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An Analysis of Montreal Protocol 
(A project presentation prepared in partial fulfillment of ED72.30 Energy 
Environment a...
Ozone 
Ozone is trioxygen (O3) 
Ozone is highly reactive (form of Oxygen) 
Ozone is highly corrosive and toxic and is used...
Ozone in the Atmosphere 
Good Ozone 
Bad Ozone
The Ozone Layer 
A layer in the earth’s atmosphere which contains relatively high 
concentration of Ozone 
Absorbs 93-97% ...
The ozone layer is in the Stratosphere
Ultraviolet Protection by Ozone
Ozone Formation 
Oxygen (O2) in the troposphere makes it to the 
Stratosphere 
Formation and distruction of Ozone in the s...
Catalytic Ozone Destruction 
Four main “families” of chemicals responsible 
for catalyzing ozone destruction: 
1. Nitrogen...
Ozone Layer Depletion 
Scientists in the 1960s realized that something 
was going wrong in the ozone layer. 
They soon fig...
What are CFCs?? 
CFCs are chlorofluorocarbons; they are small molecules that contain 
chlorine, fluorine and carbon atoms....
Ozone Layer Depletion by CFCs
The ‘Ozone Hole’ 
The ozone hole is not 
technically a “hole” where no 
ozone is present, but is 
actually a region of dep...
The ‘Ozone Hole’ 
The Antarctic Ozone Hole 
was discovered in 1985 by 
the British scientists 
During 4 months each year 
...
The ‘Ozone Hole’ enlarging
Loss of the Ozone Layer – Why we 
need to be so concerned?? 
The loss of Ozone Layer causes increased exposure to UV radia...
Policy responses to mitigate Ozone 
Layer Depletion 
Depletion of Stratospheric Ozone emerged as a political 
concern in t...
The Montreal Protocol 
The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer is an 
international Treaty design...
Ozone Depleting Substances identified 
and controlled by Montreal Protocol
Implementation Mechanism 
The Montreal Protocol (MP)has entered what is termed the ‘late stages’ 
of implementation. This ...
Phasing out ODS 
Parties to the Montreal Protocol must freeze, reduce 
and phase out their production and consumption of 
...
ODS phase-out progress for 
Developed countries
ODS phase-out progress for 
Developing countries
Monitoring Progress 
Established a monitoring committee which 
comprises 2 member states from each of the 
UN’s 5 geograph...
Past and Future abundance of 
Halogen Source Gases 
Year 2014
Is Montreal Protocol really working as targeted?? 
• “Perhaps the single most successful international 
agreement to date ...
What made Montreal Protocol 
among most successful international 
treaty? 
Flexibility - five amendments since 1987 (Londo...
Weakness 
• Unable to deal with the problem of ODS 
smugglers 
• Overlap in reporting requirements which 
parties must sub...
The success continues 
• Approximately one half the observed ozone 
change was in the region of the stratosphere 
above 11...
The success continues 
“The real surprise of our research was the degree of 
ozone recovery we found at lower altitudes, b...
Contd… 
• Thus, NASA and NOAA Data Indicate Ozone 
Layer is Recovering 
• Montreal Protocol and its amendments have 
succe...
Source: Department of the Environment , Australia 
http://www.environment.gov.au/protection/ozone/mo 
ntreal-protocol
Source: http://www.theozonehole.com/montreal.htm
Thank You
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Montreal Protocol and Ozone Layer Depletion

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This presentation provides comprehensive information about Ozone, Ozone Layer, Ozone Layer Depletion, International Initiatives and Analysis of Montreal Protocol.

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Montreal Protocol and Ozone Layer Depletion

  1. 1. An Analysis of Montreal Protocol (A project presentation prepared in partial fulfillment of ED72.30 Energy Environment and Climate Change course) Presented by: Pradeep Baral – st116639 Kavinda Randima – st116474 PokchatWetchapinant – st116480 Dusit Tanthong – st116042
  2. 2. Ozone Ozone is trioxygen (O3) Ozone is highly reactive (form of Oxygen) Ozone is highly corrosive and toxic and is used as a disinfectant. Unlike Oxygen molecule (O2) which is colorless and odorless, Ozone has a pungent odor and blue color Ozone exists within both tropospheric and stratospheric zone of the atmosphere Ozone near the earth’s surface in the troposphere is an air pollutant and considered BAD OZONE as it exacerbate asthma and cause other respiratory and associated health problems Ozone in the stratosphere protects the living organisms in the earth from harmful UV radiations and is considered as GOOD OZONE
  3. 3. Ozone in the Atmosphere Good Ozone Bad Ozone
  4. 4. The Ozone Layer A layer in the earth’s atmosphere which contains relatively high concentration of Ozone Absorbs 93-97% of Sun’s high frequency ultraviolet (UVA, UVB and UVC) radiations between 210 and 290 μm wavelengths Found in the lower portion of the stratosphere from approximately 20 to 30 kilometers above earth Formed naturally by photochemical mechanisms on Oxygen molecule The thickness of the layer varies spatially and seasonally. It is thickest in the poles and during the spring season The ozone layer protects the earth from the harmful effects of the UV radiation, which is vital because excessive exposure to UV radiation, especially UVB radiation would lead to cancer, cataracts, skin diseases, stunned growth in plants and permanent DNA damage The columnar density of Ozone layer or Ozone in particular is measured in Dobson Units (DU). A value of 300 DU is considered normal
  5. 5. The ozone layer is in the Stratosphere
  6. 6. Ultraviolet Protection by Ozone
  7. 7. Ozone Formation Oxygen (O2) in the troposphere makes it to the Stratosphere Formation and distruction of Ozone in the stratosphere is a continuous process
  8. 8. Catalytic Ozone Destruction Four main “families” of chemicals responsible for catalyzing ozone destruction: 1. Nitrogen oxides: NOx NO + NO2 2. Hydrogen oxides: HOx OH + HO2 3. Chlorine: ClOx Cl + ClO 4. Bromine: BrOx Br + BrO A common type of catalytic destruction cycle (there are others) Y+O YO+O YO+O Y+O 3 2 2   where Y = NO, OH, Cl or Br Sources of Catalysts 1. Stratospheric NOx Source: tropospheric N2O - Natural 2. Stratospheric HOx Source: tropospheric CH4, H2, H2O - Much is natural however increased concentration due to industrial and agricultural activities 3. Stratospheric Cl and Br Sources: tropospheric CFCs, HCFCs, halons – Entirely anthropogenic
  9. 9. Ozone Layer Depletion Scientists in the 1960s realized that something was going wrong in the ozone layer. They soon figured out that human actions were damaging Earth's shield against harmful radiation. Most of the depletion of the ozone layer has been attributed to pollutants containing chloride (chlorofluorocarbons or CFCs). 1974 study at UC Irvine indicated threat to ozone layer from CFCs - Shock to the $28 billion per year CFC industry
  10. 10. What are CFCs?? CFCs are chlorofluorocarbons; they are small molecules that contain chlorine, fluorine and carbon atoms. Usually there are only 1-2 carbon atoms. CFCs are sometimes called Freons (that was their trade name for DuPont) CFCs are referred to by a number. The most common CFCs are: CFC-11, CFC- 12, CFC-113 HCFCs are CFCs that contain hydrogen. This makes them more reactive to the OH radical, decreasing their tropospheric lifetime. Former uses of CFCs included Air Conditioners, Refrigerators, Spray Cans, Cleaners from electronic parts, Sterilizing medical instruments, Fumigants for granaries and cargo ships etc. CFCs remain stable in troposphere due to unreactivity Over 11-20 years they get lifted into stratosphere by convection and drift Each CFC molecule lasts in stratosphere for 65-385 years and can convert 100,000 of O3 to O2 during that time Emission of CFCs have accounted for roughly 80% of total stratospheric depletion
  11. 11. Ozone Layer Depletion by CFCs
  12. 12. The ‘Ozone Hole’ The ozone hole is not technically a “hole” where no ozone is present, but is actually a region of depleted ozone in the stratosphere over the Antarctic that happens at the beginning of Southern Hemisphere spring (August-October). The average concentration of ozone in the atmosphere is about 300 Dobson Units; any area where the concentration drops below 220 Dobson Units is considered part of the ozone hole.
  13. 13. The ‘Ozone Hole’ The Antarctic Ozone Hole was discovered in 1985 by the British scientists During 4 months each year half of the ozone layer above Antarctica is depleted A polar vortex isolates the stratosphere above the poles in the arctic and Antarctic winters. The CFC’s are concentrated in this vortex. The chlorine atoms break off the CFC’s in the spring when the sun hits them.
  14. 14. The ‘Ozone Hole’ enlarging
  15. 15. Loss of the Ozone Layer – Why we need to be so concerned?? The loss of Ozone Layer causes increased exposure to UV radiation which has Effects on Aquatic Ecosystem  Decreased abundance of Phytoplancton which further affects the food stock for fishes  Decreased diversity and increased mutation affects numerous aquatic fauna and flora leaving some of them being extinct permanenely Effects on Terrestrial Ecosystem  Damage to plant cell DNA molecules which makes them succeptible to pests and pathogens  Stunned growth, reduced leaf size, number and photosynthetic ability  Mutation of the mammalian cells and destruction of cell membranes Effects on Human (Ecosystem)  Increased succeptability to Skin Cancer (50% more succeptable)  Premature ageing of the skin  Cataracts and other eye disorders  Immune System damage  Decreased agricultural and fishery productivity – food insucirity  Global warming and climate change (indirect)
  16. 16. Policy responses to mitigate Ozone Layer Depletion Depletion of Stratospheric Ozone emerged as a political concern in the early 1970s. As a result, US banned non-essential use of CFCs as Aerosol propellants Efforts at negiotating an international agreement controlling CFC use began in the 1980s and cumilated in 1987 with Montreal Protocol Major policy efforts by the world to mitigate Ozone Layer Depletion are listed below:  Co-ordinated Meeting on Ozone Layer (CCOL) established by UNEP in the 1970s  Vienna convention on protection of the Ozone Layer in 1985  Montreal Protocal to ban substances that deplete the Ozone Layer (ODS) held in 1987  Amendments to the Montreal Protocol: London 1990; Copenhagen 1992; Montreal 1997 and Beijing 199
  17. 17. The Montreal Protocol The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer is an international Treaty designed to protect the ozone layer by Phasing out the production of numerous substances (ODS) believed to be responsible for Ozone depletion The treaty was opened for signature on September 16, 1987, and entered into forece on January 1, 1989, followed by a first meeting in Helsinki, May 1989. Since then, it has undergone seven revisions Current status – rafitied by all 197 UN members The Montreal Protocol says that the production and consumption of compounds that deplete ozone in the stratosphere--chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), halons, carbon tetrachloride, and methyl chloroform--are to be phased out by 2030.
  18. 18. Ozone Depleting Substances identified and controlled by Montreal Protocol
  19. 19. Implementation Mechanism The Montreal Protocol (MP)has entered what is termed the ‘late stages’ of implementation. This means that the developed world has largely come into full compliance with its terms and that the production and use of ODS has been virtually eradicated. However problem remain in the developing world where ODS are still produced and used In 1991, the Multilateral fund for the implementation of MP was established to provide the developing countries with the funding necessary to comply with the terms of the treaty Managed jointly by UNDP, UNEP and the World Bank, the fund supports technical capacity building projects for 145 countries worth 2.5 billion US Dollars These projects aim to phase out ODS consumption and production in the project nations Regular technological assessments of each country are made every two years to monitor compliance with the treaty. Additionally, nations must provide up to date inventory report of ODS production, consumption, import and export UNEP also operates a compliance assistance program that cosists of policy developemnt and enforcement, data reporting, customs training, technical support, information, and communication
  20. 20. Phasing out ODS Parties to the Montreal Protocol must freeze, reduce and phase out their production and consumption of ODS according to a specific step-wise schedule. - Approaches:  Production Control  Consumption Control  Trade, Import, export and reimport control  Adaptation to Ozone Friendly technology  Training and Capacity Building
  21. 21. ODS phase-out progress for Developed countries
  22. 22. ODS phase-out progress for Developing countries
  23. 23. Monitoring Progress Established a monitoring committee which comprises 2 member states from each of the UN’s 5 geographical regions. It normally meets twice a year, and receives report from Ozone secretariet on the data reported by the parties and their levels of compliance with their obligations Most developing countries do not produce ODS and are completely dependent on ODS imports. Consequently, monitoring the legal trade and preventing the illegal trade of these chemical is crucial to achieving the gradual phase-out of ODS and conversion to non-ODS alternatives.
  24. 24. Past and Future abundance of Halogen Source Gases Year 2014
  25. 25. Is Montreal Protocol really working as targeted?? • “Perhaps the single most successful international agreement to date has been the Montreal Protocol” - Kofi Annan, Former Secretary General of the United Nations • The total abundance of ozone-depleting gases in the atmosphere has begun to decrease in recent years • If the nations of the world continue to follow the provisions of the Montreal Protocol, the decrease will continue throughout the 21st century • Some individual gases such as halons and hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) are still increasing in the atmosphere, but will begin to decrease in the next decades if compliance with the Protocol continues • By midcentury, the effective abundance of ozone-depleting gases should fall to values present before the Antarctic “ozone hole” began to form in the early 1980s.
  26. 26. What made Montreal Protocol among most successful international treaty? Flexibility - five amendments since 1987 (London 1990, Copenhagen 1992, Montreal 1997, Beijing 1999, Montreal 2007). Each of these amendments built upon the success, and tried to rectify the failures of the last International scientific co-operation and consensus Involvement of multilateral institutions such as the UNEP, World Bank, UNDP, UNIDO, European Union etc. Recognition of the common but differentiated responsibility principle for developing nations The targets and timetables approach The multilateral fund for the developing nations
  27. 27. Weakness • Unable to deal with the problem of ODS smugglers • Overlap in reporting requirements which parties must submit to the secretariat • Time lag to the developing nations in complying with the rules and accomplishing the ODS phase-out • Difficulty in monitoring the detailed implementation progress of individual nations since it covers 197 nations
  28. 28. The success continues • Approximately one half the observed ozone change was in the region of the stratosphere above 11 miles and the rest in the lower stratosphere from six to 11 miles. • The researchers attribute the ozone improvement above 11 miles almost entirely to the Montreal Protocol.
  29. 29. The success continues “The real surprise of our research was the degree of ozone recovery we found at lower altitudes, below the middle stratosphere. There, ozone is improving faster than we expected, and appears to be due to changes in atmospheric wind patterns, the causes of which are not yet well understood. Until the cause of the recent ozone increase in the lowermost stratosphere is better understood, making high-accuracy predictions of how the entire ozone layer will behave in the future will remain an elusive goal. Continued careful observation and modeling are required to understand how the ozone recovery process will evolve.“ - co-author Mike Newchurch of the University of Alabama in Huntsville
  30. 30. Contd… • Thus, NASA and NOAA Data Indicate Ozone Layer is Recovering • Montreal Protocol and its amendments have succeeded in stopping the loss of ozone in the stratosphere. • In 1980’s, the scientists first noticed the harmful effects human activities were having on atmospheric ozone
  31. 31. Source: Department of the Environment , Australia http://www.environment.gov.au/protection/ozone/mo ntreal-protocol
  32. 32. Source: http://www.theozonehole.com/montreal.htm
  33. 33. Thank You

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