Knowledge Management in the  Canadian Forest Service Albert Simard  Canadian Forest Service Presented to Interdepartmental...
An opening thought… <ul><li>“ Although all decisions we make are about the future, all our knowledge stems from the past” ...
OUTLINE <ul><li>Change </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge management </li></ul><ul><li>Business case  </li></ul><ul><li>Implement...
Knowledge Economy <ul><li>Success based on what you know; not what you own  </li></ul><ul><li>Value of goods based on know...
Wave of Change Early adaptors Majority adaptors Late adaptors High risk, cost & reward High risk & cost, low reward Low ri...
Leading Change <ul><li>Establish a sense of urgency </li></ul><ul><li>Create a guiding coalition </li></ul><ul><li>Develop...
Cost of Not Knowing (CONK) Research Managed knowledge Surprise Unmanaged knowledge Awareness Know Don’t know Reality Know ...
Consultant’s Report: “ There is no doubt that making no change in response to these findings would represent a risk of det...
CFS-KM: Governance  CFS Management Committee KM Division SKI Network KM Working Groups HQ Branches KM Steering Committee K...
CFS-KM: Vision Statement <ul><li>“ The Canadian Forest Service is recognized as the service of choice for authoritative, i...
Information Strategy: Use Information as Strategic Asset <ul><li>Where are we on the information value chain? </li></ul><u...
KM Communication: Goals <ul><li>Increase awareness of KM Program </li></ul><ul><li>Create a shared understanding of concep...
KM Communication: Messages <ul><li>Senior management  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organizational mandate, relevance </li></ul></...
OUTLINE <ul><li>Change </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge management </li></ul><ul><li>Business case  </li></ul><ul><li>Implement...
Knowledge 101 <ul><li>Data  - What are the Facts? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(observations and measurements) </li></ul></ul><ul...
Data, Information, and Knowledge Examples GIS-based maps Image Grey scale Digital library Digital documents Bits Expert co...
Knowledge Organization External Knowledge Sharing Creation Nature Internal Knowledge Management Preservation Lost Knowledg...
Knowledge Processes   Drivers (problems, issues, government) Organization (mandate, resources, culture) People (analyze, r...
Information Strategy IM and KM Information Technology  (infrastructure) Information Management  (organization, business) K...
Knowledge Management Goals <ul><li>Managing Knowledge   </li></ul><ul><li>Integrating Knowledge   </li></ul><ul><li>Sharin...
Knowledge Management: Linking Past, Present, & Future Capture   Preserve Share Integrate Learn Adapt Past Present Future I...
Knowledge Management: A Definition Developing organizational capacity and processes to capture, preserve, share, and integ...
OUTLINE <ul><li>Change </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge management </li></ul><ul><li>Business case   </li></ul><ul><li>Implemen...
CFS-KM Program: <ul><li>Committee established (May 1997) </li></ul><ul><li>Concept published (June 2000) </li></ul><ul><li...
CFS-KM: Business Lines <ul><li>Management   (lead, organize, integrate) </li></ul><ul><li>Production   People  (reasoning,...
CFS-KM: Benefits <ul><li>Clients </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Enhanced ability to apply CFS-created knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul>...
CFS-KM: Strengths and Challenges <ul><li>Strengths </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ability to take long-term view </li></ul></ul><ul...
CFS-KM: Four OPTIONS <ul><li>(1) Status Quo:  non-adaptive ; continue project-scale activities (current expenditures) </li...
Business Case: Conclusion <ul><li>The world is evolving to an knowledge economy.  </li></ul><ul><li>Patterns of successful...
OUTLINE <ul><li>Change </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge management </li></ul><ul><li>Business case   </li></ul><ul><li>Implemen...
CFS-KM Implementation: Principles <ul><li>Knowledge cannot be conscripted; it must be volunteered. </li></ul><ul><li>Decis...
CFS-KM Framework Scale Dimension Inventory assets Science synopsis Access policy  Communications … Ecosystems OnLine FireM...
CFS-KM Implementation:  Approach <ul><li>1.  Initial projects  (short-term) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Regional/Branch particip...
Total of 531 assets from 211 responses Source: Knowledge Asset survey
Briefing Note Database
Access to Knowledge Policy Desired general state Specific cost circumstances Specific restriction circumstances Specific c...
2.  Preserving CFS Knowledge <ul><li>Capture  - document, codify, digitize, enter </li></ul><ul><li>Organize  - classifica...
3. An Information Marketplace Supply (Providers) Demand (Users) Providers and users connect through an Information Market
Provider Face Global Disaster Information Network Provider Face Academia NGOs Private Sector   Public Sector Government  d...
User Face Global Disaster Information Network Public, educators, youth, seniors, media Policy advisors, decision makers,  ...
Disaster Information Market - Functionality <ul><li>How (technical) </li></ul><ul><li>Databases </li></ul><ul><li>Technolo...
KM Program: Evaluation <ul><li>Reporting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Quarterly: activities, accomplishments, issues </li></ul></...
The Way Ahead… <ul><li>External validation </li></ul><ul><li>Make it real  </li></ul><ul><li>Program Plan </li></ul><ul><l...
A final thought… “ Nothing in the world can take the place of persistence.  Talent will not; nothing is more common than u...
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Knowledge Management Program in the Canadian Forest Service

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Proposed CFS KnowledgeManagement Program: change management, knowledge management, business case, implementation strategy (2002); program documents available

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  • Today, I’d like to talk about knowledge management. I’ll use the development and establishment of a knowledge management program in the Canadian Forest Service as a case study.
  • Knowledge Management Program in the Canadian Forest Service

    1. 1. Knowledge Management in the Canadian Forest Service Albert Simard Canadian Forest Service Presented to Interdepartmental Knowledge Management Forum May 28, 2003 “ Connecting the Past, Present, and Future”
    2. 2. An opening thought… <ul><li>“ Although all decisions we make are about the future, all our knowledge stems from the past” </li></ul><ul><li>Ian Wilson (National Archivist of Canada) </li></ul><ul><li>Crossing Boundaries Conference (May 8, 2003) </li></ul>
    3. 3. OUTLINE <ul><li>Change </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge management </li></ul><ul><li>Business case </li></ul><ul><li>Implementation strategy </li></ul>
    4. 4. Knowledge Economy <ul><li>Success based on what you know; not what you own </li></ul><ul><li>Value of goods based on knowledge content </li></ul><ul><li>Creating and using knowledge is the key </li></ul><ul><li>Organizations must change or become irrelevant </li></ul>
    5. 5. Wave of Change Early adaptors Majority adaptors Late adaptors High risk, cost & reward High risk & cost, low reward Low risk, moderate cost & reward 2000 Jan 23, 1993 07:21:17
    6. 6. Leading Change <ul><li>Establish a sense of urgency </li></ul><ul><li>Create a guiding coalition </li></ul><ul><li>Develop a vision and strategy </li></ul><ul><li>Communicate the change vision </li></ul><ul><li>Empower broad-based action </li></ul><ul><li>Generate short-term wins </li></ul><ul><li>Consolidate gains and augment change </li></ul><ul><li>Anchor new approaches in the culture </li></ul>source: John Kotter (1996)
    7. 7. Cost of Not Knowing (CONK) Research Managed knowledge Surprise Unmanaged knowledge Awareness Know Don’t know Reality Know Don’t know World Wildlife Fund - Canada’s forests DFAIT – softwood lumber Reporter – mountain pine beetle Boreal forest briefing note Invasive species Access to Information Science & Technology Networks Synthesis of Knowledge & Information Network Fire management systems On-Line Bookstore Common Office Environment Plant hardiness zones
    8. 8. Consultant’s Report: “ There is no doubt that making no change in response to these findings would represent a risk of deteriorating relevancy and support across a range of audiences.”
    9. 9. CFS-KM: Governance CFS Management Committee KM Division SKI Network KM Working Groups HQ Branches KM Steering Committee KM Management Committee
    10. 10. CFS-KM: Vision Statement <ul><li>“ The Canadian Forest Service is recognized as the service of choice for authoritative, integrated, timely and useful data, information, and knowledge about Canada’s forests and the forest sector” </li></ul>
    11. 11. Information Strategy: Use Information as Strategic Asset <ul><li>Where are we on the information value chain? </li></ul><ul><li>Where do we want to be? </li></ul><ul><li>Where are the gaps? </li></ul><ul><li>What are we prepared to do? </li></ul>Coordinator Synthesizer Advocate Promoter Creator Isolated opinion Integrated targeted
    12. 12. KM Communication: Goals <ul><li>Increase awareness of KM Program </li></ul><ul><li>Create a shared understanding of concepts </li></ul><ul><li>Develop a consensus on need and direction </li></ul><ul><li>Promote buy-in and participation </li></ul><ul><li>Establish an ongoing feedback process </li></ul>
    13. 13. KM Communication: Messages <ul><li>Senior management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organizational mandate, relevance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Middle Management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organizational efficiency and effectiveness </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Knowledge workers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Participation , self-interest </li></ul></ul><ul><li>External </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Government, forestry, international </li></ul></ul>
    14. 14. OUTLINE <ul><li>Change </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge management </li></ul><ul><li>Business case </li></ul><ul><li>Implementation strategy </li></ul>
    15. 15. Knowledge 101 <ul><li>Data - What are the Facts? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(observations and measurements) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Information - What do they mean? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(interpretation within a context) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Knowledge - How does it work? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(relations between things, cause & effect) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Wisdom - What should I do? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(experience and judgment) </li></ul></ul>
    16. 16. Data, Information, and Knowledge Examples GIS-based maps Image Grey scale Digital library Digital documents Bits Expert consultation Voice Signal amplitude Scientific papers Text documents Letters, words Equations Tables, statistics Numbers Knowledge Information Data
    17. 17. Knowledge Organization External Knowledge Sharing Creation Nature Internal Knowledge Management Preservation Lost Knowledge Use
    18. 18. Knowledge Processes Drivers (problems, issues, government) Organization (mandate, resources, culture) People (analyze, reason, decide) Content (facts, meaning, understanding) Systems (information processes) Technology (computers, communication) Process Data Database Information Knowledge Application Search Production Stage Value
    19. 19. Information Strategy IM and KM Information Technology (infrastructure) Information Management (organization, business) Knowledge Management (products & services) Systems (processes)
    20. 20. Knowledge Management Goals <ul><li>Managing Knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Integrating Knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Sharing Knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Preserving Knowledge </li></ul>single organization: mandate, authority, resources similar organizations: culture, interests, context different organizations: general, few commonalities supports other KM goals Hierarchy Implementation
    21. 21. Knowledge Management: Linking Past, Present, & Future Capture Preserve Share Integrate Learn Adapt Past Present Future Infrastructure Content Processes
    22. 22. Knowledge Management: A Definition Developing organizational capacity and processes to capture, preserve, share, and integrate data, information, and knowledge to support organizational goals, learning, and adaptation.
    23. 23. OUTLINE <ul><li>Change </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge management </li></ul><ul><li>Business case </li></ul><ul><li>Implementation strategy </li></ul>
    24. 24. CFS-KM Program: <ul><li>Committee established (May 1997) </li></ul><ul><li>Concept published (June 2000) </li></ul><ul><li>Business Case (Nov 2001) </li></ul><ul><li>Implementation Strategy (Jan 2002) </li></ul><ul><li>Governance framework (Feb 2002) </li></ul><ul><li>Communications Plan (Apr 2002) </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation Plan (May 2002) </li></ul><ul><li>Management presentation (Aug 2002) </li></ul><ul><li>Link to CFS Strategic Plan (April 2003) </li></ul>How We Got Here
    25. 25. CFS-KM: Business Lines <ul><li>Management (lead, organize, integrate) </li></ul><ul><li>Production People (reasoning, adding value) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Creation (vertical, specific, problems, quantitative) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Synthesis (horizontal, general, issues, qualitative) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Products (applications, transformation, adaptation, users) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Structure Technology , Processes (integration ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Archiving (capture, storage, retrieval, preserve, metadata) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sharing (two-way, networks, richness, partners) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dissemination (one-way, gateways, reach, clients </li></ul></ul>
    26. 26. CFS-KM: Benefits <ul><li>Clients </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Enhanced ability to apply CFS-created knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improved stewardship of Canada’s forests </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased competitiveness of Canada’s forest sector </li></ul></ul><ul><li>CFS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased visibility of CFS as preferred source of knowledge on Canada’s forests. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Better co-ordination and reduced duplication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased capacity to produce knowledge products </li></ul></ul>
    27. 27. CFS-KM: Strengths and Challenges <ul><li>Strengths </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ability to take long-term view </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reputation as honest information broker </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>National and international coordinating role </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Challenges </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Culture of ownership vs. sharing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of directed resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of emphasis on knowledge products </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Perceived lack of senior management support </li></ul></ul>
    28. 28. CFS-KM: Four OPTIONS <ul><li>(1) Status Quo: non-adaptive ; continue project-scale activities (current expenditures) </li></ul><ul><li>(2) Function: reactive ; limited KM capacity, driven by external agendas ($1M/yr) </li></ul><ul><li>(3) Participate: active integration, negotiation, partnerships ($2-$3M/yr). </li></ul><ul><li>(4) Lead: proactive substantial commitments, positioning ($3-$4M/yr). </li></ul>
    29. 29. Business Case: Conclusion <ul><li>The world is evolving to an knowledge economy. </li></ul><ul><li>Patterns of successful transformation have emerged. </li></ul><ul><li>CFS is poised to move forward with a KM Program. </li></ul><ul><li>Requirements: adequate resources, management support, organizational buy-in. </li></ul><ul><li>Option 2 is the minimal level of initial strategic investment needed. </li></ul>
    30. 30. OUTLINE <ul><li>Change </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge management </li></ul><ul><li>Business case </li></ul><ul><li>Implementation strategy </li></ul>
    31. 31. CFS-KM Implementation: Principles <ul><li>Knowledge cannot be conscripted; it must be volunteered. </li></ul><ul><li>Decisions based on consensus; not direction. </li></ul><ul><li>Program goals directly support CFS mandate. </li></ul><ul><li>Management within existing CFS authorities, structures, and processes. </li></ul><ul><li>Think big; start small; early deliverables. </li></ul><ul><li>Close linkages to external KM programs. </li></ul>
    32. 32. CFS-KM Framework Scale Dimension Inventory assets Science synopsis Access policy Communications … Ecosystems OnLine FireM3 BN database S&T Cluster … NFIS-Secure channel CFSNet - design Project tracking … Project Preservation Sharing Dissemination Integration Synthesis Change Culture Monitoring CFS databases Info. repositories Decision support Reporting National Info. System CFS Info. System Management Info. Function KM Processes Content Infrastructure Strategic
    33. 33. CFS-KM Implementation: Approach <ul><li>1. Initial projects (short-term) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Regional/Branch participation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Span KM Business Lines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leverage activities, learn from success, early deliverables </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2. Preserving CFS knowledge (internal focus) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Recognized by scientists as important </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Precursor to enterprise-wide KM solution </li></ul></ul><ul><li>3. Forestry information market (external focus) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Essential to disseminating CFS content </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased visibility and relevance to Canadians </li></ul></ul>
    34. 34. Total of 531 assets from 211 responses Source: Knowledge Asset survey
    35. 35. Briefing Note Database
    36. 36. Access to Knowledge Policy Desired general state Specific cost circumstances Specific restriction circumstances Specific cost and restriction circumstances Goal of proposed policy Restricted Unrestricted Access None High Cost
    37. 37. 2. Preserving CFS Knowledge <ul><li>Capture - document, codify, digitize, enter </li></ul><ul><li>Organize - classification, thesauri, metadata </li></ul><ul><li>Store - libraries, repositories, data warehouses </li></ul><ul><li>Retrieve - browser, search engine, access </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain - security, integrity, access </li></ul><ul><li>Migrate - evolve technology </li></ul><ul><li>Manage - value, life cycle, capacity </li></ul>
    38. 38. 3. An Information Marketplace Supply (Providers) Demand (Users) Providers and users connect through an Information Market
    39. 39. Provider Face Global Disaster Information Network Provider Face Academia NGOs Private Sector Public Sector Government disaster organizations Universities, colleges, institutes, schools Disaster-related businesses Non-Government disaster organizations
    40. 40. User Face Global Disaster Information Network Public, educators, youth, seniors, media Policy advisors, decision makers, regulators User Face Public Practitioners Policy Makers Business Businesses for innovation and marketing Scientists, managers, professionals, specialists
    41. 41. Disaster Information Market - Functionality <ul><li>How (technical) </li></ul><ul><li>Databases </li></ul><ul><li>Technology </li></ul><ul><li>Scientific knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>What (subjects) </li></ul><ul><li>Type of disaster </li></ul><ul><li>Function </li></ul><ul><li>Libraries </li></ul><ul><li>Where (place) </li></ul><ul><li>Interactive maps </li></ul><ul><li>Place names </li></ul><ul><li>Latitude & longitude </li></ul><ul><li>Who (directories) </li></ul><ul><li>Organizations </li></ul><ul><li>Experts </li></ul><ul><li>Products & Services </li></ul><ul><li>When (time) </li></ul><ul><li>Events & meetings </li></ul><ul><li>Schedules </li></ul><ul><li>Time series </li></ul><ul><li>Why (about) </li></ul><ul><li>General </li></ul><ul><li>GDIN </li></ul><ul><li>Management </li></ul>
    42. 42. KM Program: Evaluation <ul><li>Reporting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Quarterly: activities, accomplishments, issues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Annual: expenses/budgets, performance/targets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Final: summary, evaluation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Criteria & indicators </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Efficiency: project management, meeting targets, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Effectiveness: productivity, enabling, learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Impact: visibility, reach, richness </li></ul></ul>
    43. 43. The Way Ahead… <ul><li>External validation </li></ul><ul><li>Make it real </li></ul><ul><li>Program Plan </li></ul><ul><li>Program establishment </li></ul><ul><li>KM Day(s) </li></ul><ul><li>CFS-KM workshop </li></ul><ul><li>Project establishment </li></ul>
    44. 44. A final thought… “ Nothing in the world can take the place of persistence. Talent will not; nothing is more common than unsuccessful men with talent. Genius will not; unrewarded genius is almost a proverb. Education alone will not; the world is full of educated derelicts. Persistence and determination alone are omnipotent” Calvin Coolidge (1872-1933)
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