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From Game Design Elementsto GamefulnessDefining “Gamification”S. Deterding, D. Dixon, R. Khaled, L. E. Nacke Mindtrek 2011, ...
Overview	                    You are here• Introduction	• Precursors and parallels	• Defining “gamification”	• Situating “ga...
“Gamification”?	                    3	  
“Gamification”?	                    4	  
The industry blueprint	     Points	                  Badges	        Leaderboards	       Incentives	Tracking, Feedback	    ...
Overview	• Introduction	               You are here• Precursors and parallels	• Defining “gamification”	• Situating “gamifica...
Precursors in HCI	Man as machine	   Man as computer	               Man as meaning-maker	Ergonomics	       Cognitive scienc...
Precursors in Game Studies	                                     Digital	   Alternate Reality/	                            ...
Overview	• Introduction	                                You are here• Precursors and parallels	• Defining “gamification”	• S...
Gamification: A definition	“The use of 	game design elements	in non-game contexts”	                              10	  
Gamification: A definition	“The use of 	game design elements	in non-game contexts”	                              11	  
game	Ludus	    skill	            effort	            ordered	            rule-bound	            play	            improvisat...
Gaming, not playing	                  Gaming	                  Playing	                               13	  
Elements, not whole systems	                    er      libert                chas              yand         Dune         ...
What is a “game element”?	• Most game definitions have multiple necessary  conditions, e.g. Juul 2005:	                    ...
What is a “game element”?	• Elements characteristic for games	                                         specific to games	  ...
Game design elements	Game-based technology	   Controllers, AI, 3D engines, ...	Game-based practices	    Serious Gaming	Gam...
Levels of game design elements	                                           Playcentric design, value conscious gameGame des...
Non-game contexts	                       19	  
Non-game contexts	• Big issues with “serious game” being initially  reduced to learning as one goal/context, thus	• No spe...
21	  
Can you “gamify” a game?	• Only if definition is tied to a set of specific  elements (e.g. achievements)	• Metagames seen as...
Overview	• Introduction	• Precursors and parallels	                                You are here• Defining “gamification”	• S...
Gamification: the definition again	“The use of 	game design elements	in non-game contexts”	                                 ...
Bringing it together	                   Gaming	     Whole	                   Elements	                   Playing	         ...
Situating the definition	                             26	  
Overview	• Introduction	• Precursors and parallels	• Defining “gamification”	                                You are here• S...
Social and subjective nature of play	• Playing/gaming as a subjective, shared mode of  behavior and mindset	• User view: W...
Gamefulness	                 29	  
Elements or qualities?	• Playfulness as a specific quality/mode of user  behavior and experience, as well as design goal	• ...
Playfulness and Gamefulness	Quality of experience                               Playfulness	            Gamefulness	and be...
Bringing it together... again	                   Gaming	     System	                     Quality	                   Playin...
Thank you	Rilla Khaled	       Sebastian Deterding	                    Dan Dixon	              Lennart E. Nacke	  rikh@itu....
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From Game Design Elements to Gamefulness: Defining "Gamification"

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A shared presentation by Rilla Khaled, Sebastian Deterding, Lennart Nacke and Dan Dixon given at MindTrek'11. The paper to the presentation can be found here: http://j.mp/I2QF4N

From Game Design Elements to Gamefulness: Defining "Gamification"

  1. From Game Design Elementsto GamefulnessDefining “Gamification”S. Deterding, D. Dixon, R. Khaled, L. E. Nacke Mindtrek 2011, Tampere, September 28, 2011
  2. Overview You are here• Introduction • Precursors and parallels • Defining “gamification” • Situating “gamification” • Open questions 2  
  3. “Gamification”? 3  
  4. “Gamification”? 4  
  5. The industry blueprint Points Badges Leaderboards Incentives Tracking, Feedback Goal-setting Competition Rewards (And behavioral analytics in the backend) 5  
  6. Overview • Introduction You are here• Precursors and parallels • Defining “gamification” • Situating “gamification” • Open questions 6  
  7. Precursors in HCI Man as machine Man as computer Man as meaning-maker Ergonomics Cognitive sciences Human sciences Precursors Repurposings UX Playfulness Persuasive Tech (1980+) (2001+) (2002+) (2005+) (2006+) Hedonic attributes Game UX Ludic design CSCW (2002+) (2005+) 7   Harrison, S., Tatar, D., and Sengers, P. The Three Paradigms of HCI. Proc. AltCHI 2007, ACM Press (2007).
  8. Precursors in Game Studies Digital Alternate Reality/ Ludification Serious Games Serious Games Pervasive Games Serious Gaming of culture (1960+) (2001+) (2001+) (2006+) (2006+) Precursors Repurposings UX Playfulness Persuasive Tech (1980+) (2001+) (2002+) (2005+) (2006+) Hedonic attributes Game UX Ludic design CSCW (2002+) (2005+) 8  
  9. Overview • Introduction You are here• Precursors and parallels • Defining “gamification” • Situating “gamification” • Open questions 9  
  10. Gamification: A definition “The use of game design elements in non-game contexts” 10  
  11. Gamification: A definition “The use of game design elements in non-game contexts” 11  
  12. game Ludus skill effort ordered rule-bound play improvisation Paidia tumultuous immoderate 12  
  13. Gaming, not playing Gaming Playing 13  
  14. Elements, not whole systems er libert chas yand Dune vigila nce Whole Elements 14  
  15. What is a “game element”? • Most game definitions have multiple necessary conditions, e.g. Juul 2005: 15  
  16. What is a “game element”? • Elements characteristic for games specific to games (empty/too constrained) characteristic for games (with fuzzy boundaries) present in games (boundless/too broad) 16  
  17. Game design elements Game-based technology Controllers, AI, 3D engines, ... Game-based practices Serious Gaming Game-based design Gamification 17  
  18. Levels of game design elements Playcentric design, value conscious gameGame design methods design… Game models MDA, Game design atoms, CEGE, ... Enduring play, clear goals, variety of playGame design principles and heuristics styles, ... Levels, time constraint, limitedGame design patterns and mechanics resources,… Game interface patterns Badge, leaderboard, timer, ... 18  
  19. Non-game contexts 19  
  20. Non-game contexts • Big issues with “serious game” being initially reduced to learning as one goal/context, thus • No specific goals (learning, motivation, …) • No specific contexts (g4change, g4health, …) • Not limited to digital/online 20  
  21. 21  
  22. Can you “gamify” a game? • Only if definition is tied to a set of specific elements (e.g. achievements) • Metagames seen as games, not game elements in literature • Designer view: Hard to distinguish ‘core’ game design from ‘outer’ gamification • User view: Open empirical question whether game/gamified part are perceived as separate 22  
  23. Overview • Introduction • Precursors and parallels You are here• Defining “gamification” • Situating “gamification” • Open questions 23  
  24. Gamification: the definition again “The use of game design elements in non-game contexts” 24  
  25. Bringing it together Gaming Whole Elements Playing 25  
  26. Situating the definition 26  
  27. Overview • Introduction • Precursors and parallels • Defining “gamification” You are here• Situating “gamification” • Open questions 27  
  28. Social and subjective nature of play • Playing/gaming as a subjective, shared mode of behavior and mindset • User view: When do they “use”, when “play” an app? (Framing, user-added rules goals, …) • Designer: When intended as product, gameful product, or full game? • Flickering, switching, conflicting modes of engagement within and between users as rich new data source
  29. Gamefulness 29  
  30. Elements or qualities? • Playfulness as a specific quality/mode of user behavior and experience, as well as design goal • Gamefulness as logic complement • Gameful design: less contentious baggage, less definitional complications, hence preferable for academic discourse
  31. Playfulness and Gamefulness Quality of experience Playfulness Gamefulness and behavior Artifact affording that Playful interactions Gameful interactions quality Designing for that quality Playful design Gameful design 31  
  32. Bringing it together... again Gaming System Quality Playing 32  
  33. Thank you Rilla Khaled   Sebastian Deterding   Dan Dixon   Lennart E. Nacke  rikh@itu.dk s.deterding@hans-bredow-institut.de dan@digitaldust.org lennart.nacke@acm.org

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