• Save

Loading…

Flash Player 9 (or above) is needed to view presentations.
We have detected that you do not have it on your computer. To install it, go here.

Like this presentation? Why not share!

The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer

on

  • 1,153 views

Catherine Berger's History 3ES3 Slidecast Assignment

Catherine Berger's History 3ES3 Slidecast Assignment

Statistics

Views

Total Views
1,153
Views on SlideShare
1,110
Embed Views
43

Actions

Likes
1
Downloads
5
Comments
0

2 Embeds 43

http://unjobs.org 42
http://users.unjobs.org 1

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer Presentation Transcript

  • The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer
    By: Catherine Berger
  • What is it?
    Protocol to protect human health and environment from products that modify the ozone layer
    Ultimate objective: eliminate these controlled substances through developments in scientific knowledge
    Widely applauded international agreement, innovative and successful
  • Ozone Depleting Substances (ODS)
    Chlorofluorocarbons, halons and other ODSs float to stratosphere
    Chlorine released > reactions caused by ultraviolet radiation > converts ozone to molecular oxygen
    Common products
  • Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer
    Criticized for lack of actual progress made
    Called for research and shared information
    Did not mention CFCs
  • Developing Countries
    Protocol encourages aid to developing countries from developed nations
    Global Environment Facility
  • Developing Countries
    Economic situation recognized and accommodated
    Ten-year grace period
    Delayed amount of time for meeting Protocol Requirements
  • Adaptability
    Nature of change in environmental issues
    Economic, social, environmental and scientific discoveries and changes
    2/3 of present Parties majority
    Implementation in 6 months
  • Exclusivity
    Non-Party nations did not abide by same regulations
    Bans on trading with non-Parties to the Protocol
    Encourage non-Party countries to join
  • Economy vs Environment
    CFCs must be removed
    Gradual system
    Developed countries
    Transfer of production calculations
  • Precaution
    Montreal Protocol unprecedented in the actions taken before concrete proof of the issues
    6 months after signing, confirmation
    Further steps
  • Technological Gains
    Unexpected speed and improvement of technology
    To replace controlled substances that damage environment
  • Possible Improvements
    Disposal of products containing CFCs is costly
    Developing countries have difficulty disposing of them properly
  • Major Players Impacts
    Controversial to eliminate CFCs
    Construction, pharmaceuticals, computers etc
    US cooperation with Soviet Union and Japan led to a strong treaty
  • Replacements
    Substitute fluorocarbons contributing to climate forcing
    Lesser of two evils?
  • Progression
    CFCs targeted in Montreal Protocol were initially CFC-11 and CFC-12
    80% of ODSs that were phased out were not replaced by fluorocarbons, but alternative chemicals
  • Substances Addressed
    Initial debate about including halons
    Growth of included products over time, from 8 to over 80
  • Calculating Emissions
    Production, plus imports, minus exports
    CFCs allotted a number rating according to their detrimental factor for calculation purposes
  • Parties
    Initially there were 24 Parties to the Montreal Protocol
    Reached over 190
    More amendments and decline of nations ratifying the Protocol
  • Conclusions
    Innovative and successful environmental Protocol
    Now that the fear has resided less importance
    Continue awareness