Kyoto protocol


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Kyoto protocol

  1. 1. KYOTO PROTOCOL<br />Presented By<br />Jibin M Varghese(PR10EE1002)<br />Justin Baby(PR10EE1007)<br />Shanthibhushan B(PR10EE1025)<br />Manu N Govind(PR10EE1028)<br />Ajeesh G(PR10EE1034)<br />
  2. 2. Kyoto protocol (Introduction)<br /><ul><li>The United Nations organized a conference in Kyoto, Japan to draft an agreement to reduce global greenhouse gas emissions.
  3. 3. The protocol commits that “Annex 1 countries” (developed countries) reduce their emissions to ten percent below 1990 levels.
  4. 4. Each country has a prescribed number of</li></ul> 'emission units' which make up the target<br /> emission<br /><ul><li>The Kyoto Protocol provides mechanisms for</li></ul> countries to meet their emission targets<br />
  5. 5.
  6. 6. Greenhouse gases<br />Carbon dioxide (CO2)<br />Methane (CH4)<br />Nitrous oxide (N2O)<br />Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs)<br />Perfluorocarbons (PFCs)<br />Sulphur hexafluoride (SF6)<br />Natural<br />Manmade<br />Source: Kyoto Protocol- Annexure A<br />
  7. 7. Per Capita CO2 Emitters<br />
  8. 8. Kyoto Problems<br />Currently, 166 countries have ratified the protocol but:<br /><ul><li>United States, the number 1 emitter of CO2 gases has not joined.
  9. 9. Developing nations, such as China and India are not required to reduce or limit their emissions under the Kyoto Protocol.</li></li></ul><li>Kyoto Protocol participation map<br />Green = Countries that have signed and ratified the treaty<br />Grey = Countries that have not yet decided<br />Red = No intention to ratify at this stage.<br />
  10. 10. Kyoto Protocol Mechanism<br />UNFCCC Kyoto protocol<br />Allowance Based<br />Project Based<br />International<br />Emission Trading<br />(Between developed<br />countries)<br />Clean Development<br />Mechanism<br />(Developing &<br />developed countries)<br />Joint Implementation<br />(Between developed<br />countries)<br />Assigned Amount<br />Units (AAU)<br />Carbon Reduction Units (CRU)<br />Emission Reduction Units (ERU)<br />UNFCCC:- United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change<br />
  11. 11. International Emission Trading (IET)<br />• Emissions trading (ET) is a mechanism that<br />enables countries with legally binding emission<br />targets to buy and sell emissions allowances<br />among themselves<br />• Each country has a certain number of emission<br />allowances (amount of carbon dioxide it can<br />emit) in line with its Kyoto reduction targets<br />• The IET allows industrialized countries to trade<br />their surplus credits on the international carbon<br />credit market<br />
  12. 12. Clean Development Mechanism (CDM)<br /><ul><li>CDM is the only Flexibility Mechanism that involves developing countries.
  13. 13. Designed to provide developed countries with flexibility to meet GHG emission reduction targets that they agreed to achieve under the Protocol.
  14. 14. Developed countries may finance GHG emission</li></ul> reducing (avoiding) projects undertaken in developing countries and receive credits to help them to meet their mandatory limits.<br /><ul><li>Assist developing countries who host CDM projects to achieve sustainable development.</li></ul>Ref:-1st Arab CP Workshop, Amman - Jordan 4-6 / 4 / 2006<br />
  15. 15. Joint Implementing<br />Allows an Annex I country to claim credits for emissions reductions that arise from investment in another Annex I country.<br />Joint implementation offers Parties a flexible and cost-efficient means of fulfilling a part of their Kyoto commitments, while the host Party benefits from foreign investment and technology transfer.<br />
  16. 16. Climate Change Impact in India<br />Rajasthan- Drought<br />Rann of Kutch – sea level rise<br />Mumbai-Salt water intrusion<br />Kerala –Productivity of Forest<br />Tamil Nadu-Coral bleaching<br />Ganges – Sedimentation problem<br />Sunderbans-Sea level raise<br />Northwest India-reduction In rice yield<br />
  17. 17. India’s potential<br />• India – Non Annexure I country, has a large scope in<br />emissions trading<br />• India and china together contribute to $5 billion of the<br />global carbon trade estimated at $30billion<br />• It is one of the leading generators of CERs through CDM<br />• Analysts forecast that its trading in carbon credits would<br />touch US$ 100 billion by 2015<br />• Currently, the total registered CDM projects are more than<br />300, almost 1/3rd of the total CDM projects registered with<br />the UNFCCC<br />• The total issued CERs with India as a host country till now<br />stand at around 34 million, again around 1/3rd of the total<br />CERs issued by the UNFCCC<br />
  18. 18. India’s Initiatives <br /><ul><li>Signed UNFCC on 10th June 1992
  19. 19. India ratified the Kyoto protocol
  20. 20. India has a National Action Plan on Climate Change</li></ul>National Solar Mission<br />National Mission for Enhanced Energy Efficiency <br />National Mission on Sustainable Habitat<br />National Water Mission<br />National Mission for Sustaining the Himalayan Ecosystem<br />National Mission for a “ Green India”<br />National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture<br />National Mission on Strategic Mission on Climate Change <br />
  21. 21. Conclusion<br />The impacts of climate change are not evenly distributed – the poorest countries and people will suffer earliest and most. And if and when the damages appear it will be too late to reverse the process. Thus we are forced to look a long way ahead.<br />
  22. 22. THANK YOU<br />