The Kyoto Protocol


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  • Note: Emission limits do not include emissions by international aviation and shipping, but are in addition to the industrial gases, chlorofluorocarbons, or CFCs, which are dealt with under the 1987 Montreal Protocol
  • Example: China, India and other developing countries were not included in any numerical limitation of the Protocol, because they were not main contributors to the GHG in the pre-treaty industrialization period. China has since become the largest GHG emitter;
  • The Kyoto Protocol

    1. 1. THE KYOTO PROTOCOL IS A HINDRANCE FOR CANADA PME 160 Ileana Botez Maria Foster Mila Ivanova
    2. 2. COMMON ABBREVIATIONS <ul><li>PROTOCOL KYOTO PROTOCOL </li></ul><ul><li>UNFCCC United Nations Framework </li></ul><ul><li>Convention on Climate Change </li></ul><ul><li>GHG Greenhouse Gases </li></ul><ul><li>Annex I countries 37 industrialized countries </li></ul><ul><li>CDM Clean Development Mechanism </li></ul><ul><li>JI Joint Implementation </li></ul><ul><li>LULUCF Land use, land-use change and forestry </li></ul>
    4. 4. TEMPERATURE PROJECTIONS Two millennia of mean surface T ºC, according to different reconstructions
    5. 5. CLIMATE MODEL PROJECTIONS indicate that the global surface temperature will probably rise a further 1.1 to 6.4 °C during the 21 century
    6. 6. GHG EFFEC T Energy flows between space, atmosphere, and earth; Energy exchanges in W/m2
    7. 7. INTRODUCTION <ul><li>- The Kyoto Protocol is a protocol to the NFCCC, aimed at combating global warming </li></ul><ul><li>- GOAL : stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system </li></ul><ul><li>- INCLUDES : a set of country-specific reductions of </li></ul><ul><li>emissions of &quot;greenhouse&quot; gases that absorb and re-emit infrared radiation </li></ul>
    8. 8. HISTORY / OBJECTIVES <ul><li>- Initially adopted on 11 December 1997 in Kyoto; </li></ul><ul><li>- Opened March 1998 for signature by parties to UNFCCC </li></ul><ul><li>- The EU and its Member States ratified the Protocol in May 2002 </li></ul><ul><li>- Entered into force on 16 February 2005 </li></ul><ul><li>- June 2007, G8 leaders agreed that G8 nations would 'aim to at least halve global CO2 emissions by 2050 </li></ul><ul><li> - As of October 2009, 184 states have signed and ratified the protocol </li></ul><ul><li>- A country can withdraw by giving 12 months notice </li></ul><ul><li>-All member countries give general commitments </li></ul>
    9. 9. HISTORY / OBJECTIVES <ul><li> - The target agreed upon was an average GHG reduction of 5.2% from 1990 levels by the year 2012 </li></ul><ul><li>- KYOTO plus set a national target to cut GHG emissions at least 25 % from 1990 levels by 2020 </li></ul><ul><li>-The most notable non-member of the Protocol is the US , which is responsible for 36.1% of the 1990 emission levels </li></ul><ul><li>- Japan, Canada , Italy, the Netherlands, Germany, France, Spain are most active countries working towards GHG certification </li></ul><ul><li>- The Protocol can be signed and ratified only by parties to UNFCCC </li></ul>
    10. 10. PARTICIPATION in PROTOCOL green - signed and ratified grey - not yet decided red - no intention of ratifying
    11. 11. FIVE PRINCIPAL CONCEPTS <ul><li>1. Commitments to reduce GHG - legally binding for annex I countries, general commitments for all member countries </li></ul><ul><li>2. Implementation to meet the Protocol objectives - to prepare policies and measures which reduce GHG; increasing absorption of these gases and use all mechanisms available (joint implementation, clean development and emissions trading; rewarded with credits) </li></ul><ul><li>3. Minimizing impacts on developing countries - by establishing an adaptation fund for climate change </li></ul><ul><li>4. Accounting, reporting and review - to ensure the integrity of the Protocol </li></ul><ul><li>5. Compliance - by establishing a compliance committee to enforce commitment to the Protocol </li></ul>
    12. 12. PRINCIPLE OF &quot;COMMON BUT DIFFERENTIATED RESPONSIBILITIES&quot; <ul><li>-The largest share of historical and current global emissions of GHG originated in developed countries </li></ul><ul><li>- Per capita emissions in developing countries are still relatively low </li></ul><ul><li>-Share of global emissions originating in developing countries will grow to meet social and development needs </li></ul>
    14. 14. DETAILS <ul><li>- Annex I countries commit to a reduction of four GHG (carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, sulphur hexafluoride) and 2 gases groups (hydroflourocarbons and perflourocarbons) </li></ul><ul><li>- The Protocol allows for several &quot;flexible mechanisms&quot;, such as emissions trading, the clean development mechanism and joint implementation to allow Annex I countries to meet their GHG emission limitations by purchasing GHG emission reductions credits </li></ul><ul><li>- Each Annex I country are required to submit an Annual Report of inventories of all anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions </li></ul>
    15. 15. CANADA – AND KYOTO PROTOCOL <ul><li>- Governments around the world, including Canada’s, adopted a goal of reducing so-called greenhouse gas emissions </li></ul><ul><li>- On 17 December 2002, Canada ratified the treaty that came into force in February 2005, requiring it to reduce emissions to 6% below 1990 levels during the 2008-2012 commitment period. </li></ul><ul><li>- In 2003, the federal government claimed that it had spent or committed $3.7 billion on climate change programs. By 2004, CO 2 emissions had risen to 27% above the level in 1990 </li></ul><ul><li>- By 2006 they were down to 21.7% above 1990 levels. </li></ul>
    16. 16. CANADA AND KYOTO PROTOCOL <ul><li>- On 25 April 2006 , the environment minister announced that Canada would have no chance of meeting its targets under Kyoto and would look to participate in the Asia-Pacific Partnership on Clean Development and Climate sponsored by the U.S </li></ul><ul><li>- On 2 May 2006 , it was reported that the funding to meet the Kyoto standards had been cut, while the Harper government develops a new plan to take its place </li></ul><ul><li>- In November 2006 , the Canadian government received criticism from environmental groups and other governments for its position </li></ul><ul><li>- On 4 January 2007 , under the new environment minister, the Federal government has introduced legislation to set mandatory emissions targets for industry, but they will not take effect until 2012, with a benchmark date of 2006 as opposed to Kyoto's 1990 </li></ul>
    17. 17. CANADA AND KYOTO PROTOCOL <ul><li>- A private member's bill was put by Liberals to force the government to &quot;ensure that Canada meets its global climate change obligations under the Kyoto Protocol” </li></ul><ul><li>- With the support of the Liberals, the New Democratic Party and the Bloc Québécois the bill was passed the House of Commons on 14 February 2007 </li></ul><ul><li>- The Senate passed the bill and it received Royal Assent on 22 June 2007 </li></ul><ul><li>- In May 2007 the Friends of the Earth sued the Federal government for failing to meet the Kyoto Protocol obligations to cut greenhouse gas emissions </li></ul><ul><li>- Canada's obligation to the treaty began in 2008. </li></ul>
    18. 18. CANADA AND KYOTO PROTOCOL <ul><li>- Regardless of the federal policy, some provinces are pursuing policies to restrain emissions, including Quebec, Ontario, British Columbia and Manitoba as part of the Western Climate Initiative </li></ul><ul><li>- Environmental groups in Canada are working together to demand that Canadian politicians take the threat of climate change seriously and make the necessary changes to ensure the safety and health of future generations </li></ul>
    19. 19. CANADA AND KYOTO PROTOCOL <ul><li>- Participating groups have created a petition called KYOTO plus , on which signatories commit to the following acts: • set a national target to cut GHG emissions at least 25 % from 1990 levels by 2020 • implement an effective national plan to reach this target and help developing countries adapt and build low-carbon economies • adopt a strengthened second phase of the Kyoto Protocol at the UN climate change conference at Copenhagen, Denmark in December 2009 </li></ul>
    20. 20. CANADIAN ECONOMY <ul><li>The foundation of Canadian economy is foreign trade and the United States is by far the nation's largest trade partner </li></ul><ul><li>Foreign trade is responsible for about 45 percent of the nation's gross domestic product (GDP) </li></ul><ul><li>Canada has a positive balance of trade, therefore, the money that flows in can be used to invest into productive enterprises </li></ul>
    21. 21. CANADIAN ECONOMY <ul><li>Canada is one of the few developed nations that is a net exporter of energy </li></ul><ul><li>Over the period of 1990-2004 total production of crude oil and natural gas increased by 65% </li></ul><ul><li>Since 1990 the fossil fuel industry has </li></ul><ul><li>experienced a 192% rise in net energy exports. </li></ul><ul><li>Much of the increase in fossil fuel production is attributable to the rapid growth in crude oil and natural gas exports to the United States </li></ul>
    22. 22. CANADIAN ECONOMY <ul><li>Between 1990 and 2007 large increases in oil and gas production —much of it for export—as well as a large increase in the number of motor vehicles and greater reliance on coal electricity generation, have resulted in a significant rise in emissions </li></ul>
    23. 23. SOURCES OF EMISSION <ul><li>Environment Canada develops and publishes annually Canada’s GHG Inventory groups emissions into the following six sectors: </li></ul><ul><li>1 . Energy </li></ul><ul><li>2. Industrial Processes </li></ul><ul><li>3. Solvent and Other Product Use </li></ul><ul><li>4. Agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>5. LULUCF </li></ul><ul><li>6. Waste </li></ul>
    24. 24. SOURCES OF EMISSION <ul><li>The largest portion of the growth in GHG is in the Energy Sector which consists of: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Energy Industries: Fossil Fuel Industries, Electricity and Heat Generation </li></ul><ul><li>2. Road Transportation, Commercial & Institutional and Mining categories </li></ul><ul><li>Overall, the Energy Sector contributed about 82% (or 620 Mt CO2 eq) of Canada’s total greenhouse gas emissions in 2004 </li></ul>
    25. 25. SOURCES OF EMISSION <ul><li>Overall, the Mining and Manufacturing industries contributed 140 Mt CO2e (19%) of Canada’s total GHG emissions in 2004 </li></ul><ul><li>Over the 1990 to 2004 period, the cement industry experienced a 27% increase in GHG emissions and a 6% increase in sector GDP </li></ul><ul><li>Fossil fuel production , consisting of oil, gas and coal production, refining and transmission, showed 4.6% in GHG between 2004 and 2007 </li></ul>
    26. 26. SOURCES OF EMISSION <ul><li>Emissions associated with Mining and Oil and Gas Extraction alone increased by 56.7% (8.4 Mt) between 2004 and 2007, largely due to increased activity at the Alberta oil sands </li></ul><ul><li>Within these two energy areas, the greatest contributors to the overall increase were </li></ul><ul><li>Light-duty Gasoline Trucks 117% increase </li></ul><ul><li>Electricity and Heat Generation 32% increase </li></ul><ul><li>Heavy-duty Diesel Vehicles 94% increase </li></ul>
    28. 28. EFFORTS TO REDUCE EMISSIONS <ul><li>In 2004 greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs) from electricity generation decreased by 9 Mt due to a reduction in coal-fire generation </li></ul><ul><li>In 2003 coal supplied 18.4% of electricity generation was reduced to 16.5% in 2004 </li></ul><ul><li>To fill the generation gap, nuclear sources grew from 12.4% of supply to 14.8% in 2004 </li></ul>
    29. 29. EFFORTS TO REDUCE EMISSION <ul><li>A long-term decrease in some transport sub sectors : reductions in emissions from LDGVs (cars), propane and natural gas vehicles 6.6 Mt </li></ul><ul><li>Smelting and Refining , Pulp, Paper and Saw Mills and Industrial Chemical industries </li></ul><ul><li>saw their emissions fall by 2.9, 4.3 and 5.9 Mt CO2, respectively </li></ul><ul><li>The installation of an emission abatement system in 1997 has resulted in a 7.6 Mt CO2e (or 71%) reduction in process-related N2O emissions over the 1990 to 2004 period </li></ul>
    30. 30. CONCLUSIONS <ul><li>Taking into account that Canadian economy is based on oil and mining industries, major air pollutants, it will require longer time for the country to reduce GHG emissions without compromising economical growth </li></ul><ul><li>The Government of Canada is committed to reducing Canada’s total GHG emissions by 20 per cent by 2020 relative to 2006 levels and in the long term by 60-70 per cent below 2006 levels by 2050 </li></ul>