T8 adamson and fujimoto adamson


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Translanguaging in self-access language advising: Informing language policy

Presenters: John Adamson and Naoki Fujimoto-Adamson, University of Niigata Prefecture, Japan

This presentation investigates talk between language advisors and students in a university self access learning center in Japan and how it informs language policy in the center. Its initial ‘English-only’ language policy has shifted to one in which “translanguaging” (Creese & Blackledge, 2010, p. 105) between Japanese and English now predominates in advisory sessions. Qualitative data from advisory sessions, mentor interviews and student questionnaires reveal that translanguaging encourages “local, pragmatic coping tactics” (Lin, 2005, p. 46) and that the mentors’ strategic code-switching presents them as plurilingual “near peer role models” (Murphey, 1996) among students. Despite these positive findings, data also reveals that some students want mentors to enforce monolingual language rules, and others may feel “guilt” (Setati et al, 2002, p.147) when using Japanese. Conclusions imply that the translanguaging of self-access center advisory sessions is helping to create a valid alternative to the ‘English only’ policy commonly seen in classrooms.

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T8 adamson and fujimoto adamson

  1. 1. Advising for language learner autonomy November 12th, 2011John Adamson & Naoki Fujimoto-Adamson University of Niigata Prefecture
  2. 2. ContextNew universityNew SALC: mentorsResourcesIntegration with EAP curricula/workshopsLanguage policy “English only” to… AimsFormulating language policy for self-access through the lens of student voicesMentor influencesNot top-down, teacher-directed
  3. 3. Cummins (2005): Two solitudes vs. L1 use as a learning resource Language learning policy to include student voices/L1Benor (2010): Languages as “ethnolinguistic repertoires” to be used as “code choices” (Levine, 2011, p.3)Creese & Blackledge (2010): code-switching/ translanguaging in classroomsMartin (2005, p. 89): “safe” language practiceLin (2005), p. 46): “local, pragmatic, coping tactics”Setati et al (2002, p. 147): “dilemma-filled” guilt in L1 usen.b. most studies on L1/L2 policy based on classroom research, not self-access.
  4. 4. Classroom SLA: teacher-direction vs. Self-access: student-direction/ autonomy/choiceSo, if left in student hands, how effectively do students keep to their plan/own policies?“loose piloting” (Candas, 2011, p. 201) , “organising circumstance” (Spear & Mocker, 1984, p. 4)“Institutional constraints and habits or routines”(i.e. teacher-direction) still very influential in making students reflect on their choices. (Candas, 2011, p. 201)What kind of “learning space”: “striated” or “loose”? (Savin-Baden, 2008, p. 13)
  5. 5. Questionnaires: 240 1st graders/ various fields Dec 2010 - Jan 2011Audio recordings: Student assistants – mentors Nov 2010 Students-Students Jan 2011 Student-mentor Sept 2011Interviews: Mentors Nov 2010Ethnographic archive of self-access use April 2009 - current
  6. 6.  Major faculty: ½ English, ½ Japanese use(with more possibility of English content instruction) Minor faculties: slightly more English(with less possibility of English content instruction)English: with friends, borrowing/returning materialsJapanese: with friends, enquiries about study skillsKorean: “to popularize Korean to my friends”“the border is meaningless”“why don’t mentors force people to speak English?”
  7. 7. 2 students, 2 mentorsTask: preparing some decorations for Halloween in SALCTalk: about task & social activitiesStudents spoke a lot of English , Mentors almost only EnglishIntersentential code-switching: English sentence – Japanese sentence Kore wa yaranakute mo ii desuka?Intrasentential code-switching: word injections uchiage, yakiniku, chikyukankyoron, We had nanka…
  8. 8. 6 studentsTask: English Speaking Society (ESS) weekly meetingTalk: campus & daily life, international politics, learning EnglishStudents among members spoke mainly in EnglishIntrasentential code-switching: word injections soran-bushi, shogatsu, mochi, zoni, shoyu taste …Intersentential code-switching: English sentence – Japanese sentence A: Yoshi, tamaruze pointo ga. B: Yes, but no Japanese is allowed.
  9. 9.  1 student, 1 mentor Task: Checking student’s presentation manuscript for a lesson Talk: Asking & advising of student’s writingStudent and mentor spoke mainly Japanese, occasionally EnglishIntrasentential code-switching: word injectionsTravel agency toka, Paris no maeni a ha iranai yone, at jyanakute in neIntersentential code-switching: English sentence – Japanese sentenceA: Very good. Well done. B: Arigato gozaimasu. Thank you.
  10. 10.  When to translanguage? into Japanese for grammar & explaining essay structure - “when the eyes go blank”, when students simply smile into English for simple, functional interaction Any guilt when speaking Japanese? No, “it’s natural they speak in Japanese because I’m Japanese” Sometimes, some boys say “let’s speak in English” or on the phone in SALC Student use of English? preparing for English presentations, speaking class tasks if students really want to improve their speaking Mentors as near peer role models? Yes, students influenced by mentors and 2nd graders who speak in English “It’s cool” to speak in English, “trickle down effect”
  11. 11. Diverse expectations/voices on policy formulation - “safe” language practice (Martin, 2005) , “local, pragmatic coping” (Lin, 2005) - “why don’t mentors force people to speak English?”Translanguaging dependent on task/speech event & difficulty - “loose piloting” (Candas, 2011, p. 201) - “code choice” (Levine, 2011, p. 3)Mentor roles in policy formulation/enforcement? - not classroom teachers - SALC autonomy/individual pathwaysVoices inform, guide flexible, individualized policies = personal, diverse policies not one policy for all
  12. 12. Benor, S. B. (2010). Ethnolinguistic repertoire: Shifting the analytic focus in language and ethnicity. Journal of Sociolinguistics, 14(2), 159–183Candas, P. (2011). Analyzing student practice in language resource centres of the Louis Pasteur University in Strasbourg: is planning really central to self-directed learning? Innovation in Language Learning and Teaching, 5(2), 191-204.Creese, A. & Martin, P. W. (2008).Classroom ecologies: A case study from a Gujarati complementary school in England. In Creese, A., Martin, P., & Hornberger, N. H. (eds.), Encyclopedia of language and education: Vol. 9: Ecology of Language (2nd ed., pp. 263-272). Boston: Springer + Science Business Media.Cummins, J. (2005). A proposal for action: Strategies for recognizing heritage language competence as a learning resource within the mainstream classroom. The Modern Language Journal, 89, 585-592.Levine, G. S. (2011). Code Choice in the Language Classroom. Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters.Lin, A. M. Y. (2005). Critical, transdisciplinary perspectives on language-in-education policy and practice in postcolonial contexts: The case of Hong Kong. In A. M. Y. Lin & Martin, P. W. (eds.), Decolonization, globalization: Language-in-education policy and practice. (pp. 38-54). Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters.Martin, P. W. (2005). Bilingual encounters in the classroom. In Dewale, J.-M., Housen, A. & Wei, L. (eds.), Bilingualism: Beyond the basic principles. (pp. 67-87). Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters.Savin-Baden, M. (2007). Learning Spaces: Creating Opportunities for Knowledge Creation in Academic Life. Maidenhead: McGraw Hill.Setati, M., Adler, J., Reed, Y., & Bapoo, A. (2002). Incomplete journeys: Code-switching and other language practices in mathematics, science and English language classrooms in South Africa. Language and Education, 16, 128-149.Spear , G. & Mocker, D. (1984). The organising circumstance: Environmental determinants in self-directed learning. Adult Education Quarterly, 35(1), 52-77