime, adult learning disaffected learners anywhere life-long learning autonomous learning developing countrieslearning freed from specific & rural regions and dedicated learning contexts: i.e. formal contexts of everybody learning or the classroom, time constraints, infrastructures
  34. 34. “Mobile learning is unique in that it allows truly anywhere, anytime, personalised learning.” (Attewell, 2005) “Mobile learning through the use of wireless mobile technology allows anyone to access information and learning materials from anywhere and at anytime. As a result, learners have control of when they want to learn and from which location they want to learn. Also, all humans have the right to access learning materials and information to improve their quality of life regardless of where they live, their status, and their culture. Mobile learning, through the use of mobile technology, will allow citizens of the world to access learning materials and information from anywhere and at anytime. Learners will not have to wait for a certain time to learn or go to a certain place to learn. With mobile learning, learners will be empowered since they can learn whenever and wherever they want. Also, learners do not have to learn what is prescribed to them. They can use the wireless mobile technology for formal and informal learning where they can access additional and personalized learning materials from the Internet or from the host organization. Workers on the job can use the mobile technology to access training materials and information when they need it for just-in-time training. Just-in-time learning encourages high level learning since learners access and apply the information right away rather than learn the information and then apply the information at a later time. Educators and trainers are empowered since they can use the mobile technology to communicate with learners from anywhere and at anytime. At the same time, educators and trainers can access learning resources from anytime and anywhere to plan and deliver their lessons.” (Ally, 2009)
  35. 35. pervasive information embedded technology fluiditypossibility of passing from one application to anotherand from one technology toanother, from the phone, to blended the computer, to an information point learning
  36. 36. external scaffolding personalisation context learning where you are, immersed in the realcontext, situated between objects, people, that can out of the enter into the process of learning box
  37. 37. communities of practice peers direct relationship with teacher, anonymouscommunication communcations, reminders learning from peers & tutors in formal and informal conditions, asking questions, social constructivism, communities
  38. 38. other conditions made available by mlearning: personnalisation(relative) autonomy
  39. 39. a theory of cognitiona theory of mobility (stemming from thepractices made possible or current by themobile phone) interrogates theories of cognition as situated andscaffolded theories of learning as continuous,multimodal, social
  40. 40. not a theory of education a theory of education does not necessarily stand behind mlearning practices: one can choose mlearning because it enhances situatedness, personalisation, socialisation, continuous learning, autonomy one can choose to use mobiles because of the absence of alternatives scenario rural areal of developing country with poor connectivity, no computers, no teachers one can choose to use mobiles because they are pervasive scenario better integrating than fighting: since students in the classroom have mphones, and use them for extra-learning activities in classroom, or for cheating, let them be integrated in learning activities
  41. 41. social advantagesno alternativeit is just there --> no need for further investmentit is always on --> no need to create a practice of use, just to inject newpractices in the practice, or to use the phone to answer other needsthan the one which are just addressed
  42. 42. references Ally, M. (ed.), 2009 Attewell, 2005 Attewell & Savill-Smith, 2005 Kakihara & Sorensen, 2002 Keegan, 2003 Keegan, 2005 Kukulska-Hulme, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006 Kukulska-Hulme, et al., 2009 Kukulska-Hulme & Bull, 2009 Kukulska-Hulme & Shield, 2008 Kukulska-Hulme & Traxler, 2005 Kukulska-Hulme & Wible, 2008 Prensky, 2005 Roschelle, 2003 Sharples, 2005 Traxler, 2007 Traxler é Dearden, 2005
  43. 43. History
  44. 44. new wave of the 2000 EU EU Leonardo da Vinci & Ericcson 2000-2002 From e-learning to m-learning - supported by EU Leonardo da Vinci framework, coordinated by Ericcson Ireland book of the project 2003-2005 Mobile learning; the next generation of learning - supported by EU Leonardo da Vinci framework, coordinated by Ericcson Ireland book of the project 2006-2008. The impact of new technology on distant learning students - supported by EU Leonardo da Vinci framework, coordinated by Ericcson Ireland book of the project The role of mobile learning in Europe - supported by EU Socrates framework, coordinated by Ericcson Ireland books of the project 1 & 2
  45. 45. EU IST 2001-2004 Mlearning project - coordinator LSDA Attewell, 2005 Attewell & Savill-Smith, 2005 2002-2004 MobilLearn 2009 Motill
  46. 46. in EuropeUK Molenet - LSN Learning with mobile technologies - LSRI Nottingham Book (BECTA): Mobiles in secondary schools Harthnell-Young, 2006 Handler - University of Birmingham Uniwap - University of Helsinki
  47. 47. in the worldUniversity of Wollongong, Australian Learning and teaching council m-learning - investigation and application projectStanford University Nokia/Standford University mobile learning research - investigation, forum Pocket school: exploring mobile technology for underserved children - application project Dunia Moja - application projectThe World Bank The use of mobile phone in deeloping countries in education - investigation project
  48. 48. in developing countries Motto Captura Denmark, Sensus Denmark, Unviesity of Stellenbosch 2007-2009 MELFA - literacy program University of Pretoria, Nokia, Meraka Institute Helsinki, ... MobilED - literacy program Millee - literacy program India: english Meraka Institute, South Africa Dr. Math
  49. 49. the role of academia• provide evidence • proved value of mlearning• provide conceptual analysis and cognitive basis
  50. 50. how m-learning?(how mlearning could affect the world of education, or represent a new horizon for learning?) mlearning products research & application projects non-learning practices developed countries developing countries
  51. 51. adapting existing modules to mlearning• literacy & numeracy: • m-learning project & toolkit• school matters:• wapeduc• language: • mobile ESL Athabasca
  52. 52. mixed formal and informal• home (or else) + classroom • Math4mobile• museum + classroom • My Art Space project
  53. 53. mixed media• phone + tv + radio • Fallakhair, et al., 2007
  54. 54. production• creating content • OOKL • Dream catcher • Create a scape
  55. 55. annotation in context• taking notes, text or video/picture, voice recording • Kukulska-Hulme & al, 2009
  56. 56. communication & sharing• distance collaboration • Dunia Moja Project
  57. 57. basic communication• asking questions • question box • Dr. Math• receiving tips and reminders • Brown, 2003• administration, organisation • Brown, 2003
  58. 58. ubiquitos sensing, context awareness• geo-localisation • Frequency 1550• object recognition • Beaudin, et al., 2007
  59. 59. tutoring or tutoring the tutor• no teachers, or support to unexperienced teachers • text to teach • millee • mobilED
  60. 60. gaming• games • games for literacy programs • millee
  61. 61. • the millee case of personalisation of contents on uses and habits of the target population • observe how indian children play • reproduce the games as digital games for portable phone