RDA Background


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What's been happening in the world of cataloguing and educational metadata? 2013 saw the introduction of a new cataloguing standard known as Resource Description and Access (RDA) to replace AACR2. This webinar provides an overview of cataloguing changes for school library staff.

Why a new cataloguing standard?
The concepts underpinning RDA
The implication for resource discovery in schools
Impacts on Library Management Systems

The presentation is relevant for all school staff, whether they are trained as cataloguers or not, and will assist library staff understand the catalogue records they receive from SCIS.

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  • What's been happening in the world of cataloguing and educational metadata? 2013 saw the introduction of a new cataloguing standard known as Resource Description and Access (RDA) to replace AACR2. This webinar provides an overview of cataloguing changes for school library staff.
  • Introduce session scope: not how to catalogue in RDA – that is a 2-3 day course, but an overview of:What is RDA?What problems does RDA solve?What are the basic differences between AACR2 and RDA?What is SCIS doing about RDA?And the question most of you are here for: What do I need to do about RDA?The presentation is relevant for all school staff, whether they are trained as cataloguers or not, and will assist library staff understand the catalogue records they receive from SCIS.
  • Why standards?
  • People sometimes complain about standards as being too much work, over the top, don’t need to know about.But while for schools SCIS looks after cataloguing standards so library staff don’t need to worry too much about them, that doesn’t mean they are not important.Consistent displayComprehensive searches: author, series, title, uniform title, call numberChanging library systemFederated search across systemstranslation
  • Metadata standards aren’t as easy to visualise as the track standards drawing for the railway lines in the diagram on the previous slide.
  • Resource Description and Access (RDA)2 big things to note:RDA is a Content standard:Format neutral: RDA is not organised according to format; it gives greater emphasis to intellectual content than physical format.
  • AACR2AACR2 was introduced in 1978. At this time, card catalogues were still dominant as ‘Automated’ catalogues were still in development. Australia’s ABN network (the pre-cursor to the National Bibliographic Database available through Libraries Australia) was still two years away. Library collections were mainly print based. By the mid-1990s it was clear that there were significant issues with AACR2 and there were increasing calls for fundamental revisions to the standard. AACR3 to RDAIn 2004 the work began on a new edition of AACR2 – initially called AACR3. The revision gave greater emphasis to content rather than format. However it became clear that keeping the AACR structure could not fully address challenges posed by digital materials.In 2005 AACR3 was abandoned in favour of a completely new structure - based on a new theoretical model called FRBR.To reflect this change in approach it was given a new name – Resource Description and Access.RDARDA has been developed by the Joint Steering Committee for the Development of RDA, which consists of representatives from US, UK, Australia and Canada. This is the same body that was responsible for developing and maintaining AACR2. RDA was published in June 2010, and then underwent extensive testing in the US. Many libraries, including the National Library of Australia, the Library of Congress and the national libraries of Britain and Canada implemented RDA in March 2013. The ACOC site has a list of Australian libraries that have completed their RDA implementation.
  • The Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules were first published in 1967. The very poor quality photo here is of a well-used/(loved?) copy of the Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules Second edition known as AACR2 - originally brought out in 1978.As we have discussed, plenty has changed since then, and the new standards are trying to address some of the identified issues for areas that AACR2 is not addressing successfully any longer in the 21st century.Just being old is not the issue, there are 4 significant issues with AACR2 that are being addressed by RDA.RDA is made for the automated library universe – no longer constrained by the size of a catalogue card.RDA is made for machine-readable catalogue data – no longer do we humans spend time copying catalogue records. We do things once and let the machines do the laborious work of populating our catalogue while we get on with the things humans do best: communicating with the humans we serve in our libraries.RDA starts with the CONTENT of a resource NOT with the Format or the CONTAINER. AACR2 started with a set of General Rules for Description, then launched into sections on cataloguing Books and then other formats, eg Maps, Music etc. Fitting in new formats as they came along became increasingly difficult.RDA is made for the web – and it is published on the web.
  • There are many elements that come together to realise the full cataloguing workflow.RDA changes only some elements. Nothing is changing in Dewey or subject classification, and neither is SCIS implementing all the possible changes associated with full RDA implementation at this stage. The MARC21 encoding system that allows systems to transmit electronic catalogue records is changing only to the extent required to implement RDA. But bigger changes are being discussed, ieBibframeThe Library of Congress has launched a review of the bibliographic framework to better accommodate future needs. A major focus of the initiative will be to determine a transition path for the MARC 21 exchange format in order to reap the benefits of newer technology while preserving a robust data exchange that has supported resource sharing and cataloguing cost savings in recent decades.
  • Another way of showing this. Only the top part of the catalogue record as it displays in the SCIS Catalogue will change, that is the descriptive part of the record, not the subject classification or Dewey classification.This record is at: http://opac.scis.curriculum.edu.au/vwebv/holdingsInfo?bibId=1557095
  • This is what a catalogue record looks like in the cataloguer’s view – working in MARC view. Most school library management systems do not require users to be familiar or work in MARC, although your data must remain compatible with MARC. However RDA’s element structure is designed so that data can be encoded in other formats.The red parts show the major differences that RDA will mean for cataloguers in general.Not all of these RDA elements will be used by SCIS. For example SCIS does not add dates to author access points, nor does it record more than one place of publication. SCIS will not record the copyright date of a resource.The slide shows a relationship designator for Shakespeare as the author of the work. SCIS is not planning to use relationship designators at this stage.There will be changes to how the place of publication and publisher are recorded. Note also the new fields for content type, media type and carrier type, which will replace the GMD (General Material Designation). More about these later.
  • RDA has core and non-core elements. The core elements are those elements that RDA considers to be “core”, in order to fulfil the most basic of the user tasks defined in FRBR. RDA states that “as a minimum” a resource description should contain all the Core elements that are applicable to that resource or entity and readily ascertainable. Other, non-core elements can be added if they are required in particular situations to assist in performing the basic user tasks.
  • Institutional policy decisions on Core elementsSome institutions may identify additional elements, beyond the RDA Core elements that they consider mandatory for their cataloguers to include. The Library of Congress has already done this and they are included in the LC-PCC PS.Records contributed to Libraries Australia will be required to meet the minimum record standard (required data elements) available on the Libraries Australia website.The core elements for SCIS records will have been defined in the SCIS Standards for Cataloguing and Data Entry.The following slides discuss the major changes that SCIS will or will not be making.
  • The biggest issue we see for school libraries in the short term is that RDA does not use the General Material Designation [GMD] – currently included as part of the Title (245 MARC field)This is the current list of General Material Designation terms from the SCIS standards.As a discussion, what GMD should you use for:A map on CD-ROM? A movie?Printed text?The type of material being catalogued was a primary consideration in 1978 but many of these material types are no longer standard in school collections, and in some cases these terms are too general to accurately describe the range of resources being catalogued today. While there is some benefit in seeing early on in the record that this is a [videorecording] or a [sound recording] version of a particular title, there is usually a need to go deeper into a record to determine whether that videorecording is in a format that is convenient to the user. Is it a DVD or MPEG file? Is that [electronic resource] a CD-ROM or an app (and for which brand of device)?
  • Carrier for digital photograph could be computer card, computer disc or online resourceCarrier for audio book could be audio cassette, audio disc or online resource.The carrier terminology still does not deal well with resources such as downloadable audiobooks.
  • RDA seeks to address these issues by replacing GMD with three elements, each with a detailed list of terms. The controlled lists for these elements are available from the MARC value lists (via the MARC description of each of the fields), as well as within the RDA toolkit (which is a subscription product).
  • There is a value list for these new fields at: http://www.loc.gov/standards/valuelist/index.htmlThey are repeatable fields, unlike GMD.Many library systems will not display these new fields, but they may use them to filter searches or display icon types in results lists.
  • Some library systems report that they may use other information besides GMD to determine the icon displayed in catalogue records but for other systems that may not be able to display the new replacement fields.
  • This shows how one library system looked when experimenting with new SCIS test RDA records – attempting to ‘map’ the new RDA Media type to the old GMD.For most libraries it seems unlikely that users will want to view this information – particularly for works with the media type of unmediated.There is some more work to be done in this area before July 2014.
  • Two areas beyond description that will affect schools is the change to the access points for parts of the Bible, and the spelling of Qur’an.Access point in RDA,is the broader term to cover all terms that are used to represent entities in what we have often referred to up until now as “headings”. In the context of RDA access points represent names, terms, codes, etc. used to represent works and expressions. These roughly equate to what we have been used to calling “Uniform titles” in AACR2, and we construct the access point using the preferred title of the work, and where applicable, preceding that with the authorised access point for the person, family or corporate body responsible for the work.
  • Another access point example where abbreviations changes things is with Bible Headings, where O.T and N.T. are now spelt out. However, another changemeans that the Testament will only be included in the heading when the resource is the WHOLE of the stipulated Testament. Individual books will be recorded directly under “Bible” rather than as a subset of one of the Testaments.
  • We have discussed this field with library system providers and asked them to indicate their readiness for SCIS switching from 260 to 264.The reason RDA has introduced this change is to partly to accommodate the need to put multiple dates in the bibliographic record, to distinguish between publication date, copyright date etc. This is important to many libraries, particularly collecting organisations but is less relevant to most school libraries. SCIS could decide not to change, but our goal is to adhere to standards wherever possible, and as we don’t know what else this might affect in future technologies and data transfers we would like to change when library systems are ready.
  • Some screenshots follow. Mostly you will notice how little change you notice – and your users may well notice nothing in this first stage.Under the hood changes first to set up bigger things as the developers and library systems start doing more adventurous things – and changing the library catalogue from its uncanny resemblance to a catalogue card layout.
  • These test records are available for downloading – library system vendors and trainers at this stage, but eventually useful for library staff testing.Link to blog and show that test records are now available in two formats. The version in your handouts is the pure RDA record. The blog links are to SCIS OPAC view.
  • This is what the SCIS cataloguer sees in MARC view when creating RDA records
  • How this translates to the MARC View in SCIS OPAC
  • Which of these versions of Desire the album by Bob Dylan is the RDA record?#1 has no GMD of [sound recording]. How do you tell it is a sound recording?
  • The issue here is that even though we saw in the MARC View that this has been catalogued as an RDA test record you cannot see these additional fields in the SCIS OPAC because it has not yet been configured to display these fields.So, it is not just the catalogue record DATA that must be changed, but everywhere that data needs to be displayed.
  • Hopefully it won’t look like this. Can you identify the issues with this RDA test record in a test version of Oliver?Book icon for a music sound recording – obviously something is not mapped properly here. Don’t know at first glance whether this is an issue with the MARC record from SCIS, or with Oliver not being ready to receive this type of data from SCIS, or something wrong in the local configuration of this particular Oliver instance.Needs more research.Also note – no publication/production detail – ie 264 not coming acrossContent type, carrier type and media type not displaying – may be a conscious decision. Certainly many libraries not making them searchable.Needs more research. This is the type of testing library systems will be doing, and which you will want to do in your own catalogues with some test records.Things to check when importing RDA test records:What collection icon is returned for this music sound recording record now there is no GMD? If it is not as you expect then check:a. the mapping of the MARC record from SCISb. whether your library system is ready to receive this type of data from SCISc. the local configuration of this particular library system’s media typesIs publication/production detail displaying – ie is the new 264 field coming into your systemAre the new fields for Content type, carrier type and media type displaying (you may decide not to display them). Certainly many libraries are not making them searchable.Are you losing any data because fields are not long enough to display the full content?
  • RDA is a resource for the online world – the rules are produced as an online toolkitPurchase through http://www.rdatoolkit.org/ http://access.rdatoolkit.orgIf your school currently has and uses a copy of AACR2 regularly then you will probably want to organise a subscription. Otherwise you can use SCIS as your cataloguing authority, and ask us questions as they arise via the scisinfo@esa.edu.au email contact, or the website form at the bottom of every page of the SCIS website.
  • The full-text print version of RDA offers an offline access point to help solo and part-time cataloguers evaluate and use RDA. It can also support training and classroom use. An index is included. The online RDA Toolkit is the preferred option for using the Toolkit as it will always be the most up to date, and also offers access to companion tools such as LC and JSC Policy Decisions, the full text of AACR2, Mapping to MARC and user workflows.
  • http://scis.edublogs.org/tag/scis-asks
  • RDA Background

    1. 1. RDA BACKGROUND Introduction for school library staff Pru Mitchell, SCIS Manager 5 February 2014
    2. 2. Outline 1. Why a new cataloguing standard? 2. The implication of changes for schools 3. RDA in school systems 4. The concepts underpinning RDA 5. Questions
    3. 3. Why standards? Menkov, Vladimir 2008 'Wallaroo dual gauge railway', Wikimedia Commons, Licensed CC-by-sa
    4. 4. Interoperability consistency – comprehensivity federation – migration - translation Tabletop, 2009 ‘Triple Gauge in Australia’‘ Wikimedia Commons, Licensed CC-by-sa
    5. 5. Metadata standards SCIS 2014 ‘Barcode mat‘ Flickr, Licensed CC-by-nc
    6. 6. What is RDA?
    7. 7. History of RDA  Late 1990s – future of AACR2?  2004 – AACR3 draft  2005 – Decision to develop RDA  2010 – RDA published  2010/11 – RDA testing  2013 – RDA implementation
    8. 8. What’s wrong with AACR2?  new and shiny in 1978  intended for card catalogues  intended to be read by humans  organised by format of resources  not web-friendly
    9. 9. What will RDA change? Cataloguing element Description (AACR2) ISBD Changed 2013 Notes RDA SCIS 1 July 2013 Stage 2 2014 Punctuation Some changes, not all RDA Classification (Dewey) X Subject authorities (SCIS) X Future work for RDA Name authorities (SCIS) X SCIS standards not changing New RDA fields Bibframe in conceptual stage ? Check with/test your system MARC21 Library system/OPAC
    10. 10. ISBN 9780734412249 Tom the outback mailman / written by Kristin Weidenbach ; illustrated by Timothy Ide Example record Title Main author Weidenbach , Kristin Contributor s Ide, Timothy Publisher Sydney : Hachette Australia, 2013 Description 32 p. : col. ill. Subjects Postal services – Australia - Biography. scisshl Outback life - Biography. scisshl Australian stories. scisshl Birdsville Track (S. Aust. and Qld.) scisshl Rural areas. scot Biographies. scot Call nos. 383 KRU a15 383.492 KRU 23 Image used by permission
    11. 11. Key differences from AACR2 100 1 $a Shakespeare, William, $d 1564-1616,$e author 245 10 $a Romeo and Juliet /$c by William Shakespeare. 250 $a Green room edition. 264 1 $a New York ; $a Boston :$b H.M. Caldwell Company,$c [1900] 264 4 $c ©1900 300 $a 1 online resource. 336 $a text $2 rdacontent 337 $a computer $2 rdamedia 338 $a online resource $2 rdacarrier
    12. 12. RDA Core elements
    13. 13. Institutional policy on core elements Updated for RDA May-June 2013 Further transition July 2014 esa.edu.au/scis/help.html
    14. 14. Grappling with the GMD The castle [videorecording] Tech tools [kit] Romeo and Juliet [electronic resource] activity card art original art reproduction braille chart diorama electronic resource filmstrip flash card game globe kit manuscript map microform microscope slide model motion picture music picture realia slide sound recording technical drawing toy transparency videorecording
    15. 15. RDA provides better coverage of resource types From Renate Beilharz SCIS Asks 2012
    16. 16. Content, Media, Carrier types Material Content type Media type Carrier type book with text and pictures text; still image unmediated volume digital photograph still image computer computer disc? online resource? sheet music notated music unmediated volume globe cartographic threedimensional form unmediated object audio book spoken word audio audio disc? online resource? RDA toolkit text computer online resource
    17. 17. Types 336 Content Type http://www.loc.gov/marc/bibliographic/bd336.html 337 Media Type http://www.loc.gov/marc/bibliographic/bd337.html 338 Carrier Type http://www.loc.gov/marc/bibliographic/bd338.html Descriptors to be taken from the RDA controlled lists
    18. 18. Coding Content, Media, Carrier types 245 04 $a The castle 300 ## $a 1 DVD 336 # # $a two-dimensional moving image $2 rdacontent 337 # # $a video $2 rdamedia 338 # # $a videodisc $2 rdacarrier www.loc.gov/standards/valuelist/index.html
    19. 19. Phasing out the GMD SCIS will phase out GMD in records (July 2014) Library systems may strip the GMD map media type to GMD use collection types
    20. 20. Mapping GMD?
    21. 21. Access points / Uniform titles SCIS has made global change Delivered in SCIS Authority Files release 1, 2014 Parts of the Bible Redgrave, George 2013 ‘Bible Bookmark‘ Licensed CC-by-nd Qur’an (from Koran)
    22. 22. Parts of the Bible Source: Changes from AACR2 to RDA: A comparison of examples / Adam L. Schiff
    23. 23. New MARC field for publication information 264 Production, Publication, Distribution, Manufacture, and Copyright Notice www.loc.gov/marc/bibliographic/bd264.html Example: 264 #1 $a New York ;$a Boston :$b H.M. Caldwell Company, $c [1900] 264 #4 $c ©1900 SCIS will delay using 264 until library systems are ready
    24. 24. Abbreviations and field lengths SCIS follows RDA guideline that bibliographic information is to be recorded without abbreviations unless they appear on the item 250 $a Second edition 260 $a Washington, District of Columbia 300 $a 44 pages : $b colour illustrations Library systems may need to allow for an increased number of characters in some fields
    25. 25. What will RDA look like?  in cataloguing module  in MARC view  in SCIS Catalogue  in school library systems  in the ideal world
    26. 26. SCIS RDA test records Tests SCIS no Title 1607780 The call of the wild / 1588970 Desire / sound recording on CD 1588961 Eraserhead / video recording on DVD 1585707 Saint Paul's letters to the Corinthians in the Revised Standard Version and New Vulgate / 1581096 100 healthy desserts : delicious recipes for healthy living / scis.edublogs.org/tag/rda/ online audiobook with multiple 007 book e-book
    27. 27. SCIS cataloguing module
    28. 28. What does RDA look like in MARC view?
    29. 29. What does RDA look like in SCIS OPAC?
    30. 30. Full item record in SCIS OPAC
    31. 31. What does RDA look like in your OPAC?
    32. 32. RDA toolkit rdatoolkit.org Screen image from the RDA Toolkit used by permission of the Co-Publishers for RDA (American Library Association, Canadian Library Association and CILIP: Chartered Institute of Library and Information Professionals)
    33. 33. RDA options • RDA Toolkit http://www.rdatoolkit.org • Cataloger’s Desktop (Library of Congress) http://www.loc.gov/cds/desktop • Print version (Facet Publishing UK) http://www.facetpublishing.co.uk
    34. 34. SCIS implementation  SCIS started cataloguing with RDA on 1 July 2013 but will retain GMD while systems change  There is no plan for retrospective change of existing records (except parts of Bible and Qur’an)  Library systems will manage both AACR2 and RDA records
    35. 35. Getting data out of the library • RDA emphasises the importance of relationships • RDA adds precision to access points • RDA provides greater internationalisation • RDA builds a display of results that conveys meaningful information to the user
    36. 36. Acknowledgements  Leonie Bourke, SCIS RDA consultant  Renate Beilharz and Judy O’Connell presentation slides used at the SCIS asks consultation in December 2012  National Library of Australia training materials  RDA logos used by permission of the Co-Publishers for RDA (American Library Association, Canadian Library Association, and CILIP: Chartered Institute of Library and Information Professionals)  Screen images from the RDA Toolkit www.rdatoolkit.org used by permission of the Co-Publishers for RDA
    37. 37. Questions, discussion and resources Training • • SCIS professional learning programme www.esa.edu.au/scis/professional_learning.html RDA training page National Library of Australia www.nla.gov.au/acoc/training-courses-and-seminars-in-australia Further resources • • • SCIS blog posts tagged RDA scis.edublogs.org/tag/rda Australian RDA information and training materials www.nla.gov.au/acoc/resource-description-and-access-rda-inaustralia Labore, L 2012, RDA for the non-cataloger www.library.illinois.edu/cam/rda/files/RDA_for_the_NonCataloger.pdf
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