Selection of Biological Methods for Industrial Effluents Assessments

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Selection of Biological Methods for Industrial Effluents Assessments

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Selection of Biological Methods for Industrial Effluents Assessments

  1. 1. Selection of Biological Methods for Industrial Effluents Assessments Rubinger. Carla Ferreira 1 , Leão. Mônica Maria Diniz, Paulinyi. Helene Maria Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais Departamento de Engenharia Sanitária e Ambiental Programa de Pós graduação em Saneamento, Meio Ambiente e Recursos Hídricos Belo Horizonte – Minas Gerais, Brasil. E-mail: carlarubinger@ufmg.br
  2. 2. <ul><ul><ul><li>Sustainable Development </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Production Quality </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Environmental Quality </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cleaner Production </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><ul><li>Water Quality Standard </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Effluent Quality Standard </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical – Chemicals Methods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Complexity of Wastewater </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Effects on Biota </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. GOALS This study aimed to identify existing biological methods, bioassays of acute and chronic toxicity, seeking their comparison and their applicability to the assessment of quality of treatment applied to industrial effluents and to understand its advantages and limitations.
  5. 5. Therefore we performed a survey of the main methods of toxicity tests used in the analysis of industrial effluents. Identifying existing bioassays for the evaluation of acute and chronic toxicity of industrial wastewater, so this has led to comparisons between the main methods used for the analysis of chronic toxicity of effluent from its applicability, contributing to the compilation of data for environmental monitoring. RESULTS
  6. 6. Biological methods or bioassays are tests that use living organisms to produce information on the development and changes, the effect of acute or chronic condition that a particular chemical may exert on living matter. BIOLOGICAL METHODS
  7. 7. <ul><li>Biological methods can be divided into three groups for analysis: </li></ul><ul><li>Microbiological: those who engage primarily in detection of pathogens; </li></ul><ul><li>Limnology: provide information on the development and changes in long-term biotic community in aquatic ecosystems; </li></ul><ul><li>Ecotoxicological: reveal acute or chronic effects produced by chemicals or compounds on living organisms. </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Ecotoxicological studies generally include: </li></ul><ul><li>Study of emissions and inputs of pollutants in the abiotic environment, distribution and destiny in the various compartments. </li></ul><ul><li>Study of entry and fate of pollutants in biological chains and their forms of transfer via the food chain as food; </li></ul><ul><li>Qualitative and quantitative study of the toxicological effects of pollutants on the ecosystem with consequences for man. </li></ul>
  9. 9. ECOTOXICOLOGICAL TESTS Toxicity tests to assess the effects of test species, are the exposure of aquatic organisms representative of the environment to various concentrations of one or more substances or environmental factors, for a certain period of time. These tests are called bioassays or biological assays.
  10. 10. AQUATIC TOXICITY TESTS <ul><ul><li>Duration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Method of adding the test solution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Purpose </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><ul><li>Bioassays with indicators of short life cycle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Several beings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Easy handling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Speed in performing a test </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Potential effects of synthetic compounds in the biota. </li></ul></ul>SELECTION OF TEST METHODS
  12. 12. LEGISLATION AND STANDARD RELEVANCE <ul><li>Brazilian Environmental Law </li></ul><ul><li>Internationally Regulation </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Toxicity tests are standardized by national and international associations and standards organizations, such as: </li></ul><ul><li>Brazilian Technical Standardization Association ( ABNT ), </li></ul><ul><li>French Association for Standardization ( AFNOR ), </li></ul><ul><li>American Society for Testing and Materials ( ASTM ), </li></ul><ul><li>American Association Works with Water ( AWWA ), </li></ul><ul><li>German Institute for Standardization ( DIN ), </li></ul><ul><li>International Organization for Standardization ( ISO ), </li></ul><ul><li>Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development ( OECD ). </li></ul>LEGISLATION AND STANDARD RELEVANCE
  14. 14. ECOTOXICOLOGICAL IDENTIFIED TESTS
  15. 15. ECOTOXICOLOGICAL IDENTIFIED TESTS Test-organisms used in bioassays of toxicity test Acanthocyclops robustus Danio rerio Pimephales promelas Artemia salina Daphnia ambigua Placopecten magellanicus Asellus aquaticus Daphnia magna Poecilia reticulata Biomphalaria tenagophila Daphnia pulex Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata Brachionus calyciflorus Daphnia similis Saccharomyces cerevisiae Brachionus plicatilis Daphnia spinulata Salmonella typhimurium Ceriodaphnia dubia Enterobacter aerogenes Scenedesmus quadricauda Ceriodaphnia silvestrii Euglena gracilis Scenedesmus subspicatus Chironomus riparius Gammarus pulex Selanastrum capricornutum Chlamydomonas reinhardi Hyalella curvispina Tetrahymena pyriformis Clorella sp Hydra oligactis Tetrahymena thermophila Cnesterodon decemmaculatum Lemna minor Thamnocephalus platyrus Coliforms and bacterian flake Onchorynchus mykiss Vibrio fisheri Crassostrea rhizophorae Oryzias latipes Vorticella sp
  16. 16. <ul><li>Algae in an aquatic ecosystem are part of the group of primary producers, the words are the base of the aquatic life cycle. Participate in maintaining the balance of these environments through their roles in nutrient cycling of biogeochemical cycles, particularly in the carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus and silicon. Also part of the diet of several other types of organisms, both aquatic and terrestrial. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Growth inhibition test for algae Chlorella vulgaris </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Test method of chronic toxicity test with algae (Chorophyceae) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Test of inhibition of growth and fluorescence Scenedesmus subspicatus </li></ul></ul></ul>TOXICITY TO ALGAE
  17. 17. TOXICITY TO ALGAE Lemna minor Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata Clorella vulgaris
  18. 18. <ul><li>Microcrustaceuos herein are plankton of freshwater and saltwater. They act as primary consumers among metazoan, feeding by filtration of particulate organic material, mainly algae. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Inhibition test swimming ability of Daphnia magna </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Acute toxicity test for Daphnia similis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Test of chronic toxicity to Daphnia similis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Test Evaluation of Chronic Toxicity to Ceriodaphnia dubia </li></ul></ul></ul>TOXICITY TO MICROCRUSTACEOUS
  19. 19. TOXICITY TO MICROCRUSTACEOUS Daphnia pulex Daphnia magna Daphnia similis
  20. 20. TOXICITY TO MICROCRUSTACEOUS Ceriodaphnia quadrangula Ceriodaphnia dubia
  21. 21. <ul><li>Fishes are vertebrates, aquatic freshwater and saltwater representing consumers of various orders (primary, secondary and tertiary). Tests with fish as test-organisms are generally intended to understand how a toxicant affects agencies greater degree of structure, such as vertebrates and how these changes can affect more complex cycles of bioconcentration, bioaccumulation, biomagnification along the aquatic ecosystem. Often fish are used as environmental indicators because they are widely studied organisms, because they develop well in laboratory cultures and are easily observed. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluation tests of acute toxicity to fish </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Test evaluation of chronic toxicity to fish </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Assessment Test Bioconcentration in Fish </li></ul></ul></ul>TOXICITY TO FISH
  22. 22. TOXICITY TO FISH Danio rerio Cyprinodon variegatus Cnesterodon decemmaculatum Brachydanio rerio Pimephales promelas
  23. 23. <ul><li>Bacteria used as test-organisms can be grouped with decomposers in the food chain of aquatic ecosystems. They act in the degradation of organic deposits resulting from dead organisms or their metabolites into simpler substances so that they can be easily reassimilate bodies producers and also consumers of such filter feeders. For this reason become good indicators of environmental quality has that an environmental pollutant, even at low concentrations, can be identified by these bodies and answers in a short period of time. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Test of inhibition of bacterial bioluminescence </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cytotoxicity test ( Ames test) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Genotoxicity testing ( Umu test) </li></ul></ul></ul>TOXICITY TO BACTERIA
  24. 24. TOXICITY TO BACTERIA Vibrio fischeri Salmonella typhimurium
  25. 25. ANALYSIS OF TEST METHODS <ul><ul><li>Routine monitoring of effluents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Research in industrial effluents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regular uniformity of procedures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Precision data for the validation of results </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Comparison between the test methods most commonly used in toxicological evaluation of industrial effluents. Test – organism Type Test duration Variable response Expression results Unicellular Green Algae Acute 72h Specific growth rate of average ECNO Microcrustacian Daphnia sp Acute 48h Mobility (ability nadatória) in 24h and 48h EC50 Acute 48h Immobility of 50% at the end of 48 h EC50 Chronic 21 days Number of offspring, mortality among the parental ECNO, Cex(50, 20, 10%) Microcrustacian Ceriodaphnia SP Chronic 7 days Paternogenica number of offspring, survival of adult females ECNO Phish Acute 96h 100% mortality of the lowest effective concentration LC50 Chronic 7 - 10days Appearance and abnormal LC50 Chronic 14 - 28days Mortality and abnormal behavior and appearance ECNO Chronic 10 – 14days Shock and survival, appearance and abnormal behavior ECNO Bacteria Acute 15min - 2h Decrease bioluminescence ECNO Chronic 2 – 3days Reducing the number of colonies, synthesis of histamine ECNO, Cex(50, 20, 10%) Chronic 30h Reducing the number of colonies, synthesis of β - galactose ECNO, Cex(50, 20, 10%)
  27. 27. The methods of biological assays are preventive action procedures, and essential in the estimation of environmental impacts, were used by the authorities. There is no consensus on what would be the best type of test organisms for a particular effluent, but what set of tests should be developed to ensure that the components and byproducts of the degradation of effluents cause the least adverse impact to aquatic biota and consequently to humans. CONCLUSIONS
  28. 28. The test methods for toxicity tests are acute or chronic, to an effluent as a whole, they generally follow several standard protocols that include a description of use and culture of the species recommended as test organisms. There is clearly a tendency to use test-organisms which are regulated and standardized over the use of native species. Among the test-organisms as the most frequent search terms are highlighted in the cladoceran Daphnia magna and Ceriodaphnia dubia , followed by the bioluminescent bacterium Vibrio fischeri . No less significant is the use of algae as Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and fish species such as fathead minnows . CONCLUSIONS
  29. 29. Recent studies show changes in standardized test methods as an attempt to increase the degree of security in the face of the same composition of the biota of specific local in which you want to develop particular study. Because they are standardized tests and described internationally longer than the others, the tests using cladocerans as daphnideos are more widespread in research and regulations aimed at examining the toxicity of effluents and chemicals complex. The studies suggest that the toxicological evaluation of aquatic ecosystems by the combined or isolated from an environmental pollutant is recommended that biological testing is done in different trophic levels of the ecosystem. CONCLUSIONS
  30. 30. Regarding the response time of a test-organism to the presence or absence of toxicant action of an effluent or chemical compound, it is recommended the use of tests with bacteria, because they generally have a duration of 30 minutes to 2 days only, for sensitivity, the toxicity of industrial effluents and compounds chemical complex there is a definition of pattern or individual species described as more or less sensitive to the action of pollutants. The tests are preferred to chronic acute tests, since they describe situations of damage deeper in the body test and consequently the impact that this toxicant can cause the biocenose that this pollutant is inserted. CONCLUSIONS
  31. 31. Thank you all for the attention. Rubinger. Carla F. 1 . Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais Departamento de Engenharia Sanitária e Ambiental Programa de Pós graduação em Saneamento, Meio Ambiente e Recursos Hídricos Belo Horizonte – Minas Gerais, Brasil. E-mail: carlarubinger@ufmg.br

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