SSMUN- Simulation of the Durban Climate Change ConferenceYou have been given a country or an organization to represent while negotiatingon one of the world’s most discussed and controversial topics: global warming.It will be up to you to decide what measures to take, if any, and how to prepareour world against the challenges which climate change may bring upon us.What is the Durban Climate Change Conference? • The Durban conference is the seventeenth of a series of conferences on climate change which have been organized yearly by the UNFCCC (United Nations Framework Convention on climate change). • The objective of these conferences is to stabilize greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous interference with the climate system. • COP 17 will take place in Durban, South Africa. • It was preceded by the Cancun Conference of 2010, and the (in)famous Copenhagen Climate Change conference of 2009.Context-results of the Cancun Conference of 2010 and opinion of countries: • All countries except the USA and some LEDC are under the obligations of the Kyoto treaty. • Some developed countries (led by Japan and Russia) assert that the system is both unfair and environmentally ineffective • Countries in Africa and South America agree with this position. • There is controversy because Kyoto obligations on only some countries means there is an economic advantage to those with no comparable legal obligations. • Current climate negotiations are driven by a changing world order - rise of rapidly industrializing developing countries. • Since 2004 the focus of climate negotiations has been to enhance the balance and implementation, considering these changes. • The deadline of 2009 has not met noted political agreement, with deadline to complete negotiations in Cancun. • The Cancun conference culminated on these five agreements on how to handle climate change: Adaptation - equal priority to mitigation; establishing an Adaptation Framework and Committee; programme to consider loss & damage mechanism.
Mitigation –organize market & non-market mechanisms; create a response measures forum Finance - Green Climate Fund; $30 billion fast start; $100 billion by 2020. Technology – a Technology Mechanism; Executive Committee. Capacity building - process to monitor and review effectiveness & institutions.Issues still needing to be approached after Cancun: • Cancun did not address the key equity related political questions. How will you make sure that countries not bounded by the Kyoto Protocol have the same opportunities in the international market as those that do? • The continuation of Kyoto: A single treaty type legally binding outcome (replace and improve Kyoto?) No legally binding outcome (kill Kyoto?) • The level of action necessary to prevent dangerous climate change • A long term global emission reduction goal (2050), how should this be approached? How would it work? Should you sanction countries that do not oblige with it? Should you offer economic incentives? • A global peaking year • Upfront common carbon accounting rules • Fair share of carbon space or time for developing countries to transition • Fair treatment of Intellectual Property Rights for the global climate commonsYou will have to: • Lay out the work programme for the year • Decide with different parties and groups what outcomes should occur • Share aspirations for this conference with other key governments and stakeholders- plan bloc positions. • Try to engage the national and international civil society. Involve NGOs, business, local government, stakeholders, indigenous people, and other groups as you see fit. • Try to compromise nations with the outcome of this conference. It could decide the future of our WORLD!Documents you might want to read for preparation: • UN Charter
• Kyoto protocol• UNFCCC• Copenhagen Accord• Also try to read as much as you can about climate change and relate it to your country’s policies. Take into account that there are many opinions about how deeply climate change is caused by humans and whether it is happening at all. Scientific evidence for or against the global warming hypothesis will carry you a long way in this conference.