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Building Academic Language in the ESL Classroom

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ARKTESOL Springdale presentation by Elisabeth Chan of The International Center for English at Arkansas State University October 28, 2010. This presentation discusses the difference between ...

ARKTESOL Springdale presentation by Elisabeth Chan of The International Center for English at Arkansas State University October 28, 2010. This presentation discusses the difference between conversation and academic English and includes tips and tricks to help students bridge the gap.

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    Building Academic Language in the ESL Classroom Building Academic Language in the ESL Classroom Presentation Transcript

    • Building Academic language in the ESL classroom
      Elisabeth Chan
      The International Center for EnglishArkansas State University
      ARKTESOL - October 28, 2010
    • What’s the difference?
      Magnetic attraction occurs only between ferrous metals.
      Our experiments showed that magnets attract some metals.
      We found out the pins stuck on the magnet.
      Look, it’s making them move. They don’t stick.
      Gibbons (2002, p.40)
    • Registers!
      Magnetic attraction occurs only between ferrous metals.
      Our experiments showed that magnets attract some metals.
      We found out the pins stuck on the magnet.
      Look, it’s making them move. They don’t stick.
      Gibbons (2002, p.40)
      Academic
      Non-Academic
    • Conversational vs Academic
      Cummins (1981)
      BICS – basic interpersonalcommunicative skills
      2-3 years
      CALP – cognitive academiclanguage proficiency
      5-7 years
      Cummins’ Quadrants
      Context embedded?
      Cognitively demanding?
    • Cummins’ Quadrants
      COGNITIVELYUNDEMANDING
      CONTEXT CONTEXT
      EMBEDDED REDUCED
      COGNITIVELY
      DEMANDING
    • Academic Bag of Tricks
      How academic English is different &
      Activities for building:
      Writing
      Reading
      Speaking
      Vocabulary
    • Writing
      Organization
      Content
      Grammar
      • ORGANIZATIONAL PATTERN
      • CONTENT
      • TOPIC
      • SUPPORTING DETAILS
      • GRAMMAR
      • COMPOUND SENTENCES
      • COMPLEX SENTENCES
      Difference?
    • Building Academic Writing
      Teach and practice the writing process
      Focus on content
      State a topic and develop it
      Focus on cohesive paragraph structure
      Reference, conjunctions, nominalization
      Focus on sentence structure
      Compound, clauses, signal words
      Paraphrasing
    • Writing Activities
      Sentence Transformation
      Simple  compound
      Nominalizations  every day language
      The police investigation of the robbery lasted for one month.
      The police investigated the robbery for one month.
    • Writing Activities
      Sentence Transformation
      Simple  compound
      Nominalizations  every day language
      Paraphrase
      Have students pull key words from a level appropriate academic text and then put away the original text
      Now have students paraphrase using only the keywords written down to help
    • Difference?
    • Building Academic Reading
      Build reading fluency through Extensive Reading
      Engage students & increase motivation
      Explicitly teach reading skills
      Model the skills! Use “Think Alouds”
    • Reading
      Titles & Headings
      Figures
      Bold words
      Objectives
      Language!

      Guessing from context!
      Context-embedded + Cognitively demanding
    • Speaking
    • Building Academic Speech
      Raise students’ awareness
      Use discussion groups with questions about differences
      Listen to lectures or speeches & analyze the language used
      Analyze research or focus on prevalent structures
      Extend conversation
      Avoid IRE’s = Initiation, Response, Evaluation (Cazden, 2001)
    • Speaking Activities
      Avoiding IRE’s
      Ask more open ended questions
      Respond with encouragement and in a way that extends their response and thinking
      T: The teacher –blank– a book to the class every week.S: readsT: That’s right! Why do we use “read” and not “reads”?ORT: Very good! What other verbs can we use?S: gives?T: Excellent! What is a verb we cannot use there? Why not?
    • Describe this image
    • Academic Vocabulary
      Every day vocabulary vs. Academic
      (Brook, D. 1998)
      Extensive reading
      Explicitly teach vocabulary learning strategies
      Vocabulary notebook activities
    • Vocabulary Activities
      Note cards or Notebooks
      academic – adj. academy (n.)
      academia (n.)
      I learn academic
      words when I read
      my textbooks.
    • Vocabulary Activities
      Note cards or Notebooks
      academic – adj. academy (n.)
      academia (n.)
      school study
      academic
      hard words textbook
      academic advising
      academic word list
      academic studies
    • References
      Arms, K. 1996. Environmental Science. Austin, TX: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston.
      Brook, D. 1998. The Journey of English. New York: Clarion Books.
      Cazden, C. 2001. Classroom Discourse: The Language of Teaching and Learning. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
      Cummins, J. 1981. “The Role of Primary Language Development in Promoting Educational Success for Language Minority Students.” In Schooling and Language Minority Students: A Theoretical Framework, 3-49. Los Angeles: Evaluation, Dissemination and Assessment Center, California State University, Los Angeles.
      Freeman, Y.S. and D.E. Freeman. 2009. Academic Language for English Language Learners and Struggling Readers: How to Help Students Succeed Across Content Areas. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
      Gibbons, P. 2002. Scaffolding Language, Scaffolding Learning: Teaching Second Language Learners in the Mainstream Classroom. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
      Guthrie, J. and M. Davis. 2003. “Motivating Struggling Readers in Middle School Through an Engagement Model of Classroom Practice.” Reading and Writing Quarterly 9: 59-85.
      Swales, J. 2005. “Academically Speaking.” Language Magazine 4 (8): 30-34.
      Image Citations
      • Scholastic. Magnetic Attraction. http://www2.scholastic.com/browse/article.jsp?id=1227. Accessed October 5, 2010.
      • POS Hardware. International Point of Sale Cash Registers. http://www.internationalpointofsale.com/store/index.php?cPath=84. Accessed October 5, 2010.
    • QUESTIONS?CONTACT INFO
      Elisabeth Chan
      echan@astate.edu
      http://www.astate.edu/international/tice
      The International Center for English
      Arkansas State University