CATHIE ACTIVITY: Think-Pair-Share Pair up with someone, preferably who you do not know, and discuss this question. Be prepared to share some of what you discussed with the large group. (Distribute one question per pair/group of three. Collect questions after discussion.)
CHRISTINE In case you're wondering, an exabyte is 1,000,000,000,000,000,000 bytes OR 1018 bytes - there 1024 petabytes in an exabyte or 1,073,741,824 gigabytes in an exabyte. To give you an idea of what this means , five exabytes of information is equivalent in size to the information contained in 37,000 new libraries the size of the Library of Congress book collections The prefix exa means one billion billion.
CATHIE *Key words that summarize what learning in the 21 st century is all about… -circled in red: the hallmarks of a successful learner in the 21 st century -circled in orange: are you surprised? 21 st century learning does not do away with “traditional” skills -the rest: not content-based and are therefore universal in all disciplines – have to make the concepts work within your curriculum area Ultimately, A 21st Century Learner… is curious; asks questions; accesses information from a variety of sources; analyzes information for quality; communicates using a variety of media; gathers and communicates information and employs technology ethically; adapts to an ever changing information landscape; needs a supportive network; is a partner in his/her education; manages time effectively; and has the ability to prioritize and plan effectively. Converts information into relevant knowledge
CATHIE Key: moving from accumulation of ideas to application of ideas Skill and knowledge are intertwined.
CATHIE Questioning skills become paramount: Modeling this is key. Questions that expose thinking, especially.
CATHIE Knowledge is constructed collaboratively, thus it requires openness to opposing viewpoints and a problem-solving process that can harmonize disparate entities and ideas.
CHRISTINE Use SMARTboard to create the list.
CHRISTINE -these skills were borne out of research conducted by American educational research groups -surveyed employers in the private and public sector; looking to identify areas of deficiency among workers -key issues: creativity and problem solving -workers could take direction, but often struggle when put in situations when they had to devise a plan the processes involved in this sort of decision-making was not natural Creativity is as important in education as literacy. Often our students fear being wrong, and thus struggle to arrive at original ideas. We don’t grow into or out of creativity, but often we are educated out it… Re-thinking teaching and learning: New literacy Changing demographic Active content creators Communication and collaboration
CHRISTINE GLOBAL AWARENESS: Using 21st century skills to understand and address global issues Learning from and working collaboratively with individuals representing diverse cultures, religions and lifestyles in a spirit of mutual respect and open dialogue in personal, work and community contexts Understanding other nations and cultures, including the use of non-English languages FINANCIAL/ECONOMIC/BUSINESS LITERACY: Knowing how to make appropriate personal economic choices Understanding the role of the economy in society Using entrepreneurial skills to enhance workplace productivity and career options CIVIC LITERACY: Participating effectively in civic life through knowing how to stay informed and understanding governmental processes Exercising the rights and obligations of citizenship at local, state, national and global levels Understanding the local and global implications of civic decisions HEALTH LITERACY: Obtaining, interpreting and understanding basic health information and services and using such information and services in ways that are health enhancing Understanding preventive physical and mental health measures, including proper diet, nutrition, exercise, risk avoidance and stress reduction Using available information to make appropriate health-related decisions Establishing and monitoring personal and family health goals Understanding national and international public health and safety issues
CATHIE We cannot purchase a well-rounded program for a “flat world” with new technology. We cannot abandon the rigorous teaching of math, reading, writing, science, history and literature. We need to teach these subjects more effectively, in concert with 21 st century skills in ways that respect and reflect what we know about learning.
CHRISTINE DIGITAL IMMIGRANTS: Conventional speed Step by step Linear processing Text first Work-oriented Stand alone DIGITAL NATIVES: Twitch speed Random access Parallel processing Graphics first Play-oriented Connected
CATHIE New formula for learning: 3Rs + 7Cs = 21 st century learning The 7Cs are the result of contemporary efforts to define the essential skills needed for a society’s future workforce. Appears to a reversion back to the “Whole Child ” approach: a well-educated child is healthy, safe and secure, engaged, supported, challenged
CATHIE It’s important to always honour where we have been to emphasize the growth that we have experienced as a profession. As a group, using the materials provided… markers cue cards tape construction paper clip art images … build a timeline that shows how you see the teaching profession evolving. Along the way, include mention of the various technologies that you encountered as a student and a teacher to give a complete picture. Use symbols, pictures, words and phrases. (Note: Tape a timeline on one of the walls. At one end, label “1900” and at the other “2009”.) 20 th century: Lecture and deliver information Ask questions then accept answers Model “how-to” at the chalk board Employ “give facts then test” model Know pedagogy and effective practice Engage in one-way teacher/student communication 21 st century: Moderate, facilitate, refocus discussions Stimulate, moderate, manage communication and collaboration Use interactive whiteboards, blogs, social networks Adapt curriculum, use digital tools to gather/ assess information Combine pedagogy, effective practice and technological skills Facilitate student/group collaboration
CHRISTINE What supports do you think are already in place to help you move to this point? -central staff support in-services individualized support -Internet connection more of our schools are becoming wireless -Smartboards -laptop carts -LCD projectors (in each department) -in-school supports teacher librarian -school websites collaborative What are some of the challenges?
CATHIE Constructivism is a learning theory that supports the following principles: Learning is an active process facilitated by an environment that encourages: risk-taking, creative thinking, and critical thinking. Teachers create such environments to: facilitate learning and provide opportunities for self-reflection and self-evaluation. Learning is social and is fostered by collaboration. Constructivism is a learning theory: n which the learner actively creates his or her own knowledge that emphasizes problem-solving and understanding that uses authentic tasks, experiences and assessments a process that: emphasizes hands-on and real-life experiences occurs among a community of learners preserves and enhances the richness and complexity of a culture an approach : that involves collaboration between teachers, parents, children, and local and global communities members that is tailored to the needs and purposes of individual learners that features active learning, which is challenging, authentic, and multidisciplinary Learners learn by doing within a specific context. Learning is reflective and incorporates feedback from teachers (co-learners) and peers. Students and teachers learn through their mistakes. Technology is a tool to facilitate learning and is NOT the focus of learning. A teaching Strategy to Individualize Learning Constructivism helps each child: pursue personal interests and purposes use and develop his or her abilities build on his or her prior knowledge and experiences develop a love of learning Constructivism encourages teachers to provide for each child’s: preferred learning style rate of learning personal interactions with other learners an opportunity: to shift the emphasis from teaching to learning to individualize and contextualize students’ learning experiences to help students develop the processes, skills and attitudes crucial to construction of useable knowledge A means to change traditional rules, roles and relationships into those of a true learner-centered environment
CATHIE Description Inquiry-based learning is rooted in the scientific method of investigating phenomenon in a structured and methodical manner. Related to teaching and learning, it is an information-processing model that allows pupils to discover meaning and relevance to information through a series of steps that lead to a conclusion or reflection on the newly attained knowledge. In most cases, teachers use a &quot;guided inquiry&quot; method to facilitate the learning experience and structure the inquiry around specific goals of instruction. The benefits of inquiry-based learning include the development of critical thinking, creative thinking, and problem solving. As an inductive thinking model, it has a particular appeal for boys. Brain research points to this Levels of Inquiry When considering inquiry activities in schools, consider the experiences and skills of your students. There are four levels of inquiry ( Callison ). Controlled . In a controlled inquiry, the teacher and/or media specialist chooses the topic and identifies materials that students will use to address their questions. Students are often involved with specific exercises and activities to meet particular learning outcomes such as retelling stories, evaluating sources, or comparing approaches. Students often have a specific product such as a Venn diagram, paragraph, or poster. Guided . In a guided inquiry, student have more flexibility in their resources and activities however they are expected to create a prescribed final product such as a report or presentation. Modeled . In a modeled inquiry, students act as apprentice to a coach such as a media specialist or classroom teacher. The student has flexibility in terms of topic selection, process, and product. The educators and students work side-by-side engaging in meaningful work. Free . In a free inquiry, students work independently. They explore meaningful questions, examine multiple
CHRISTINE Activity: Quick Write Participants are asked to write as many responses on Post-It notes as they can think of. When done, they can post their notes on the chart.
CATHIE Generally speaking, when educators are asked if they know about Web 2.0 or what to do with it, this is the general reaction (mouse click for face to “fly in”). There is nothing to fear! Chances are, you know more than you think. Participants will engage in a Senteo anticipation guide about some general knowledge about Web 2.0.
CHRISTINE This was the last time the word “revolution” and “knowledge” were used in the same context. For the most part, we have been retrieving knowledge in the exact same manner ever since the advent of Guttenburg printing press. Consider… If a surgeon from the 18 th were to walk into a modern-day OR, would he be able to perform any procedure? Not likely… what we know about the human body, how we have come to learn about the human body and the ways in which we treat the human body have all evolved. If a teacher from the 18 th were to walk into a modern day classroom, would she still be able to teach? Probably… Have our methods really changed? Sure, some of the information is different, but that’s nothing a little bit of extra reading and research can’t fix.
CHRISTINE *Emphasize the importance of teaching language for precision for access However… this doesn’t have to be the language of operation in the classroom. Students need direct instruction as to when this language structure is appropriate. Note: A lot IM acronyms are sexually suggestive and racially charged. Activity: Ask participants to shout out if they know what each of the IM acronyms stands for. A mouse click will cause each to “fly in” individually. IM Language: LOL = laughing out loud <3 = heart ^5 = high 5 P911 = parent coming into the room alert 2G2BT = too good to be true MorF = male or female? ASL = age, sex, location PRON = pornography CYO = see you online TTYL = talk to you later KPC = keeping parents clueless CYE = check your email
CHRISTINE Said by Pope Benedict XVI, 24 January 2009
CATHIE iTunes University has classes available for free within 5 minutes of presentation. Maine and Alaska are trying to move to 1:1 computing. Over 1 billion cell phones purchased in the last year. Increasingly, this is a computing device over a wireless infrastructure. Have hi-res screens, web browsers, download books. Phones will replace an ATM cards. What is the price and who is the focus market? Could they be used as a learning tool? Using new video glasses with the iPhone - now have access to all types of information (text, music, and video). Students will be able to carry a device with the sum total of all knowledge from the beginning of time, downloaded in less than a second. Eric Hoffler - in the times of radical change, the learners will inherit the earth while the learned are prepared for a world that no longer exists
CATHIE Numbers reflect board-wide averages.
CATHIE Bloom’s revised taxonomy and corresponding web 2.0 applications On SmartBoard participants are asked to arrange the REVISED taxonomy in ascending order.
CHRISTINE Distribute instructions on how to build a blog using Blogger to participants.
1. 21 st Century Skills Preparing our Students for a Knowledge-Based Economy… November 10, 2009.
2. Today’s Objectives: <ul><li>To ask some tough questions </li></ul><ul><li>To confront our concerns </li></ul><ul><li>To define what teaching and learning in the 21 st century looks like </li></ul><ul><li>To examine the “big ideas” about 21 st century teaching and learning </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Inquiry </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Questioning </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>To begin scratching the surface of Web 2.0 applications and technology </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>blogging </li></ul></ul></ul>
3. A Blessing <ul><li>May your gift of teaching </li></ul><ul><li>Awaken minds to new ideas </li></ul><ul><li>And expand hearts beyond boundaries. </li></ul><ul><li>May your desire to educate </li></ul><ul><li>Evoke the unique gifts of each student </li></ul><ul><li>And the deep desires of each heart. </li></ul><ul><li>May your love of learning </li></ul><ul><li>Lead students to awe and wonder </li></ul><ul><li>At their participation In our sacred universe. </li></ul><ul><li>May your story-telling inspire </li></ul><ul><li>Imagination and Creativity </li></ul><ul><li>And your example lead those you teach </li></ul><ul><li>To be generous and noble. </li></ul><ul><li>And, as you bless your students on their way, </li></ul><ul><li>May you delight at the gift your life offers to the future . </li></ul>
4. <ul><li>What do you need to know when most of recorded knowledge is a </li></ul><ul><li>mouse-click away? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In light of this, what do our students still need to memorize? </li></ul></ul>
5. <ul><li>How do we prepare our students for jobs that don’t exist.. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>… using technologies that haven’t yet been invented… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>… in order to solve problems that we don’t even know are problems yet? </li></ul></ul>
6. <ul><li>What does it do to the value of information when everyone is a producer and knowledge isn’t static anymore? </li></ul>
7. <ul><li>How do we balance safety and access in order to empower our students with such skills? </li></ul>
8. Are you ready for 21 st Century Teaching and Learning? <ul><li>It isn’t coming… </li></ul><ul><li>It has already arrived! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>And schools who aren’t redefining themselves risk becoming irrelevant in preparing students. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is becoming difficult to envision the future because it changes constantly. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning has to make sense NOW because what we do now influences the future, as well as our past. </li></ul></ul>
9. A Changing World… <ul><li>Some statistics… </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1 billion people on the Internet </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>57 million blogs, 1.7 million posts each day </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>50 new blog sites created every minute </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ None of the top 10 jobs that will exist in 2010 exist today.” (Richard Riley, Former U.S. Secretary of Education) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> How does this make you feel? </li></ul></ul></ul>
10. It’s Cellular! <ul><li>Think of the number of phones with Internet capabilities… </li></ul><ul><li>Can that accessibility be leveraged in the classroom? </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Not just for email or surfing the Net … but for mobile learning </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Currently, the total number of text messages sent and received daily exceeds the total population of the planet… </li></ul></ul></ul>
11. Knowledge Creation <ul><li>It is estimated that 1.5 exabytes (1.5 x 1018) of unique, new information will be generated this year. </li></ul><ul><li>That is estimated to be more than in the previous 5000 years. </li></ul>
12. Higher Education? <ul><li>For students starting a four-year technical or higher education degree, all this means that half of what they learned in their first year of study will by obsolete by the third year. </li></ul>
14. What is Meant by 21 st Century Learning? <ul><li>Skill matters </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows one to continue to learning and make judgment about the meaning, adequacy and accuracy of content </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Content still matters </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To make sense of the knowledge-driven world </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To gain more knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>But WHAT should we teach? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How much is enough? </li></ul></ul></ul>ACROSS CURRICULAR AREAS
15. This kind of learning stimulates the IMAGINATION <ul><li>It teaches: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How to construct meaning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How to make disparate information coherent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How to think critically and solve problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How to judge what is relevant, accurate, right </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One of the main goals of 21 st century learning is to promote CURIOSITY … </li></ul></ul>
16. This kind of learning requires SOFT SKILLS <ul><li>Valuing and embracing diverse ideas and people </li></ul><ul><li>Working collaboratively </li></ul><ul><li>Tolerating ambiguity </li></ul><ul><li>Possessing the resilience to bounce back after set-backs </li></ul>
17. If you had to create a list of essential skills for learning in the 21 st century, what would you include?
18. STUDENT LEARNING DIGITAL-AGE LITERACY -basic, scientific, economic and technological literacies -visual and informational literacies -multicultural literacy and global awareness INVENTIVE THINKING -adaptability, managing complexity and self-direction -curiosity, creativity and risk-taking -higher-order thinking and sound reasoning EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION -teaming, collaboration and interpersonal skills -personal, social and civic responsibility -interactive communication HIGH PRODUCTIVITY -prioritize, plan and manage for results -effective use of real-world tools -relevant, high-quality products
19. Mastery of Core Subjects: <ul><li>English </li></ul><ul><li>World Languages </li></ul><ul><li>Arts </li></ul><ul><li>Mathematics </li></ul><ul><li>Economics </li></ul><ul><li>Science </li></ul><ul><li>Geography </li></ul><ul><li>History </li></ul><ul><li>Government and Civics </li></ul>Interdisciplinary Themes: *Global Awareness *Financial/Economic/Business Literacy *Civic Literacy *Health Literacy
20. Why are 21 st Century Skills So Important?
21. Why are 21 st Century Skills So Important?
22. What’s so Urgent? <ul><li>High drop-out rates in Ontario </li></ul><ul><li>Even a high school diploma doesn’t signal that one is educated </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural forces (popular culture, the family), emphasis on standardized testing are having adverse affects on students today </li></ul>
23. It’s About Engagement <ul><li>It is NOT simply about keeping our students entertained </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Being simultaneously intellectually and emotionally connected </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Purposeful reflection </li></ul></ul>
24. Making it ALL Public… <ul><li>Unless we are required to articulate our thoughts and feelings to others and receive timely and appropriate feedback from teachers and peers, most of us convince ourselves that we understand something even when we do not. </li></ul><ul><li>Peer review, peer editing makes learning public and provides an opportunity for peer teaching </li></ul><ul><li>Critiquing others’ work helps students learn to provide civil and constructive feedback, receive criticism, internalize standards and criteria for excellence, and reflect on their own work in progress. </li></ul>
25. <ul><li>Ultimately, we want students not to please us or simply get good grades , we want them to please themselves by achieving worthwhile goals and reaching standards of excellence, thus becoming life-long learners. </li></ul>
26. Change is Hard…
27. Understanding the “Net Generation” <ul><li>Also known as Millennials </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Born in or after 1982 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Technology means MP3, PDA, phones that do it all </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Daily communication involves email, text messaging, blogs and cell phones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Academically diverse </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consumed by extra-curricular activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thrive in group settings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tinkerers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ethnically and racially diverse </li></ul></ul>
29. Millennials Want to Learn… <ul><li>With technology </li></ul><ul><li>With one another </li></ul><ul><li>Online </li></ul><ul><li>In their own time </li></ul><ul><li>In their own place </li></ul><ul><li>Doing things that matter </li></ul>
30. <ul><li>A digital immigrant is someone who… </li></ul><ul><li>A digital native is someone who… </li></ul>Popcorn!
31. <ul><li>Multitasking / toggling </li></ul><ul><li>Multimedia learning </li></ul><ul><li>Online social networking </li></ul><ul><li>Online information searching </li></ul><ul><li>Games, simulations, creative expressions </li></ul>Digital Learners Engage By…
32. 21 st Century Learners Utilize… <ul><li>Desktop computers with high speed internet </li></ul><ul><li>PDA’s, iPods, cell phones </li></ul><ul><li>Focused software </li></ul><ul><li>Learning and content management systems </li></ul><ul><li>Video, audio conferencing </li></ul><ul><li>Cameras, video cameras </li></ul><ul><li>Media production </li></ul><ul><li>Social networking sites </li></ul><ul><li>Time for planning, experimentation </li></ul>
33. 7 Cs and Component Skills CRITICAL THINKING, PROBLEM SOLVING Research, analysis, synthesis, project management, etc. CREATIVITY, INNOVATION COLLABORATION TEAMWORK LEADERSHIP Cooperation, compromise, consensus, community building New knowledge creation, solution design, storytelling
34. 7 Cs and Component Skills CROSS-CULTURAL UNDERSTANDING Diverse ethnic, knowledge, organizational cultures COMMUNICATION, MEDIA LITERACY COMPUTING Effective use of electronic information, knowledge tools Crafting, analyzing messages, using technology effectively CAREER, LEARNING SELF-RELIANCE Managing change, lifelong learning, career redefinition
35. How Has Teaching Evolved? <ul><li>Pedagogically? </li></ul><ul><li>Technologically? </li></ul><ul><li>In practice? </li></ul>1900 2009
38. How did the previous image of the “Networked Teacher” make you feel? Write your response on the Smartboard. Limit your reaction to a single word.
39. The BIG IDEAS <ul><li>Inquiry-based teaching and learning </li></ul><ul><li>Deep and meaningful questioning </li></ul>
41. New Teacher Roles: <ul><li>Dispenser of Knowledge Facilitator </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher Co-learner or Collaborator </li></ul><ul><li>Script Reader Curriculum Developer </li></ul><ul><li>Information Consumer Information Producer </li></ul><ul><li>Soloist Team Member </li></ul><ul><li>Isolationist Community Builder </li></ul><ul><li>Flock Member Educational Leader </li></ul>
42. Inquiry Based Lessons
45. Powerful Questioning <ul><li>If I had an hour to solve a problem and my life depended on the solution, I would spend the first 55 minutes determining the proper question to ask, for once I knew the proper question, I could solve the problem in less than 5 minutes. </li></ul><ul><li>Albert Einstein </li></ul>
46. <ul><li>What do you use the Internet for? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>… personally? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>… professionally? </li></ul></ul>
48. This was revolutionary… <ul><li>Efficient and uniform dissemination of knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Fueled scientific, political and social change on a scale unlike any other invention in history </li></ul>
49. Today’s Revolution… <ul><li>Social affiliations and networking </li></ul><ul><li>Being online vs. going online </li></ul><ul><li>The web as an application platform </li></ul><ul><li>Digital self-expression; defining and claiming of one’s voice </li></ul>
50. Specialized Language LOL <3 ^5 P911 2G2BT MorF ASL PRON CYO TTYL KPC CYE
51. Who Said It? <ul><li>“ These (new digital) technologies are truly a gift to humanity and we must endeavour to ensure that the benefits they offer are put at the service of all human individuals and communities, especially those who are most disadvantaged and vulnerable.” </li></ul>
52. What’s the difference? <ul><li>Our students are contributing to the collective knowledge of cyber space. </li></ul>
53. Are our students using this? <ul><li>About 87% of kids (ages 12-17) use the Internet </li></ul><ul><li>55% of online teens use Social Networking Sites </li></ul><ul><li>33% of online teens share their own creative content online </li></ul><ul><li>22% report keeping their own personal webpage </li></ul>Source: Pew Internet and American Life Project - http://www.pewinternet.org/index.asp
54. <ul><li>32% say that they have created or worked on webpages or blogs </li></ul><ul><li>19% of online teens keep a blog </li></ul><ul><li>38% of online teens read blogs. </li></ul><ul><li>19% of Internet-using teens say they remix content they find online into their own artistic creations . </li></ul>Are our students using this? Source: Pew Internet and American Life Project - http://www.pewinternet.org/index.asp
55. Putting This into Context: April 2009 OSSLT Survey <ul><li>99% have a computer at home </li></ul><ul><ul><li>45% of time used for homework </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>55% of time used for other activities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>93% of reading time at home allocated to websites, email and chat/text messages </li></ul><ul><li>95% of writing time at home allocated to writing on websites, email, chat/text messages </li></ul>
56. Consider this… <ul><li>Recent research has revealed that students, in the span of a typical semester, will generate approximately 42 pages worth of work for all classes, whereas they will produce in excess of 500 pages in email and text messages. </li></ul>
57. The Benefits: <ul><li>Collective intelligence collaboration </li></ul><ul><li>Instant gratification </li></ul><ul><li>Non-hierarchical democratic </li></ul><ul><li>Potential for passion; ownership </li></ul><ul><li>Open to the public real recognition </li></ul><ul><li>Permanence searchable resource </li></ul>
58. So… what’s the point? <ul><li>A way to differentiate instruction </li></ul><ul><li>Promote engagement using various media </li></ul><ul><li>Free! (so these applications fit everyone’s budget…) </li></ul><ul><li>Students ALREADY know how to use these applications </li></ul>
59. Bloom’s Revised Taxonomy Supported by Web 2.0 Applications
60. To Blog or Not to Blog… <ul><li>Why would teachers use this tool? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To engage students </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To assess writing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To evaluate writing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Why would students use this tool? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To demonstrate learning in a familiar environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To make meaning </li></ul></ul>