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The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer



Catherine Berger's History 3ES3 Slidecast Assignment

Catherine Berger's History 3ES3 Slidecast Assignment



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The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer Presentation Transcript

  • The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer
    By: Catherine Berger
  • What is it?
    Protocol to protect human health and environment from products that modify the ozone layer
    Ultimate objective: eliminate these controlled substances through developments in scientific knowledge
    Widely applauded international agreement, innovative and successful
  • Ozone Depleting Substances (ODS)
    Chlorofluorocarbons, halons and other ODSs float to stratosphere
    Chlorine released > reactions caused by ultraviolet radiation > converts ozone to molecular oxygen
    Common products
  • Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer
    Criticized for lack of actual progress made
    Called for research and shared information
    Did not mention CFCs
  • Developing Countries
    Protocol encourages aid to developing countries from developed nations
    Global Environment Facility
  • Developing Countries
    Economic situation recognized and accommodated
    Ten-year grace period
    Delayed amount of time for meeting Protocol Requirements
  • Adaptability
    Nature of change in environmental issues
    Economic, social, environmental and scientific discoveries and changes
    2/3 of present Parties majority
    Implementation in 6 months
  • Exclusivity
    Non-Party nations did not abide by same regulations
    Bans on trading with non-Parties to the Protocol
    Encourage non-Party countries to join
  • Economy vs Environment
    CFCs must be removed
    Gradual system
    Developed countries
    Transfer of production calculations
  • Precaution
    Montreal Protocol unprecedented in the actions taken before concrete proof of the issues
    6 months after signing, confirmation
    Further steps
  • Technological Gains
    Unexpected speed and improvement of technology
    To replace controlled substances that damage environment
  • Possible Improvements
    Disposal of products containing CFCs is costly
    Developing countries have difficulty disposing of them properly
  • Major Players Impacts
    Controversial to eliminate CFCs
    Construction, pharmaceuticals, computers etc
    US cooperation with Soviet Union and Japan led to a strong treaty
  • Replacements
    Substitute fluorocarbons contributing to climate forcing
    Lesser of two evils?
  • Progression
    CFCs targeted in Montreal Protocol were initially CFC-11 and CFC-12
    80% of ODSs that were phased out were not replaced by fluorocarbons, but alternative chemicals
  • Substances Addressed
    Initial debate about including halons
    Growth of included products over time, from 8 to over 80
  • Calculating Emissions
    Production, plus imports, minus exports
    CFCs allotted a number rating according to their detrimental factor for calculation purposes
  • Parties
    Initially there were 24 Parties to the Montreal Protocol
    Reached over 190
    More amendments and decline of nations ratifying the Protocol
  • Conclusions
    Innovative and successful environmental Protocol
    Now that the fear has resided less importance
    Continue awareness