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Kyoto Protocol


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Kyoto Protocol

  1. 1. National conferencePresentation on KYOTO PROTOCOL PRESENTED BY: Monika
  2. 2. PRE HISTORY…As a first step in coordinated international climate policy a semipolitical conference was held in Toronto in 1988.Also in 1988 the so-called Intergovernmental Panel on ClimateChange (IPCC) was formed. The IPCC objective was to identifypotential impacts of global warming and to report what could bedone to mitigate or to adapt to climate change.At the Rio Earth Summit in June 1992 the so-called FrameworkConvention was signed by more than 150 countries.
  3. 3. The Kyoto Protocol was adopted in Kyoto, Japan, on 11 December1997 and entered into force on 16 February 2005.The Kyoto Protocol is an international agreement linked to the UnitedNations Framework Convention on Climate Change, aimed at fightingglobal warming. As of September 2011, 191 states have signed and ratified theprotocol.Under the Protocol, countries commit themselves to a reduction offour greenhouse gases (GHG) (carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide,sulphur hexafluoride) and two groups of gases (hydrofluorocarbons andperfluorocarbons)
  4. 4. The Kyoto Protocol decided upon:1) emission-reduction targets of greenhouse gases for each ofthe member countries2) a greenhouse gas emission-trading program3) holding future meetings to set penalties for violators of theestablished targets and regulation rules of the emission-tradingprogram
  5. 5. Kyoto Protocol: conference in Kyōto, Japan
  6. 6. The USP of kyoto ProtocolThe major distinction between the Protocol and theConvention is that while the Convention encouragedindustrialized countries to stabilize GHG emissions, theProtocol commits them to do so.
  7. 7. Mechanisms of kyoto protocolThe Kyoto mechanisms are:Emissions trading – known as “the carbon market" : trading ofemission allowances between countries.Clean development mechanism (CDM) :promotes environmentally-friendly foreign investments from industrialized countries intodeveloping countries.Joint implementation (JI):allows developed countries to sponsorforeign research to decrease emission levels in countries of economictransition.The mechanisms help stimulate green investment and help Partiesmeet their emission targets in a cost-effective way.
  8. 8. 2xCO2 - Damages in different world regions(in % of GDP)European Union (EU) 1.4 Central Asia 5.2USA 1.3 South and Southeast Asia 8.6OECD America (without USA) 1.5 Africa 8.7OECD Europe (without EU) 1.3 Latin America 4.3OECD Pacific 2.8 Middle East 4.1Eastern Europe - former USSR 0.72xCO2 - Damages in different world regions (in % of GDP)
  9. 9. •Annex I countries – industrialized countries and economies in transition •Annex II countries – developed countries which pay for costs of developing countriesAnnex I countries Annex II countriesThere are 41 Annex I countries and the There are 23 Annex II countries and theEuropean Union is also a member. These European Union. Turkey was removedcountries are classified as industrialized from the Annex II list in 2001 at its requestcountries and countries in transition: to recognize its economy as a transitionAustralia, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, economy. These countries are classified asBulgaria, Canada, Croatia, Czech Republic, developed countries which pay for costsDenmark, Estonia, Finland, France, of developing countries:Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada,Ireland, Italy, India, Japan, Latvia, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany,Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Greece, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Japan,Malta, Monaco, Netherlands, New South Korea, Luxembourg, Netherlands,Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, New Zealand, Norway, Portugal, Spain,Romania, Russian Federation, Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom,Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, United States of America.Turkey, Ukraine, United Kingdom, UnitedStates of America.
  10. 10. The road aheadThe Kyoto Protocol is generally seen as an important first steptowards a truly global emission reduction regime that will stabilizeGHG emissions, and provides the essential architecture for anyfuture international agreement on climate change.By the end of the first commitment period of the Kyoto Protocolin 2012, a new international framework needs to have beennegotiated and ratified that can deliver the stringent emissionreductions the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)has clearly indicated are needed.
  11. 11. References:[Barrett, 1998] Barrett, S. (1998). Political economy of the Kyoto Protocol. OxfordReview of Economic Policy, 14:20{39.[Fankhauser, 1995] Fankhauser, S. (1995). Valuing Climate Change - The Economics ofthe Greenhouse. Earthscan Publications.[Hackl and Pruckner, 1999] Hackl, F. and Pruckner, G. J. (1999). How global is thesolution to global warming? Department of Economics, University of Linz, mimeo.[IPCC, 1990] IPCC (1990). Climate Change: The IPCC Scienti¯c Assessment.[IPCC, 1996] IPCC (1996). Climate Change 1995 - Economic ans Social Dimension ofClimate Change. Cambridge University Press.[Jacoby et al., 1998] Jacoby, H. D., Prinn, R. G., and Schmalensee, R. (1998). Kyotosunfinished business. Foreign Affairs, July/August.