Beyond Gamification: Architecting Engagement Through Game Design Thinking
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Beyond Gamification: Architecting Engagement Through Game Design Thinking

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Gamification is the process of applying game design elements to non-game contexts in order to drive user engagement, influence behavior and improve the user experience associated with digital products ...

Gamification is the process of applying game design elements to non-game contexts in order to drive user engagement, influence behavior and improve the user experience associated with digital products and services. Over the past year, the practice of gamification has exploded, fueled by marketing hype, media curiosity and spirited debate. While much of the discussion has revolved around extrinsic reward mechanisms as a panacea for customer loyalty and engagement, the most important and effective motivational dynamics of games have been left on the table.

In this presentation I’ll cut through the hype and draw from the fundamentals of game psychology, double-tapping into the techniques game designers use to motivate, engage and guide players through a game’s lifecycle. In doing so, I’ll lay out a model for architecting user engagement, directing behavior and satisfying the needs of both users and business alike.

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  • Hello
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  • Really great deck, time to get some game design books of the shelf to study!
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  • very great (: I'll try to check those books :p
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Beyond Gamification: Architecting Engagement Through Game Design Thinking Presentation Transcript

  • 1. TODAY’S TALK GOES TO 11.11.11 @DU5TB1N | #Geekend
  • 2. TODAY’S TALK GOES TO 11.11.11 1.  INTRODUCTION 2.  STATE OF GAMIFICATION 3.  DEFINITIONS 4.  MOTIVATION, ENGAGEMENT & MEANING 5.  A FRAMEWORK FOR DESIGN 6.  IN CONCLUSION @DU5TB1N | #Geekend
  • 3. PLAY OR BE PLAYED: THE STATE OF GAMIFICATION HYPE CYCLE: NOV 2010 - PRESENT HYPE! FRENZY! PROFITEERING! HYPERBOLE! @DU5TB1N | #Geekend
  • 4. PLAY OR BE PLAYED: THE STATE OF GAMIFICATION DEBATE! “POINTSTIFICATION” “BADGIFICATION” “EXPLOITATIONWARE” Designers / Researchers / Academics vs. Marketers & Vendors @DU5TB1N | #Geekend
  • 5. A DEFINITION Gamification - The Use of Game Design Elements in Non-Game Contexts. @DU5TB1N | #Geekend
  • 6. THE USUAL SUSPECTS Points Badges Leaderboards Incentives @DU5TB1N | #Geekend
  • 7. NON GAME CONTEXTS : FITNESS @DU5TB1N | #Geekend
  • 8. NON GAME CONTEXTS : FINANCE @DU5TB1N | #Geekend
  • 9. NON GAME CONTEXTS : COMMERCE @DU5TB1N | #Geekend
  • 10. NON GAME CONTEXTS : FUNDRAISING @DU5TB1N | #Geekend
  • 11. NON GAME CONTEXTS : EDUCATION @DU5TB1N | #Geekend
  • 12. NON GAME CONTEXTS : SALES @DU5TB1N | #Geekend
  • 13. NON GAME CONTEXTS : PRODUCTIVITY @DU5TB1N | #Geekend
  • 14. NON GAME CONTEXTS : SUSTAINABILITY Points @DU5TB1N | #Geekend
  • 15. BEYOND GAMIFICATION @DU5TB1N | #Geekend
  • 16. BEYOND GAMIFICATION @DU5TB1N | #Geekend
  • 17. BEYOND GAMIFICATION @DU5TB1N | #Geekend
  • 18. WHAT IS A GAME? @DU5TB1N | #Geekend
  • 19. WHAT IS A GAME?A voluntary, rules-bound experience ofcompetitive strife towards discretegoals or outcomes. @DU5TB1N | #Geekend
  • 20. BUT WHERE’S THE FUN? @DU5TB1N | #Geekend
  • 21. FARMVILLE @DU5TB1N | #Geekend
  • 22. THE PROBLEM WITH FUN IT’S TOO DILUTED OF A CONCEPT It doesn’t distinguish the unique psychological experience of gameplay that leads to SUSTAINED ENGAGEMENT. See: Raph Koster – A Theory of Fun in Games Nicole Lazzaro – Four Keys to Fun Marc Leblanc – Eight Kinds of Fun @DU5TB1N | #Geekend
  • 23. MOTIVATION, ENGAGEMENT & MEANINGFUL INTERACTIONSTOO MUCH FOCUS ON SHALLOW, EXTRINSICREWARDS – POINTS & BADGES –DOES NOT LEAD TO PLAYER SATISFACTIONOR SUSTAINED ENGAGEMENT. @DU5TB1N | #Geekend
  • 24. SELF-DETERMINATION THEORY SDT argues that human beings seek out (and continue to engage in) activities if these promise (and succeed) to satisfy 3 intrinsic motivational needs: @DU5TB1N | #Geekend
  • 25. SELF-DETERMINATION THEORY SDT argues that human beings seek out (and continue to engage in) activities if they promise (and succeed) to satisfy 3 intrinsic motivational needs: @DU5TB1N | #Geekend
  • 26. SELF-DETERMINATION THEORY SELF-DETERMINATION THEORY SDT argues that human beings seek out (and continue to engage in) activities if these promise (and succeed) to satisfy 3 intrinsic motivational needs: @DU5TB1N | #Geekend
  • 27. SELF-DETERMINATION THEORY SELF-DETERMINATION THEORY SDT argues that human beings seek out (and continue to engage in) activities if these promise (and succeed) to satisfy 3 intrinsic motivational needs: @DU5TB1N | #Geekend
  • 28. SELF-DETERMINATION THEORY SELF-DETERMINATION THEORY SDT argues that human beings seek out (and continue to engage in) activities if these promise (and succeed) to satisfy 3 intrinsic motivational needs: @DU5TB1N | #Geekend
  • 29. COMPETENCE: (MEANINGFUL GROWTH) SELF-DETERMINATION THEORY SDT argues that human beings seek out (and continue to engage in) activities if these promise (and succeed) to satisfy 3 intrinsic motivational needs: @DU5TB1N | #Geekend
  • 30. COMPETENCETHE PATH TO MASTERY:+ The “Path To Mastery” is an experience over time+ Nested, short-term achievable goals that lead to success of the overarching long-term goal.+ Wherever a player is on their quest there should be a next goal just around the corner.+ Design appropriate challenges and rewards for all players along Player Experience Lifecycle. N00B –> Enthusiast –> Master @DU5TB1N | #Geekend
  • 31. COMPETENCE: OBJECTIVE, GOALS, ACTIONS! @DU5TB1N | #Geekend
  • 32. COMPETENCE: ARF! @DU5TB1N | #Geekend
  • 33. COMPETENCEEXPERIENCE OF CHALLENGE+ Keep core actions simple to engage players early+ Accelerate the level of challenge as they gain mastery to keep them engaged+ Optimal challenge stretches player ability but doesn’t overwhelm (Flow)+ Allow players to fail gracefully if it can provide an opportunity to learn and grow.MAKE PROGRESS VISIBLE:+ Provide real-time granular, sustained and cumulative feedback on overall performance+ Ensure that progress data is actionable and meaningful to player competence, during immediate play and long-term engagement.+ Utilize reward mechanics to light a blazed path of accomplishment.+ NOT about shiny digital trophies, or badges @DU5TB1N | #Geekend
  • 34. COMPETENCEEXPRESSION OF MASTERY+ After hard-earned rewards, allow players to enjoy and express their dominance+ Sustained engagement is more a function of continued success than feeling continually stretched+ Ease-off dif culty for a short term – Let them Coast.+ Provide social outlets for bragging & peacocking+ Big “Juicy Feedback” for a job well done @DU5TB1N | #Geekend
  • 35. COMPETENCE: JUICY FEEDBACK @DU5TB1N | #Geekend
  • 36. COMPETENCE: JUICY FEEDBACK @DU5TB1N | #Geekend
  • 37. COMPETENCE: JUICY FEEDBACK @DU5TB1N | #Geekend
  • 38. AUTONOMY: (MEANINGFUL CHOICE) SELF-DETERMINATION THEORY SDT argues that human beings seek out (and continue to engage in) activities if these promise (and succeed) to satisfy 3 intrinsic motivational needs: @DU5TB1N | #Geekend
  • 39. AUTONOMYTHE GAME BELONGS TO THE USER+ Choice, control and personal preference lead players to deep engagement and loyalty+ Provide the right feedback (data, info, choices) for players to best make use of their autonomy+ Experience pathways can be designed “on rails” to limit or give the illusion of freedom+ Volitional Engagement: “I nd value in the Actions I am taking.”OPPORTUNITIES FOR ACTION!+ Create “What If?” moments: “What if I did X instead of Y?”+ Provide a variety of ways to engage (competitive, cooperative, solo)+ Provide a sense of increasing opportunities of action that motivate sustained interest: (Challenges, Social Interactions, Secrets, Unlocks, etc.)+ Design multiple pathways leading to the desired end-state @DU5TB1N | #Geekend
  • 40. AUTONOMY: MULTIPLE PATHWAYS @DU5TB1N | #Geekend
  • 41. RELATEDNESS: (MUTUAL DEPENDENCE) SELF-DETERMINATION THEORY SDT argues that human beings seek out (and continue to engage in) activities if these promise (and succeed) to satisfy 3 intrinsic motivational needs: @DU5TB1N | #Geekend
  • 42. RELATEDNESSTHE SPARK OF CONNECTION+ We are intrinsically motivated to seek meaningful connections with others+ Data shows that allowing players to connect with others and build relationships energizes, motivates and sustains ongoing engagement+ Focus on mechanics that allow players to both give and receive support of their goals+ Design for “Moments of Relevance,” allowing players to positively impact each other or the systemBEYOND OTHER PLAYERS+ Provide value to your audience beyond the mechanics that run your system.+ Tap into content that people are passionate about (Health, Wealth, Career, Arts, Pro-Social)+ Provide recognition for actions that matter to your players not just to the business+ Check out the CSCW movement (Computer Supported Cooperative Work)+ Allow users to inject their own long & short term goals into the system @DU5TB1N | #Geekend
  • 43. RELATEDNESS: MINT.COM CASE STUDY @DU5TB1N | #Geekend
  • 44. RELATEDNESS: BEYOND HUMAN @DU5TB1N | #Geekend
  • 45. RELATEDNESS: VOICE AND TONE.COM @DU5TB1N | #Geekend
  • 46. A FRAMEWORK FOR SUCCESS @DU5TB1N | #Geekend
  • 47. A FRAMEWORK FOR SUCCESS @DU5TB1N | #Geekend
  • 48. STEP 1: WHY GAMIFY? CRITICAL STAKEHOLDER QUESTIONS: 1. What is the main reason for Gamifying your product / service? 2. How does it bene t the user? 3. Will they enjoy it? BUSINESS QUESTIONS: What are the goals of the business? How do you get the users to ful ll those goals? What actions do you want your players to take? @DU5TB1N | #Geekend
  • 49. STEP 2: PLAYER PROFILE RESEARCH INSPIRES DESIGN Who are your players? What are their needs and goals? Why are they Playing? What’s holding them back from achieving their potential? Is it lack of volition or lack of faculty? What is their Primary Play Style? (Solo, Competitive, Cooperative) Who are they Playing With? What Social Actions do they nd enjoyable – and why? What Metrics do they care about? @DU5TB1N | #Geekend
  • 50. STEP 2: PLAYER PROFILE MOTIVATIONAL DRIVERS ACHIEVEMENT of goals <–OR–> ENJOYMENT of experience STRUCTURE and guidance <–OR–> FREEDOM to explore CONTROL of others <–OR–> CONNECT with others SELF-INTEREST in actions <–OR–> SOCIAL INTEREST in actions @DU5TB1N | #Geekend
  • 51. STEP 3: GOALS AND OBJECTIVES @DU5TB1N | #Geekend
  • 52. STEP 3: GOALS AND OBJECTIVES THE HERO’S QUEST… The Long Term Goal must be compelling & fairly dif cult to achieve. Can be Mastery of New Skill, A New Habit, An Achievement, A Title or any other pinnacle of personal growth. ONE STEP AT A TIME What must players accomplish in order to reach the ultimate objective? How can you break the journey up into discrete and satisfying challenges that push your players and help them improve? DESIRE TO INSPIRE Figure out a way to make long-term and short-term goals as exciting and aspirational as possible. Go for the Glory. @DU5TB1N | #Geekend
  • 53. STEP 4: SKILLS & ACTIONS MAKING LISTS IS A SKILL Consider what abilities are necessary to succeed in the endeavor. Make a skills list, of ALL the things you can think of that are relevant to your game across the following categories: PHYSICAL SKILLS (walking, running, typing, using a chefs knife) MENTAL SKILLS (pattern recognition, memory, spatial logic, organization) SOCIAL SKILLS (presentation, conversation, meeting new people) TRACK AND MEASURE Choose skills that have long learning curves and can be developed over time. Break longer mastery arcs into smaller nested skill-chains Are the skills you are considering measurable? How might you make them measurable? (monitoring/technology dependent?) @DU5TB1N | #Geekend
  • 54. STEP 5: A LOOK THROUGH LENSES OF INTEREST VIVA LA RESISTANCE! COMPETITION TYPES: Player v Player, Player v System, Self-Directed TIME PRESSURE: Relaxed explorative play or brash tactics get things done play. SCARCITY: Scarcity can add a level of challenge and strategic gameplay. PUZZLES: Problems that promise the existence of a solution. NOVELTY: Change presents a new set of challenges and patterns to Master LEVELS: Telegraph progress, ability and access & Provide Roadmap of Progress SOCIAL PRESSURE/PROOF: The herd must be right TEAMWORK: Can also be resistance when we need to work with others CURRENCY: Anything that can be exchanged for something of value will be sought RENEWALS & POWER-UPS: ‘Unstick’ player & redirect from dead-ends. @DU5TB1N | #Geekend
  • 55. STEP 6: DESIRED OUTCOMES FEEDBACK, REWARDS & RESULTS Positives include both tangible and intangible rewards such as moving up a level Negative might be starting a challenge over. Outcomes can be contingent or scheduled. Players can trigger an outcome based on speci c action they take or based on a time frame within the game. EPIC WIN! The Ultimate Objective (Epic Win!) may take weeks, months, years to achieve but along the way players need to see and feel incremental successes and failures. @DU5TB1N | #Geekend
  • 56. STEP 7: PLAY-TEST & POLISH! @DU5TB1N | #Geekend
  • 57. STEP 7: PLAY-TEST & POLISH! PLATFORMS ARE NEVER DONE Whats working / What isnt? What have you not considered? Is the game personal enough for your players? Do they feel that its tailored to their own unique personality and desires? Are you tapping into Player Experience needs of Competence, Autonomy, & Mastery? What is going to keep it interesting in 10 weeks time? In 8 months time? When player reach the Epic Win! its time to go back to the drawing board. @DU5TB1N | #Geekend
  • 58. IN SUMMARY EVOLUTION Games are motivation engines. Opportunities are ripe to evolve “gami cation” past shallow extrinsic motivational tactics and towards a more balanced “gameful design”. Since video games are designed with the primary purpose of entertainment, shouldn’t they be able to make other non-game products more enjoyable as well? @DU5TB1N | #Geekend
  • 59. EVOLUTION @DU5TB1N | #Geekend
  • 60. Portsmouth | Boston | LouisvilleWe deliver research-inspired designaimed at improving the experiences Dustin DiTommasopeople have with technology, Experience Design Directororganizations, and each other. dustin@madpow.net | @DU5TB1N @DU5TB1N | #Geekend
  • 61. REFERENCES: A PATH TO MASTERY GAME THINKERNic Kelman, “Yes, but is it a game?” from Games : Required essay from a not sorequired book.Raph Koster, A Theory of Fun for Game Design : Fun arises from Learning & MasteryJames Paul Gee, What Video Games Have to Teach Us about Learning & Literacy :Pairs nicely with Koster’s bookMihály Csikszentmihályi, Flow – The Psychology of Optimal Experience :Many implications for creating engagement architecturesJohan Huizinga, Homo Ludens, A Study of the Play Element in Culture :“All play means something.”Jane McGonigal, Reality is Broken : Serious Games will Save the World @DU5TB1N | #Geekend
  • 62. REFERENCES: A PATH TO MASTERY GAME MAKERJesse Schell, The Art of Game Design – A Book of Lenses : Tactical and practicalTracy Fullerton, Game Design Workshop : Techniques for Of ine Prototyping and TestingHunicke, Leblanc, Zubek, MDA a Formal Process of Game Design : Origin of theMechanics, Dynamics, Aesthetics frameworkBateman, Boon, 21st Century Game Design : Pragmatic approach to Game Design BONUS PLAYRyan, Deci, The Handbook of Self-Determination Research : Perhaps the most wellresearched psychological theory of intrinsic motivationJames Paul Gee, On Video Games & Situated Learning [VIDEO] : http://bit.ly/jpgeeThe Pac-Man Dossier – A detailed study of every mechanic: http://bit.ly/vzI2QC @DU5TB1N | #Geekend