Precursors in HCI Man as
machine Man as computer Man as meaning-maker Ergonomics Cognitive sciences Human sciences Precursors Repurposings UX Playfulness Persuasive Tech (1980+) (2001+) (2002+) (2005+) (2006+) Hedonic attributes Game UX Ludic design CSCW (2002+) (2005+) 7 Harrison, S., Tatar, D., and Sengers, P. The Three Paradigms of HCI. Proc. AltCHI 2007, ACM Press (2007).
Precursors in Game Studies Digital
Alternate Reality/ Ludiﬁcation Serious Games Serious Games Pervasive Games Serious Gaming of culture (1960+) (2001+) (2001+) (2006+) (2006+) Precursors Repurposings UX Playfulness Persuasive Tech (1980+) (2001+) (2002+) (2005+) (2006+) Hedonic attributes Game UX Ludic design CSCW (2002+) (2005+) 8
Levels of game design elements
Playcentric design, value conscious gameGame design methods design… Game models MDA, Game design atoms, CEGE, ... Enduring play, clear goals, variety of playGame design principles and heuristics styles, ... Levels, time constraint, limitedGame design patterns and mechanics resources,… Game interface patterns Badge, leaderboard, timer, ... 18
Non-game contexts • Big issues with
“serious game” being initially reduced to learning as one goal/context, thus • No speciﬁc goals (learning, motivation, …) • No speciﬁc contexts (g4change, g4health, …) • Not limited to digital/online 20
Can you “gamify” a game?
• Only if deﬁnition is tied to a set of speciﬁc elements (e.g. achievements) • Metagames seen as games, not game elements in literature • Designer view: Hard to distinguish ‘core’ game design from ‘outer’ gamiﬁcation • User view: Open empirical question whether game/gamiﬁed part are perceived as separate 22
Social and subjective nature of
play • Playing/gaming as a subjective, shared mode of behavior and mindset • User view: When do they “use”, when “play” an app? (Framing, user-added rules goals, …) • Designer: When intended as product, gameful product, or full game? • Flickering, switching, conﬂicting modes of engagement within and between users as rich new data source
Elements or qualities? • Playfulness as
a speciﬁc quality/mode of user behavior and experience, as well as design goal • Gamefulness as logic complement • Gameful design: less contentious baggage, less deﬁnitional complications, hence preferable for academic discourse
Playfulness and Gamefulness Quality of
experience Playfulness Gamefulness and behavior Artifact affording that Playful interactions Gameful interactions quality Designing for that quality Playful design Gameful design 31