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5th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2014 Integrative Risk Management - The role of science, technology & practice 24-28 August 2014 in Davos, Switzerland

5th International Disaster and Risk Conference IDRC 2014 Integrative Risk Management - The role of science, technology & practice 24-28 August 2014 in Davos, Switzerland

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  • 1. Aviation Industry and its influences on Crisis Management procedures and improvement of regional and cities' Resilience Nooshin Hadidian Moghadam Civil engineer Pilot, expert in Crisis management Noushin_rose_20@hotmail.com
  • 2. Natural disasters always have drastic impact on human life and in recent decades, hundreds of millions of people have felt their lives in the ring of injuries and damages resulting from such disasters, many people died and more than millions of dollars as total losses causes that the social and economical growth is faced with many obstacles. Incidents, natural disasters and the level of their endamaging depend on human activities.
  • 3. With the presence of scientific and integrated management for crisis that can prevent occurring of disasters with prediction and detecting them before anticipation, and in the event of crisis can successfully control the activities of intervention, guidance, caring after crisis by prioritizing, organizing, planning and directing leading levels, we can hope that many crisis and disasters can be predicted and controlled before occurrence or in the case of incidence the resulting backwash of them can be decreased optimally.
  • 4. Therefore, efforts and planning to develop and increase the resilience of cities and areas that are more vulnerable for natural hazards, can lead to reduce irreparable and costly human and financial losses and optimize the sustainable development indicators in areas for long time. One of the major factors affecting sustainable development and urban and regional resilience and have bilateral direct connection with crisis management processes is crisis logistics that has crucial role in supply chain for crisis management.
  • 5. Based on main characteristics of resilient cities against natural disasters and scientific definition of crisis logistics, adopting plans to anticipate and mitigate the effects of natural hazards ,employing of technologies for monitoring and early warning, rapid ability to perform instant recovery solutions and quickly restore basic services and resumption of social, institutional and economic activities after such incidents needs safe utilization of new technologies for fast access to data and information for monitoring and decision-making and planning before event, during and after it.
  • 6. Undoubtedly use of new , rapid and safe technologies of aviation industry with variety of functions such as ultra light and light aircrafts, helicopters and other facilities utilized in various types of assessment processes, supply, transportation , storage and distribution of goods and services have undeniable impact in the field of resilience against natural disasters and sustainable development indicators in the regions.
  • 7. This paper has presented a definition of crisis logistics concepts , and principles of resiliency and also new technologies in aviation industry , their capabilities , potential roles, importance and beside the brief comments about the experience of different countries in taking advantage of these industry ,its application in various process and disasters specially in impassible and cumbrous areas has been analyzed.
  • 8. 1- Crisis logistics: Crisis logistics includes processes such as estimation , procurement , transportation(scheduled and planned), maintenance and distribution of goods and services needed for crisis and disasters ( according to the procedures defined in crisis management).
  • 9. 2- Sustainable development: Sustainable development is a process of change in the use of resources , directing investments , orientation of technological and institutional change that will be compatible with present and future needs .This process is a base of improvements for social and cultural shortcomings and must be suitable motivation for balanced, proportionate and coordinated advancements for economic, social and cultural situations specially in developing countries.
  • 10. 3- Resilient region: Resilient region or city refers to area that has the capacity to respond and applicable planning in prediction and prevention, preparedness, reconstruction and rehabilitation in the face of any crisis and is appropriate to prioritize for sustainable development indicators in each area and tries to supply necessary resources to develop and improve management and organizing capacities.
  • 11. Interaction between Crisis logistics and region resiliency: In a Crisis logistics system, the following factors should be considered: 1. Preparation time (The time required for the provision of an activity or product from beginning to the moment of achieving target) 2. Limitation of resources 3. The critical factors causing the crisis, including the critical and random deficiencies. 4. Needs and priorities and methods for their allocation.
  • 12. 5. Adaptation and relation between needs and Events 6. Flexibility 7. Easiness and proportionality 8. Appropriate command and control 9. Compilation and preparation of detailed, complete and timely information and updating them.
  • 13. Therefore for planning in crisis logistics to develop or enhance resilience in the region, we need to observe at least the following points: a)For such a process we should have complete, correct and update information and accessibility to this information must be quickly and safely. b)It is very important that capable planners with high knowledge and flexibility must be attended for making crisis logistics models.
  • 14. c)In organization and management system of crisis logistics, advanced tools and techniques must be used for detecting and forecasting data and information. d)In a normal and safe logistics management for crisis, many measures and plans are applied to anticipate and reduce the impact of natural disasters, employing technologies for early warning and rapid monitoring, maintaining infrastructure, public and private properties, including homes and other assets, Cultural Heritage, Economic and Environmental capital, And there is capability for minimizing both physical and social losses caused by extreme weather events, earthquakes or other natural disasters or human induced hazards.
  • 15. e)There should be ability for rapidly implement recovery strategies for immediate and rapid restoring essential services and resuming social, economic, institutional activities after such events. f)It should be noted that most of the above, have specific importance to achieve resilience against adverse environmental changes such as climate change, essential changes in the region or city and the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions.
  • 16. According to the planning process in crisis logistics in order to enhance the regional resilience, we can express the efficiency of this industry in several processes of crisis management as follows: Besides the utilizing of Geographic Maps of various regions and providing information in different ways about areas, we can use various types of aircrafts, manned or unmanned helicopters to assess and explore urban and suburban areas with different land uses in 4 main procedures of crisis management tasks.
  • 17. 1- Prediction and prevention process: This industry can be used to evaluate and identify the various items: a)Identification and assessment of changes in distribution of old structures in urban areas (in short time intervals). b)Identification of trends and changes in urban design and residential and commercial (etc) districts beside items that mentioned in comprehensive and detailed maps constantly. c)Identification of vulnerable areas of the city, sub-urban regions according to regional background and records for occurrence of variety of disasters (such as earthquakes, floods, fires, storms, blizzard and etc.)
  • 18. d)Detection and continuous monitoring of deforestation and desertification increase or decrease the amount of water in the floodways of rivers, dams and canals. e)Precise and controlled Aerial visits but with low height level from all critical and sensitive positions including vital installations, such as refineries, fuel tanks, power plants and dams. f)Making online and direct communication with assessment centers in disaster management office before, during and after disasters.
  • 19. So we can utilize the following aviation instruments to have a wider application range and can get out from highly specialized military and fantasies uses.
  • 20. 1-1-Unmanned aircrafts: Variety of unmanned aircrafts and helicopters are being built which can be used for various missions such as exploration and identification of several areas and online connections with analysis and assessment centers in the region for evaluation of regional conditions or incidents:
  • 21. -Quasi UAV for identification and sending information goals: This type of aircrafts can be used for exploration and recognition of several areas and dispatching information in high level flights. Although main UAVs with military applications have high and enormous costs in production and maintenance, Quasi UAV can be used just for identification goals with lower costs which are more adaptive with financial definitions in crisis management.
  • 22. For example we can use this type of UAV for exploration and inspection of continental changing before disaster, recognition of flood spread in the region before crisis occurrence and primary evaluation of region during protracted crises and after it. Since their flight altitude can increase, they have high ability to detect a broader range of information quickly in special area.
  • 23. Also quasi UAVs have ability to communicate quickly with satellites and other types of airplanes or helicopters and ground-based data centers to assess and evaluate crisis management's information in the region. Some Pictures of them are listed below:
  • 24. Aircraft or light quasi UAV with special camera for taking precise photos and videos to identify the region These types of aircrafts, have designed structure like military UAVs which can be used for identification of the items listed above.
  • 25. An example of communication between quasi UAV and unmanned airplanes with ground and aerial systems
  • 26. Making coordination between photos from UAV and satellite
  • 27. 1-2-Robotic aircraft: Today this type of flight instruments has more useful applications for detection and exploration of areas with low-height flight to take needing photographs. For example this type of flying robots can be used to identify and take photographs from volcanoes and their conditions, rapid changes in construction and traffic trend in the region, especially before , during and after crisis, sending reports from sensitive and important infra-structures, rapid climate change in the region in short time intervals . Some images of these flying robots are given below:
  • 28. Identification process and sending data in mountainous terrain
  • 29. Identification of climatic conditions, urban design and urban and suburban areas' changing
  • 30. Identification and evaluation of potential disasters in special regions such as volcanoes, fires, etc.
  • 31. VUAV Eagle Eye
  • 32. Structure of UAV micro-helicopter
  • 33. 1-3- Robocopters : On the nose of this helicopter, important sensors are installed that can scan all details of the scene and views from several areas and a pilot and an engineer just as well as observers are used by those aircraft on the ground and they will be waiting for its own decision for landing. This helicopter can control itself. This kind of robocopter were examined and tested for the first time in Arizona for many different operations and a variety of motion control and maneuverability.
  • 34. Robotic systems defined on this robocopter can completely identify and understand their surrounding , decides on its way and also reacts against accidental events. This type of aircraft is extraordinarily versatile and multifunctional and can be used by soldiers and civilians in narrow , impassible and difficult areas.
  • 35. This type of unmanned helicopters can be used in identifying and collecting information and taking images from impassable areas with low accessibility and Hazardous conditions, Including narrow valleys, forest fires and areas with narrow access road with high level of confidence and safety and in comparison with existing situation , has much more rapid rate in sending data for evaluation and assessment in analyzing units of crisis management centers. Some pictures from variety of robocopter are shown below:
  • 36. Testing of robocopter in several maneuvers for different operations
  • 37. The capability of Local topography recognition by robo helicopter
  • 38. Bell vertical flight robocopter that has high capability for exploration process
  • 39. 2- Manned aircrafts and helicopters: In prediction and prevention process, generally using of small aviation instruments with Control capabilities defined by human for a variety of missions needs to apply human and artificial intelligence with together as an explorational and analyzing tools. In small airplanes and helicopters controlled and directed by crisis management's pilot, promptitude and accuracy in sending and identification of sensitive areas has major role as perspective of crisis management .
  • 40. Because these types of airplanes and helicopters need less space for occupation and maintenance and have higher speed operation and in comparison to other aviation instruments defined in some countries (such as IRAN) such as BELL and MIL helicopters that are generally used in "Red Crescent Organization“ as well as other aircrafts that are used only for disaster relief, have higher financial and scientific justification and for using in crisis management missions are more faster and explicit in operational planning . Hereunder , there are some pictures from these type of airplanes and helicopters with brief explanation are given about the characteristics of their in crisis management missions.
  • 41. - Ultra light Airplanes: Ultra light airplane is one of the ideal choices for use in the prediction and prevention processes of crisis logistics' objectives are listed above due to the small size, maneuverability, high speed, relatively low maintenance and repairing costs and a smaller runway . Indeed, by defining the specific height and direction of flight for this type of airplane , we can achieve to desired items.
  • 42. Evector Dynamic Savannah
  • 43. -Ultra light helicopter: In addition to the above advantages, these helicopters can be used in more conditions and situations because of no need to wide runways.
  • 44. -Gyrocopters : Using of gyrocopters are defined in some Rescue operation and the initial assessment duties , but we can utilize them in following processes because of their less maintenance and repairing costs and specific and defined height of flight in important exploration operations such as: a)- Identification and assessment of changes in old zones and their distribution in urban areas. b) -Identification of vulnerable areas of the city, sub-urban according to regional capacity for occurrence of several recognized disasters .( such as earth quake, flood, fire, storm , blizzard and etc.) c)-Assess and identify the extent of the crisis in the early hours of disasters' occurrence and initial estimates of damage and casualties.
  • 45. 2- Response and recovery and rehabilitation process In addition to using aviation industry and its related instruments in the prediction and prevention, preparedness steps in crisis management procedures ,it can be said that in confrontation with crisis and disasters and using variety of relief methods in several time intervals after disasters, defined facilities in aviation industry can play major role for achieving the goals defined in crisis logistics .
  • 46. As noted above, some of the effective goals in crisis logistics planning are included as below: - Rapid action in providing the manpower - Agile infrastructure and logistical capabilities that in fact include part of the major role for this industry in preparedness and confrontation steps in crisis management planning which contributes to increase the regional resiliency because of making preparation , planning , high flexibility and lowering costs in crisis management and its logistics.
  • 47. Among more than 40 recognized natural disasters throughout the world , disasters such as earthquakes, floods, fires, hail and heavy rain and snow, avalanches and landslides have more precedents in the world. So due to the high rate of occurrence of such these incidents in some countries and also need to increase the resiliency in sustainable development programs in areas beside urbanization growth and making rapid changes , the necessity for using new and update facilities in aviation industry for attaining defined goals in confrontation , reconstruction and rehabilitation after incidents and disasters is completely clear.
  • 48. Today, the impact of the aviation industry and air relief during natural disasters is undeniable and unavoidable and in the countries and areas that success in the field of crisis management and have provided valuable lessons for effective crisis logistics business ,definition the role of the aviation industry and new applications and equipments in all steps of prediction and prevention, preparedness , confrontation ,reconstruction, and rehabilitation are most important. Although in most countries , air transportation is generally used for relief and rescue missions, according to the characteristics of urbanization , spread of areas and climate changes and frequency of various natural disasters' occurrence , paying attention to how this industry can define the goals of sustainable development and increasing resiliency, becomes necessary.
  • 49. Therefore, aviation industry's role in reconstruction and rehabilitation process can be defined as following items : 1)Search and reconnaissance operations such as those mentioned in the prediction and prevention procedures. Use of defined and proper equipments of this industry in these steps can reduce the loss of lives and property during disasters. 2)Initial assessment after natural disasters and accurate reporting to online crisis management center to determine the extent of the incident and the speed of its progress in the area.
  • 50. 3)Search and identify the impassable areas, mountains, valleys and forests, sea and rivers in natural incidents such as floods, earthquakes, avalanches, heavy snow and rain. 4)Photography and mapping of vast areas for overall assessment of natural disasters , and then analyze the information for confrontation process and make decisions in reconstruction and rehabilitation programs. 5)Transfer and transport relief and rescue teams, medical teams, supplies and food requirements, rapid transportation and rescue tools in specific situations. 6)Handling and transfer of injured and damaged people with defined aircrafts and helicopters in the air ambulance.
  • 51. 7)Lifting and carrying tools and equipment needed in various steps of reconstruction and rehabilitation after disaster. 8)In the case of making field hospitals , utilization of aviation industry and air transport is one of the best options. 9)Make great help for quick presence of authorities in critical regions for making quick and correct decisions in proper period of time. 10) Suitable use of this industry in fire fighting operations in areas such as pastures, forests, airports and roads.
  • 52. To achieve these goals, in addition to Mil and Bell helicopters that are used vastly in air rescue operations, following aviation equipment can be used with more advantages:
  • 53. Small or oval helicopters can be used for initial assessment and immediate identification after incident and assessment of regional situation at different steps of reconstruction and rehabilitation process
  • 54. Identification and assessment helicopter
  • 55. To transport Injured persons and rescue and medical equipments
  • 56. Light aircraft with capability of carrying a stretcher and medical equipments and landing on non- asphalt runways
  • 57. A view from medical equipment defined in the air ambulance airplane
  • 58. Amphibious aircraft for reconnaissance and rescue operations in the water and coastlines
  • 59. Fire fighting aircrafts which are suitable for vast areas such as forests , pasturelands and impassible regions
  • 60. Fire fighting operations in roads and residential areas by light and ultra light airplanes
  • 61. Documents and experience has shown that many countries with most production in environmental, economic and biological facilities were damaged and became unusable because of natural disasters, but due to trained and skilled manpower, efficient and dynamic crisis management and their high speed efforts, they could compensate all damages and losses and with proper planning they could manage their environment in times of crisis occurrence and minimized the losses rate and vulnerabilities.
  • 62. But on the other hand there are many rich countries that increased their vulnerability and remain vulnerable because of the poor and weak planning and poor management of human resources. For example in the Metropolis such as Tehran , available evidence indicates that much of the emergency relief organizations do not show their support for using of air emergency and even in the case of forgetting this puzzle, they deny its use!
  • 63. However, the research results in some developed countries show that they use air relief for transportation of damaged people to medical centers so deaths and losses statistics are much lower in these countries due to a variety of events such as fires and road accidents, so the definition of locating aviation industry and air rescue in crisis management process needs to new way of thinking.
  • 64. Therefore, after introduction of a variety tools and equipment for aviation industry and their usability in various missions, we need to define the method of locating and using them in crisis management planning. 1)At first , there is an essential need to define a variety of application areas of this industry in 4-fold steps of crisis management in each country and then in its different regions according to specific characteristics of climate, weather, population and etc.
  • 65. 2)Due to the variety of applications for various types of equipment listed in the aviation industry, there is need to define independent operating domains for education, specification of its finance and financial Workbook Set to determine the operating areas for different types of aircrafts and helicopters according to characteristics of different regions of the country in the case of crisis management perspective.
  • 66. 3) For proper responding of using these equipments, we need to define new and update tasks and defining online analyzing centers in crisis management offices for receiving recognized information from several determined aircrafts and assessing them in prediction, prevention, confrontation, preparedness, recovery and rehabilitation processes.
  • 67. 4) To fulfill the required tasks and several required applications of these aviation equipments according to crisis logistics , there is need to build partnerships and coordination between all organizations and institutions in the country which have ability to do relief operations in different fields and also establish the relationship between them, especially when using identification systems and transmit data at different stages of crisis management.
  • 68. 5) For optimal conclusion from consistent application of aviation industry as an integral and indispensable part in crisis management and its logistics , there is an essential need to design a proper structure for application of this technology for logistics management in disasters , improving communication and information systems and change traditional patterns to modern models to act quickly and accurately for our operations in crisis logistics.
  • 69. 6) Opposing the views about creating greater vulnerability due to the transporting injured persons with airplanes or helicopters because of air pressure and other movement disorders and traumatic stress of airplane or helicopter, some proceedings are being used to resolve possible imperfections which does not undermine the usefulness of such equipment.
  • 70. 7) Now it's time for defining and planning aerial maneuvers for a variety of missions, including reconnaissance, search , rescue, relief and transportation of medical goods and equipment as well as fire fighting operations in different scales for crisis management exercises. 8) In urban design and neighborhood of dangerous sites and roots such as mountains and highways , suitable points and areas must be defined for using several types of aviation industry's equipments for all determined aerial operations.
  • 71. 9) For organizing the air rescue and relief centers in crisis management organizations , we require to establish new and updated centers to manage engineering and technical affairs , repair and maintenance of helicopters and airplanes , flight operations management , affairs of crisis management's Pilots and medical and rescue operations management.