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COP26: An Appraisal
Sajid Karim
Research Fellow, BIISS
1
Scope of the
presentation
• Conference of Parties (COP)
• Paris Climate Agreement
• Development since Paris
Climate Agreement
• COP 26: Glasgow 2021
• Bangladesh at COP26
• Achievements and Limitations
of Glasgow Climate Pact
2
Conference of Parties (COP)
3
What is COP?
• COP: Supreme decision-making body of the UNFCCC
• Scope: Implementation of the Convention and any other legal
instruments that the COP adopts and take decisions necessary
to promote the effective implementation of the Convention
• Key Task: Review the national communications and emission
inventories submitted by Parties
• Membership: 197 Parties
• Outcome: Declaration/Agreement/Pact
Paris Climate Agreement (COP21)
4
Party Negotiation Groups of COP
SIDS (Small Island
Developing States)
African Group
LDCs (Least
Developed
Countries)
G77 & China
AILAC (Independent
Alliance of Latin
America and the
Caribbean)
LMDCs (Like-Minded
Developing
Countries)
Arab Group
EIG (Environmental
Integrity Group)
CVF Umbrella Group EU (European Union)
5
6
Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC): are non-binding
national plans highlighting climate actions, including climate
related targets for greenhouse gas emission reductions,
policies and measures governments aim to implement in
response to climate change and as a contribution to achieve
the global targets set out in the Paris Agreement.
Net zero emission: means that all man-​made greenhouse gas
emissions must be removed from the atmosphere through
reduction measures, thus reducing the Earth’s net climate
balance.
Loss and Damage: process to refer to the harms caused by
anthropogenic climate change
Paris Climate Agreement
7
8
Development Since Paris Climate Agreement
9
Development
Since Paris
Climate
Agreement
10
Development
Since Paris
Climate
Agreement
Economic cost of loss and damage
by 2030 would be between US$
400 billion to US$ 580 billion a
year in developing countries, and
up to US$ 1.8 trillion by 2050
11
Development Since Paris
Climate Agreement
13
Why
COP26
was
special
14
“This COP is keeping 1.5 alive
about.”
It marks the first five-year interval
after Paris (technically six,
because, you know)—a deadline
for countries to demonstrate
tangible progress and ratchet up
climate ambitions.
15
Me
Ma
Mo
Co
Ca
Ca
COP26:
Important
Agenda
• Ensuring the commitments of
major carbon emitting countries
to limit carbon emission to keep
global warming below 1.5
• Scaling up climate fund urgently
to support climate vulnerable
countries and fulfilling the USD
100 billion pledge
• Ensuring the bigger share of
climate fund towards
adaptation
• Finalising the Paris Rulebook to
ensure the accountability
• Establishing the mechanism for
loss and damage
16
Bangladesh at COP26
17
Five
dealmakers
who will
influence the
outcome at
COP26
Xie Zhenhua: China's man for all
seasons
Ayman Shasly: Saudi's resolute
defender
Alok Sharma: The Briton in the
middle
Sheikh Hasina: The voice of the
vulnerable
Teresa Ribera: Europe's bridge-
builder
18
Bangladesh
at COP26
• 'Unesco-Bangladesh Bangabandhu Sheikh
Mujibur Rahman International Prize for
the Creative Economy’
• Bilateral meetings with British Prime
Minister Boris Johnson, French President
Emmanuel Macron, Australian Prime
Minister Scott Morrison, UK’s Prince
Charles
• Joint meeting of the Climate Vulnerable
Forum (CVF)-Commonwealth High Level
Panel Discussion on Climate Prosperity
Partnership
• Meetings on "Action and Solidarity-the
critical decade“
• Session on "Women and Climate Change"
• Session on "Forging a CVF COP 26 Climate
Emergency Pact“
• Scottish parliament event on "A
Bangladesh Vision for Global Climate
Prosperity"
19
Bangladesh’s
Four Point at
COP
• The major emitters must submit
ambitious NDCs and implement
those.
• The developed countries should
fulfil their commitments of
providing 100 billion dollars
annually with a 50:50 balance
between adaptation and
mitigation.
• The developed countries should
disseminate clean and green
technology at affordable costs to
the most vulnerable countries.
"The development needs of the
CVF countries also need to be
considered.“
• Address the issue of loss and
damage and global sharing of
responsibility for climate
migrants.
20
Mujib Climate Prosperity Plan – a journey from climate
vulnerability to resilience to climate prosperity
Climate Emergency Pact
21
Glasgow Climate Pact
22
Glasgow
Climate
Pact: At a
Glance
23
I. Science and urgency
II. Adaptation
III. Adaptation finance
IV. Mitigation
V. Finance, technology transfer and capacity-
building for mitigation and adaptation
VI. Loss and damage
VII. Implementation
VIII. Collaboration
Reactions
• Alok Sharma, President of
COP26 – "May I just say to
all delegates I apologise
for the way this process
has unfolded and I am
deeply sorry. I also
understand the deep
disappointment, but I
think as you have noted,
it's also vital that we
protect this package."
• Saleemul Huq, ICCCD –
“As far as I am concerned,
it is a failure.”
24
Reactions
• Fiji’s Prime Minister Frank Bainimarama – the 1.5C target leaves
Glasgow “battered, bruised, but alive”.
• Amnesty International reacts to Cop26 outcome – ““Leaders
have catastrophically betrayed humanity at large by failing to
protect people most affected by the climate crisis and instead
caving into the interests of fossil fuel and other powerful
corporations,”
• US Climate Envoy John Kerry welcomed the agreement but said
good compromises leave everyone slightly unsatisfied.
25
Achievements
of the Pact
26
Targeting fossil fuels and emission
cuts
Reaffirming Paris agreement
Adaptation and Climate Finance
Rules for global carbon markets
Loss and Damage
Limitations
27
Limitations
28
Thank You
29

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Cop 26: An Appraisal

  • 1. COP26: An Appraisal Sajid Karim Research Fellow, BIISS 1
  • 2. Scope of the presentation • Conference of Parties (COP) • Paris Climate Agreement • Development since Paris Climate Agreement • COP 26: Glasgow 2021 • Bangladesh at COP26 • Achievements and Limitations of Glasgow Climate Pact 2
  • 4. What is COP? • COP: Supreme decision-making body of the UNFCCC • Scope: Implementation of the Convention and any other legal instruments that the COP adopts and take decisions necessary to promote the effective implementation of the Convention • Key Task: Review the national communications and emission inventories submitted by Parties • Membership: 197 Parties • Outcome: Declaration/Agreement/Pact Paris Climate Agreement (COP21) 4
  • 5. Party Negotiation Groups of COP SIDS (Small Island Developing States) African Group LDCs (Least Developed Countries) G77 & China AILAC (Independent Alliance of Latin America and the Caribbean) LMDCs (Like-Minded Developing Countries) Arab Group EIG (Environmental Integrity Group) CVF Umbrella Group EU (European Union) 5
  • 6. 6 Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC): are non-binding national plans highlighting climate actions, including climate related targets for greenhouse gas emission reductions, policies and measures governments aim to implement in response to climate change and as a contribution to achieve the global targets set out in the Paris Agreement. Net zero emission: means that all man-​made greenhouse gas emissions must be removed from the atmosphere through reduction measures, thus reducing the Earth’s net climate balance. Loss and Damage: process to refer to the harms caused by anthropogenic climate change
  • 8. 8
  • 9. Development Since Paris Climate Agreement 9
  • 11. Development Since Paris Climate Agreement Economic cost of loss and damage by 2030 would be between US$ 400 billion to US$ 580 billion a year in developing countries, and up to US$ 1.8 trillion by 2050 11
  • 13. 13
  • 14. Why COP26 was special 14 “This COP is keeping 1.5 alive about.” It marks the first five-year interval after Paris (technically six, because, you know)—a deadline for countries to demonstrate tangible progress and ratchet up climate ambitions.
  • 16. COP26: Important Agenda • Ensuring the commitments of major carbon emitting countries to limit carbon emission to keep global warming below 1.5 • Scaling up climate fund urgently to support climate vulnerable countries and fulfilling the USD 100 billion pledge • Ensuring the bigger share of climate fund towards adaptation • Finalising the Paris Rulebook to ensure the accountability • Establishing the mechanism for loss and damage 16
  • 18. Five dealmakers who will influence the outcome at COP26 Xie Zhenhua: China's man for all seasons Ayman Shasly: Saudi's resolute defender Alok Sharma: The Briton in the middle Sheikh Hasina: The voice of the vulnerable Teresa Ribera: Europe's bridge- builder 18
  • 19. Bangladesh at COP26 • 'Unesco-Bangladesh Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman International Prize for the Creative Economy’ • Bilateral meetings with British Prime Minister Boris Johnson, French President Emmanuel Macron, Australian Prime Minister Scott Morrison, UK’s Prince Charles • Joint meeting of the Climate Vulnerable Forum (CVF)-Commonwealth High Level Panel Discussion on Climate Prosperity Partnership • Meetings on "Action and Solidarity-the critical decade“ • Session on "Women and Climate Change" • Session on "Forging a CVF COP 26 Climate Emergency Pact“ • Scottish parliament event on "A Bangladesh Vision for Global Climate Prosperity" 19
  • 20. Bangladesh’s Four Point at COP • The major emitters must submit ambitious NDCs and implement those. • The developed countries should fulfil their commitments of providing 100 billion dollars annually with a 50:50 balance between adaptation and mitigation. • The developed countries should disseminate clean and green technology at affordable costs to the most vulnerable countries. "The development needs of the CVF countries also need to be considered.“ • Address the issue of loss and damage and global sharing of responsibility for climate migrants. 20
  • 21. Mujib Climate Prosperity Plan – a journey from climate vulnerability to resilience to climate prosperity Climate Emergency Pact 21
  • 23. Glasgow Climate Pact: At a Glance 23 I. Science and urgency II. Adaptation III. Adaptation finance IV. Mitigation V. Finance, technology transfer and capacity- building for mitigation and adaptation VI. Loss and damage VII. Implementation VIII. Collaboration
  • 24. Reactions • Alok Sharma, President of COP26 – "May I just say to all delegates I apologise for the way this process has unfolded and I am deeply sorry. I also understand the deep disappointment, but I think as you have noted, it's also vital that we protect this package." • Saleemul Huq, ICCCD – “As far as I am concerned, it is a failure.” 24
  • 25. Reactions • Fiji’s Prime Minister Frank Bainimarama – the 1.5C target leaves Glasgow “battered, bruised, but alive”. • Amnesty International reacts to Cop26 outcome – ““Leaders have catastrophically betrayed humanity at large by failing to protect people most affected by the climate crisis and instead caving into the interests of fossil fuel and other powerful corporations,” • US Climate Envoy John Kerry welcomed the agreement but said good compromises leave everyone slightly unsatisfied. 25
  • 26. Achievements of the Pact 26 Targeting fossil fuels and emission cuts Reaffirming Paris agreement Adaptation and Climate Finance Rules for global carbon markets Loss and Damage