United Nations – FrameworkConvention for Climate ChangeJada GarofaloC2C Fellows Program AssistantBCEP Class of 2014
• The Problems: Climate Change, a transboundary issue • Global warming result of decades of industrialization activities of wealthy developed countries • Around 75% of global carbon emissions had been caused by the developed countries (the “Annex 1 Countries” of the Kyoto Protocol) • Annex 1 countries responsible to cut back carbon emissions, and to provide assistance to non Annex 1 to sustainably develop and mitigate suffering from the adverse impacts of climate change • This is referred to as the historical debt of industrialized countries to the rest of the world • Discussions have been rife with dissent and progress has been slow • “If not us, then who? If not now, then when? ...”
• Attaining Agenda Status: • 1950’s World Meteorological Organization (WMO) was created by the UN (1951) to establish climate as a global issue and monitor climate change • 1960’s Keeling Curve offered striking visual demonstration of carbon emissions • 1970’s further pursuit of environmental research motivated the formation of the National Oceanic and Atmosphere Administration (NOAA)-study the conditions of oceans and atmosphere • 1972 UN Environmental Program (UNEP), which worked to create environmental policies • 1979: First World Climate Conference formed (WCC) • Establishing climate as a global issue • 1988: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change formed (IPCC) • 1990: IPCC- first assessment report released • IPCC and second World Climate Conference call for a global treaty on climate change • United Nations General Assembly negotiations on a framework convention begin • Agenda Status Established
• Launched by UN General Assembly • Negotiations began 1990 • Run by Intergovernmental Negotiating Committee (INC) • Negotiations lasted15 months• 1991: Intergovernmental Negotiating Committee formed (INC)• Adopted May 9, 1992 • Opened for signature June 1992 - UN Conference on Environment and Development - Rio de Janeiro, Brazil• Entered into force March 21, 1994 • Requisite 50 ratifications
• Member countries: called parties hold annual meetings called Conferences of the Parties (COP) • Since 2005 the COP are held in combination with the Meetings of Parties (MOP) of the Kyoto Protocol • UNFCCC parties who are not parties to the Kyoto Protocol can participate in the MOP as observers• Routine work: Conference of the Parties (COP) • Parties negotiate to make decisions to advance implementation via subsidiary bodies • Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice (SBSTA) • Subsidiary Body for Implementation (SBI)
• COP 1: 1995: Berlin, Germany • First meeting of the COP• COP 2: 1996: Geneva, Switzerland • Call for “legally binding mid-term targets”• COP 3: 1997: Kyoto • Kyoto Protocol on Climate Change• COP 4: 1998: Buenos Aires, Argentina • 2-year “plan of action” to advance efforts and devise mechanisms for implementation of Kyoto Protocol• COP 5: 1999: Bonn, Germany • Agreement includes a provision on Carbon sinks- credits granted for activities that absorb carbon or store it including management of forest and agriculture land as well as re-vegetation/re-forestation • Agreement to establish three new funds: • 1. Fund for Climate change supporting series of climate measures • 2. Least developed country fund to support National Adaptation Programs of Action • 3. Kyoto Protocol adaptation fund supported by a Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) levy and voluntary contributions
• CDM: Clean development Mechanism • Flexibility mechanism of Kyoto Protocol provides emissions reduction projects generating Certified Emissions Reduction units to be traded in reduction schemes • Intended to meet two objectives: • 1) Assist non Annex 1 Parties in achieving sustainable development and their contribution to the UNFCCC objective- to prevent potentially dangerous Climate change • 2) Assist Annex I Parties in achieving compliance with their quantified emission limitation and reduction • Annex I parties are countries listed in Annex I of the treaty, and are industrialized • Non-Annex I parties are developing countries• JI: Joint implementation- Article 6 in the Kyoto Protocol • Allows a country (Non Annex 1Party) with an emission reduction/limitation commitment under the Kyoto Protocol to earn emission reduction units (ERUs) from an emission-reduction or emission removal project in another Non Annex 1Party, each equivalent to one tonne of CO2, which can be counted towards meeting its Kyoto target• Joint implementation offers Parties a flexible and cost-efficient means of fulfilling a part of their Kyoto commitments, while the host Party benefits from foreign investment and technology transfer
• COP 6: 2000: Hague, Netherlands • Controversy over the United States’ proposal to allow credit for carbon sinks in forests and agricultural lands• COP 7: 2001: Marrakesh, Morocco • Marrakesh Accords: Decisions on the operational details needed for the ratification of the Kyoto Protocol by States, including decision on the rules for international emissions trading • Establishment of the Adaptation Fund• COP 8: 2002: New Delhi, India • Delhi Ministerial Declaration: calls for efforts by developing countries to transfer technology and minimize the impact of climate change on developing countries• COP 9: 2003: Milan, Italy • Agreement to use the Adaptation Fund mainly for supporting developing countries to better adapt to climate change and for capacity-building through technology transfer
• COP 10: 2004: Buenos Aires, Argentina • Buenos Aires Plan of Action to promote better adaptation to climate change in developing countries• COP 11/MOP 1: 2005: Montreal, Canada • First Meeting of the MOP; the Kyoto Protocol comes into force • Montreal Action Plan: agreement to extend the Kyoto Protocol beyond 2012 and to negotiate more cute in greenhouse-gas emissions• COP 12/MOP 2: 2006: Nairobi, Kenya • Adoption of a five-year work plan to support climate change adaptation by developing countries, and agreement on the procedures and modalities for the Adaptation Fund• COP 13/MOP 3: 2007: Bali, Indonesia • The Bali Action Plan: decision to broaden REDD to include conservation sustainable management of forests and enhancements of forest carbon stocks • Establishment of the Ad hoc working Group on Long-term Cooperative Action under the convention
• COP 14/MOP 4: 2008: Ponza, Poland • Approved a mechanism to incorporate forest protection and to broaden REDD (now REDD+)• COP 15/MOP 5: 2009: Copenhagen, Denmark • Aimed but failed to achieve a biding global climate agreement beyond 2012 (expiration date of the Kyoto Protocol)• COP 16/MOP 6: 2010: Cancun, Mexico • Agreement to establish a large “Green Climate Fund” • Draft decision on REDD, which recognizes the rights of and provides for the full and effective participation of indigenous peoples in REDD• COP 17/MOP 7: 2011: Durban, South Africa • Creation of the Durban Platform for Enhanced Action for negotiation on a new legally binding global agreement on climate change by 2015, which should come into effect in 2020• COP 18/MOP 8: 2012: Doha, Qatar – • November 26 to December 2012
• Commit to the second period of the Kyoto Protocol• Decide how to progress to a Universal Agreement in 2015• Reform the CDM and JI mechanisms• Develop financing procedures for REDD+• Create regional collaboration centers to assist development of emissions reductions projects
• KYOTO PROTOCOL - 8 year extension of Kyoto Protocol • 35 industrialized countries to cut GHG emissions by at least 5.2 percent below 1990 levels from 2008-2012 • Nations pick own targets for 2020 • Kyoto supporters decline: • Key supporters: European Union, Australia, Ukraine, Switzerland and Norway- less than 15 percent of world greenhouse gas emitters • Pulling out: Russia, Japan, and Canada • Argue: Emerging economies (China and India) need to join and limit emissions • The United States signed but never ratified Kyoto • Argue: cost jobs, Protocol wrongly omits goals for developing nations • Possibility for tightening targets in 2014 • European Union, for instance, has promised cuts of at least 20 percent below 1990 levels by 2020http://www.pointcarbon.com/news/reutersnews/1.2091941?&ref=searchlist
• FUTURE TALKS • Timetable for new global deal applying to all nations Kyoto only sets targets for industrialized nations • Due 2015 • Entering into force 2020 • Two “work streams” negotiations • 1. Combat climate change 2020 • 2. Step up ambition before 2020 • First session talks “Durban Platform” - April/May 2013 - Bonn, Germany • Possibly another - September 2013 • Two more sessions 2014 and two more 2015
C2C Fellows “Conversations on Doha” Panel Agenda
• Attended UNFCCC talks in Copenhagen• Audio only
• Hesitate giving more money to the Climate Fund because US doesn’t know what it will fund. Hindered Finance Negotiations.• We said we would cut emissions, but there is no transparency. We don’t know how.• US is worried Congress not cooperating.
• We have a better understanding of what will work.• Countries agreed to have a second commitment Kyoto Protocol period.• All countries will be gather in 2014 and consider raising ambitions on emission reduction targets.
• We need more Domestic Action!• Communities must lead by example.• The top down approach will never work without a strong bottom up movement.• Develop a work plan for 2013.
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