Principles to practice in teaching reading

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Jennifer Bixby and Joe McVeigh present principles for teaching reading to English language learners and supply practical applications. Download the handout at www.joemcveigh.org

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Principles to practice in teaching reading

  1. 1. Principles to Practice in Teaching Reading Jennifer Bixby Joe McVeigh CATESOL Santa Clara, CA April 24, 2010
  2. 2. Joe Jenny
  3. 3. Who are you ?
  4. 4. Schema building
  5. 5. What are your top 3 principles for teaching reading?
  6. 6. Principles of teaching reading: an overview
  7. 7. Our main sources <ul><li>a. b. c. d. </li></ul><ul><li>1. 2. 3. 4. </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>a. b. c. d. </li></ul><ul><li>1. 2. 3. 4. </li></ul>Paul Nation Neil Anderson Bill Grabe Cheryl Zimmerman
  9. 9. 1. Develop word recognition skills
  10. 10. 2. Move from sentence-level to discourse-level processing
  11. 11. 3. Develop lessons structured around pre- during- and post-reading activities
  12. 12. 4. Use both intensive and extensive reading
  13. 13. Rate 5. Increase reading speed
  14. 14. 6. Focus attention on vocabulary development skills
  15. 15. 7. Explicitly teach strategies
  16. 16. 8. Develop and maintain motivation
  17. 17. 9. Move towards learner autonomy
  18. 18. Principles of teaching reading: an overview
  19. 19. How readers construct meaning
  20. 20. Bottom-up processing
  21. 21. <ul><li>Bottom-up processing </li></ul><ul><li>Starting from sounds and letters to make meaning </li></ul><ul><li>Identifying words and structures </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on vocabulary, grammar, organization </li></ul><ul><li>Can include text features such as title, subtitles, text types </li></ul>
  22. 22. Top-down processing
  23. 23. <ul><li>Top-down processing </li></ul><ul><li>Comprehension resides in the reader </li></ul><ul><li>Reader uses background knowledge and makes predictions </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher focus is on meaning-generating activities (Anderson 2008) </li></ul>
  24. 24. Interactive processing
  25. 25. <ul><li>Interactive processing </li></ul><ul><li>Readers use bottom-up and top-down processes simultaneously </li></ul><ul><li>Higher and lower-level processes influence each other (Hedgcock & Ferris, 2009) </li></ul>
  26. 26. Bottom up, top down, or interactive? <ul><li>Schema-building to activate background knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Learn new words before reading </li></ul><ul><li>Study how passive voice is used in a story. </li></ul><ul><li>Underline a grammar structure or verb tense </li></ul><ul><li>Read for overall meaning, not stopping for unfamiliar words </li></ul><ul><li>Write a paragraph using information from two different texts. </li></ul>
  27. 27. Principle: Develop lessons structured around pre- during- and post-reading activities
  28. 28. Pre-reading activity: Schema building
  29. 29. Pre-reading activity: Previewing the text
  30. 30. <ul><li>Preview the Reading </li></ul><ul><li>You are going to read a FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions) webpage from a health Website about the flu. FAQ sheets state commonly asked questions about a topic, followed by the answers. What symptoms of the flu do you know? </li></ul><ul><li>Flu FAQ Flu season is coming! Are you prepared? Here are answers to your questions! </li></ul><ul><li>What is the flu? </li></ul><ul><li>The flu, short for influenza, is a virus that passes easily from person to person. Every year, millions of people miss work and school because of the seasonal flu. Seasonal flu exists worldwide. Usually the flu season is in the winter months, but in warm climates, the flu occurs during the rainy season. </li></ul><ul><li>What are the symptoms of the flu? </li></ul><ul><li>The symptoms of the flu include fever, cough, sore throat, body aches, headache, chills, and fatigue. These symptoms usually show up quickly, developing within three to six hours of exposure to the virus. With the flu, you may start the day feeling fine, only to end up feeling terrible a few hours later. </li></ul><ul><li>What’s the difference between the flu and a cold? </li></ul><ul><li>Both are respiratory illnesses, but they are caused by different viruses. Although the symptoms can be similar, flu symptoms are more severe and include a high fever and body aches. Cold symptoms include a runny or stuffy nose and a cough. You may have a slight fever with a cold, but in general, cold symptoms are milder and only last about seven days. The flu can last up to two weeks. It is much more likely to develop into a serious illness and require hospitalization. </li></ul><ul><li>-------------------------------- </li></ul><ul><li>fatigue: great tiredness </li></ul><ul><li>respiratory: related to breathing </li></ul><ul><li>stuffy: blocked, making it hard to breathe </li></ul>(from McVeigh & Bixby, in press)
  31. 31. During-reading activity: Keep an important question in mind
  32. 32. During-reading activity: Re-read to find details
  33. 33. Post-reading activity: Critical analysis and evaluation
  34. 34. Post-reading activity: Critical analysis and evaluation In which lines of the reading does the author give factual information? In which lines does the author give her opinion? What clues tell you it is her opinion?
  35. 35. Post-reading activity: Reflection and integration
  36. 36. <ul><li>Post-reading activity: Reflection and integration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Do you agree with the author that technology is bad for human relationships? Why or why not? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Write a paragraph giving your own opinion about the topic. Use quotations from the text to support your ideas. </li></ul></ul>
  37. 37. Principle: Focus attention on vocabulary development skills
  38. 39. <ul><li>How many words are in a large dictionary? </li></ul><ul><li>65,000 </li></ul><ul><li>90,000 </li></ul><ul><li>115,000 </li></ul><ul><li>267,000 </li></ul>
  39. 40. <ul><li>How many words are in a large dictionary? </li></ul><ul><li>65,000 </li></ul><ul><li>90,000 </li></ul><ul><li>115,000 </li></ul><ul><li>267,000 </li></ul>
  40. 41. <ul><li>How many words does a native speaker know? </li></ul><ul><li>5,000 </li></ul><ul><li>10,000 </li></ul><ul><li>20,000 </li></ul><ul><li>40,000 </li></ul>
  41. 42. <ul><li>How many words does a typical native speaker know? </li></ul><ul><li>5,000 </li></ul><ul><li>10,000 </li></ul><ul><li>20,000 </li></ul><ul><li>40,000 </li></ul>
  42. 43. <ul><li>How many words does a native speaker know? </li></ul><ul><li>5,000 </li></ul><ul><li>10,000 </li></ul><ul><li>20,000 </li></ul><ul><li>40,000 </li></ul>
  43. 44. How many words does a language learner need to know?
  44. 45. How many words does a language learner need to know? “ A very large number.” (Nation 2001)
  45. 46. What level of reading vocabulary is fun, challenging, or frustrating for students?
  46. 47. What level of reading vocabulary is fun, challenging, or frustrating for students? 98% of words fun 95% of words challenging <90% of words frustrating
  47. 48. Vocabulary Development Activities <ul><li>Using a dictionary </li></ul><ul><li>Recognizing word forms </li></ul><ul><li>Identifying affixes and roots </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding collocations </li></ul><ul><li>Guessing meaning from context </li></ul>
  48. 49. Not all vocabulary words are created equal
  49. 50. Word frequency <ul><li>1 st 1000 words 70% </li></ul><ul><li>2 nd 1000 words 80% </li></ul><ul><li>Academic word list 88-90% </li></ul><ul><li>Other . . . . . . </li></ul>
  50. 51. Types of vocabulary <ul><li>High frequency words </li></ul><ul><li>Academic words </li></ul><ul><li>Low frequency words </li></ul><ul><li>Technical words </li></ul>
  51. 52. Checking on the vocabulary level <ul><li>Use a vocabulary profiler such as this one at the English Centre at the University of Hong Kong </li></ul><ul><li>http://ec.hku.hk/vocabulary/profile.htm </li></ul>
  52. 53. Vocabulary Profiler Results <ul><li>Frequency Percentage </li></ul><ul><li>1 - 1000 words 703 92.1% </li></ul><ul><li>1001 - 2000 words 42 5.5% </li></ul><ul><li>AWL words 5 0.6% </li></ul><ul><li>Off-list words 13 1.7% </li></ul>
  53. 54. Vocabulary Profiler Results <ul><li>1 - 1000: a about accept addition after agree agreement allow also always an and are as at bad be because bills both broke brothers build business businesses but buy by car cared carried change child children college color could couldn counting course day describe didn difficult dollars done each easy enjoy enjoyed enough escape even every everything expected fact families family. . . </li></ul><ul><li>1001 - 2000: afford arguments baby clothes customer customers ducks during dusting exactly fun hated holidays hungry ice lesson lessons lot lots lucky nice parents proud rabbits restaurant salary shelves shop sweeping worried </li></ul><ul><li>AWL: adult appreciate communicate eventually jobs </li></ul><ul><li>Off-list: budget chutney dusty feeding london menu pakistan shy talents teenager untrained woodworking yelling </li></ul>
  54. 55. Principle: Explicitly teach strategies
  55. 56. Strategy: Monitor comprehension
  56. 57. Filling in a graphic organizer Citizen journalism Traditional journalism
  57. 58. Monitor comprehension: underlining
  58. 59. Interactive processing
  59. 60. Questions
  60. 61. Q: Skills for Success Oxford University Press 2011
  61. 62. Thanks to the many photographers on Flickr who provided their photos under a Creative Commons license <ul><li>Woman reading by subway Simon Carrasco </li></ul><ul><li>Pen and writing Nadia Badaoui </li></ul><ul><li>Top down convertible “emdot” </li></ul><ul><li>Strategies “noagh” </li></ul><ul><li>Speed Dan DeChiaro </li></ul><ul><li>Scaffolding Kevin Dooley </li></ul><ul><li>Scaffolding Cezary Borysiuk </li></ul><ul><li>Refrigerator words Joshua Barnett </li></ul><ul><li>Question mark Ethan Lofton </li></ul><ul><li>Q Thomas Bower </li></ul><ul><li>Bottom up Judith Green </li></ul><ul><li>Spaghetti recipe Jakob Montrasio </li></ul><ul><li>Bearded man reading Ulisse Albiati </li></ul><ul><li>Boy on bicycle “woodleywonderworks” </li></ul>
  62. 63. Thanks to the many photographers on Flickr who provided their photos under a Creative Commons license <ul><li>Processor Karl Ludwig Poggemann </li></ul><ul><li>Principles “sarahg” </li></ul><ul><li>Pink flowers Eduardo Deboni </li></ul><ul><li>Woman w magnifying glass Mike Kline </li></ul><ul><li>Written list sunshinecity </li></ul><ul><li>Keyhole Sean McGrath </li></ul><ul><li>Jumbled Type Pink Sherbet Photography/D Sharon Pruitt </li></ul><ul><li>Highlighted book “rocknroll guitar” </li></ul><ul><li>Handwritten script “pareeeica” </li></ul><ul><li>Interactive Cameron Russell </li></ul><ul><li>Divers Robert S. Digby </li></ul>
  63. 64. Download copies of handout and PowerPoint slides (minus copyrighted materials) at www.joemcveigh.org/resources Thank you !

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