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Early Warnings


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Of interest to library catalogers. Deals with the GMC to CMC switch.

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Early Warnings

  2. 2. PRE AACR2 • Separate collections1 • 1952 Library of Congress committees inconsistencies… Picture: Title Motion picture or filmstrip: Title (Motion picture) or Title (Filmstrip) Phonorecords: Uniform title phonodisc or Title [phonotape] • Color coding and Call numbers.2
  3. 3. AACR2 STANDARDIZATION • 1974-1978: National Library of Canada & Library of Congress3 • Early warning sign • Practical, not theoretical • Medium specificity • Understandable to users • Media Designations -> General Material Designations (GMDs!)
  4. 4. UPDATES • computer software vs. machine-readable data file4 • Added: art reproduction, braille, toy • Changed: electronic resource • Combined: map and globe -> cartographic material
  5. 5. GMDS USED IN THE UNITED STATES BY 20015 activity card game realia art original kit serial art reproduction large print slide braille manuscript sound recording cartographic material microform technical drawing chart microscope slide text diorama model toy electronic resource motion picture transparency filmstrip music videorecording flash card picture (large print)/(tactile)/(braille)
  6. 6. PERSISTENT TROUBLES • electronic resource vs. game6 • Multimedia: Multiple types of content on one carrier7 • Alternative Formats: Multiple types of carriers for one content “With the increasing volume of alternative formats, the tension between content and carrier was no longer a philosophical question, but a question that confronted cataloguers daily.”8
  7. 7. CUSTOM WARNINGS • Misplaced Holds in Westchester County9 • Local GMDs: DVD, web site, CD Audiobook Before sound recording videorecording videorecording sound recording After Large Print Audiobook DVD Video CD Audiobook 10
  8. 8. A NEW FOUNDATION “Attempts to resolve the multiple formats issue within the AACR2 framework were unsuccessful and eventually led to the deconstruction of AACR2 and the development of RDA. The key to understanding RDA is the fact that it is built upon the conceptual framework expressed in the model known as FRBR.”11
  9. 9. FRBR-IZED Carrier Content Expression Work Manifestation Bloody Jack by L.A. Meyer text paperback preloaded playerBraille volume audio performance by Katherine Kellgren compact disc
  10. 10. FRBR TO RDA: STANDARD BOOK Expression Manifestation Content Media Carrier text unmediated volume
  11. 11. FRBR TO RDA: BRAILLE BOOK Expression Manifestation Content Media Carrier tactile text unmediated volume
  12. 12. FRBR TO RDA: AUDIOBOOK ON CD Expression Manifestation Content Media Carrier spoken word audio audiodisc
  13. 13. FRBR TO RDA: AUDIOBOOK ON CASSETTE TAPE Expression Manifestation Content Media Carrier spoken word audio audiocassette
  14. 14. WHAT TO DISPLAY TO USERS? “A missed opportunity in RDA was the potential rejigging of GMD into something more user friendly - instead, we end up with just the opposite, its removal and replacement with a clutter of significantly less user-friendly codified record cloggers (the 330s).”12 “We plan to just delete the 336-338 fields. They will do nothing but confuse our patrons.”13
  15. 15. OPTION: CARRIER/CONTENT DIRECTLY DISPLAYED standard book volume/text Braille book volume/tactile text audiobook on CD audiodisc/spoken word audiobook on cassette tape audiocassette/spoken word
  16. 16. OPTION: SYNTHESIZED TERMS (OR ICONS) volume/text Book volume/tactile text Braille Book volume/still image,text Graphic Novel audiodisc/spoken word CD Audiobook audiocassette/spoken word Book on Tape videodisc/two-dimensional moving image ?
  17. 17. FUZZY MAPS: DVD & BLU-RAY Content Type Media Carrier two-dimensional moving image video videodisc
  18. 18. FUZZY MAPS: PLAYAWAYS Content Type Media Carrier spoken word audio …or unmediated? other …or object …or a local term?14
  19. 19. MIXED UP MAPS: TEXTBOOK WITH MULTI- MEDIA CD Content Type Media Carrier still image, text, cartographic image, computer program unmediated, computer volume, computer disc
  20. 20. THE STATE OF THE WARNING • Early warnings prevalent, but not fully standard warnings. • CMC fields did separate content and carrier. • Specificity issues remain. • Synthesis issues remain. • BIBFRAME on the horizon. More might be expected from CMC fields.
  21. 21. FOOTNOTES 1. Weihs & Howarth p. 4 2. Weihs & Howarth p. 5 3. Weihs & Howarth p. 6 4. Weihs & Howarth p. 7 5. 6. Weihs & Howarth p. 8-9 7. Library and Archives Canada p. 6
  22. 22. FOOTNOTES 8. Library and Archives Canada p. 9 9. Chung p. 320 10. Chung p. 323 11. Library and Archives Canada p. ii 12. Kelleher 13. Lamantia 14. Library of Congress p. 25; Withrow; Online Audiovisual Catalogers p. 1
  23. 23. REFERENCES • Chung, H.H. (2001). User-friendly audiovisual material cataloging at Westchester County Public Library System. Cataloging & Classification Quarterly, 31(3-4), 313-325. • Kelleher, M. (2012, October 23). Additional work required by RDA. Posted to RDA-L list. Retrieved from • Lamantia, K.F. (2012, April 20). [Comment to blogpost: On form/format/media/content/carrier and RDA.] Bibliographic Wilderness. Retrieved April 12, 20014 from: • Library and Archives Canada. Initiative for Equitable Library Access. (March 2009). FRBR and RDA: Advances in resource description for multiple format resources. Retrieved from:
  24. 24. REFERENCES • Library of Congress. Cooperative and Instructional Programs Division. (2012). Module 2: Describing carriers and identifying works. In LC training for RDA: Resource Description and Access. Retrieved from: ersandWorksSept12.ppt • Online Audiovisual Catalogers. (2009, March). Playaways and RDA. Retrieved from: • Weihs, J., & Howarth, L.C. (2008). Designating materials: From “germane terms” to element types. Cataloging & Classification Quarterly, 45(4), 3-24. • Withrow, P. (2013, March 15). eBooks & Playaways. Posted to RDA-L list. Retrieved from: