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Introducing RDA: June 2013


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Introducing RDA: June 2013

  1. 1. Introducing RDAJune 13th, 2013Chris OliverMcGill Universitychris.oliver@mcgill.ca1
  2. 2. What is RDA?RDA = Resource Description and Access• new metadata standard replaces AACR2• set of practical instructionsobjectives:• to record better metadata to support better resourcediscovery• to record data that can be used in the web and linked dataenvironment2
  3. 3. Plannot a training sessionaim: overview of RDAunderstand some of the background and the keyconcepts --- to make training sessions easier1. RDA implementation2. key concepts and their visible impact on RDAa) theoretical frameworkb) objectives and principlesc) focus on the userd) content standarde) bibliographic information as data3
  4. 4. 1. RDA implementation4
  5. 5. AACR2 successful standard adopted by many countries in use for many yearsbutproblems with AACR2for example:• written for card catalogues• inadequate rules to describe new types of resources• inconsistencies• library specific5
  6. 6. Timeline1997 problems identified:International Conference on the Principles &Future Development of AACR, Toronto, Ontario1998-2004 revisions to AACR22004 AACR32005 new standard: Resource Description and Access2009 RDA text completed2010 RDA text + software – standard is a web tool2010-2013 laying the groundwork for implementation6
  7. 7. U.S. testing of RDAOctober 1st, 2010• US test begins• RDA records start to appear in OCLC• the other author countries – Australia, Canada and GreatBritain – delay implementation while U.S. completed its testingprocessJanuary 1st, 2011• all testers supposed to return to using AACR2but• some decide to continue using RDA7
  8. 8. Implementation dates announcedMarch 2012:Library of CongressLC’s official implementation date: March 31, 2013Program for Cooperative CatalogingDay 1 for the NACO Authority File: March 31, 20138
  9. 9. Implementation dates announcedother national libraries also implementing in 2013:National Agricultural LibraryNational Library of MedicineBritish LibraryLibrary and Archives CanadaNational Library of AustraliaDeutsche Nationalbibliothekand more: National Library of New ZealandNational Library of the Philippines...9
  10. 10. Interest in RDA• translation projects: German completedFrench completedSpanishChinese (Mandarin)Who is interested in implementing RDA?• libraries that used AACR2• national libraries in countries that had their owndescriptive standards10
  11. 11. What happened on March 31, 2013?• all new authority records contributed to LC/NACO authority file= RDA• all records coded pcc = all RDA access pointsall records coded pcc whether:• RDA descriptionor• AACR2 description• LC completed training for all its cataloging staff and all LCrecords are only RDA records11
  12. 12. Did I miss implementation?1) day 1 is important for a sharing data environment:PCC: declares day 1 for contributing to NACO authoritiesLC: declares day 1 for its own cataloguing operations2) some institutions never switched back after the test3) each institution decides on day 1 for its original bibliographicdata12
  13. 13. March 31, 2013 onwards• landscape is now changing quickly• rapid rise in number of RDA bibliographic records• changes in NACO authority fileimplications if use NACO authority recordsimplications for copy cataloging• different institutions will make the transition at differentspeeds13
  14. 14. Transition in phasesPhase 1: emphasis on continuityRDA data in MARC 21RDA and AACR records in one cataloguestill use bibliographic and authority recordssome new fieldssome changed instructionssome new instructionsBUT>>> thinking about bibliographic information differently14
  15. 15. Phase 1 = starting down new trackRDA• moves us to a new track• starts us on a promisingtrack for the future use ofour metadata• what we see in 2013 is onlythe beginning15
  16. 16. 2. Key concepts in RDA16
  17. 17. AACR2 RDA• continue to record the title• continue to record the statement of responsibility• continue to record the date of publicationBut …• new vocabulary• new way of thinking about how we do these steps17
  18. 18. Similar, but ...AACR21.2B1. Transcribe the edition statement as found on the item.Use abbreviations as instructed in appendix B and numerals asinstructed in appendix C.RDA2.5.1.4. Transcribe an edition statement as it appears on thesource of information.No instruction to abbreviate or to convert to arabicnumerals.18
  19. 19. Similar, but ...• serious adherence to the principle of representation“take what you see”t.p. data recorded3rd ed. 3rd ed.Second edition Second edition19
  20. 20. Familiarity with key RDA concepts• many of the changes trace back to the key concepts• a useful way to grab hold of RDA• a useful way to approach RDA implementation20
  21. 21. 2. Key concepts in RDAa) theoretical framework21
  22. 22. RDA’s theoretical framework• aligned with the FRBR and FRAD conceptual modelsFRBR Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records1998FRAD Functional Requirements for Authority Data2009FRAD is an extension of the FRBR model• both models developed under the auspices of IFLA• broad base of international consensus and support22
  23. 23. The two models• widely used data modeling technique:entity relationship model• entities• attributes• relationships• analyze bibliographic and authority data from the point of viewof how that data is used23
  24. 24. RDA vocabulary from FRBR + FRAD• user tasks• meaning and scope of the 11 bibliographic entitieswork person conceptexpression family objectmanifestation corporate body eventitem place• entities – attributes – relationships24
  25. 25. Organization and Structure of RDARDA table of contents reflects alignment with FRBRSection 1-4 = Recording attributesSection 1. Recording attributes of manifestation and itemSection 2. Recording attributes of work and expressionSection 3. Recording attributes of person, family, and corporatebodySection 4. Recording attributes of concept, object, event, andplace [placeholder]25
  26. 26. Organization and Structure of RDASections 5-10 = Recording RelationshipsSection 5. Recording primary relationships between work,expression, manifestation, and itemSection 6. Recording relationships to persons, families, andcorporate bodies associated with a resourceSection 7. Recording subject relationships [placeholder]Section 8. Recording relationships between works, expressions,manifestations, and itemsSection 9. Recording relationships between persons, families,and corporate bodiesSection 10. Recording relationships between concepts, objects,events, and places [placeholder]26
  27. 27. User tasks from FRBR + FRADBibliographic data• find• identify• select• obtainAuthority data• find• identify• clarify (contextualize)• understand (justify)27
  28. 28. Attributes• how to record the attributes of entities (characteristics)for example, entity = a manifestationattributes we record: title properstatement of responsibilityedition statementplace of publicationetc.28
  29. 29. Relationships: links between entitieswork created by personitem owned by familymanifestation produced by corporate bodywork based on workmanifestation electronic reproduction manifestationperson member of familyfamily founded corporate body29
  30. 30. Relationships in RDA1. record relationship2. specify exact nature of the relationshipfor exampleAACR2 name of a person ------- title of book• type of relationship may be embedded in text of description• bibliographic record contains name of person and titleRDA name of a person --- type of relationship --- work• make the relationship explicit and clear• relationship designators = controlled vocabulary30
  31. 31. Relationship designators• specify rolesfor example cartographerperformerbroadcasterformer ownerissuing body• specify the nature of the relationshipfor example adaptation ofparaphrased aselectronic reproduction of31
  32. 32. Relationships in RDAexamples with MARC 21 coding:245 10 $a British Atlantic, American frontier : $b spaces of power inearly modern British America / $c Stephen J. Hornsby ; withcartography by Michael J. Hermann.700 1# $a Herman, Michael J., $e cartographer245 00 $a Alice in Wonderland, or, Whats a nice kid like you doing in aplace like this? /$c Hanna-Barbera Productions.700 1# $i Parody of (work) $a Carroll, Lewis, $d 1832-1898. $t Alicesadventures in Wonderland.authority record500 3# $w r $i Descendant family: $a Adams (Family)32
  33. 33. Theoretical framework• alignment with the FRBR and FRAD conceptual models• bibliographic and authority data>>> in terms of entities, attributes + relationships• identify what is important --- how is data used• systematic and coherent framework>>> conceptual clarity>>> logical consistency>>> reference point for further development33
  34. 34. Why are the models important?broad international support for the explanatorypower of the modelscommon international language and conceptualunderstanding of the bibliographic universeas the foundation for a standard:• easier for others to understand our data• easier to apply in international context• easier for our data to interoperate
  35. 35. 2. Key concepts in RDAb) objectives and principles35
  36. 36. RDA Objectives & Principles• important part of RDA• shaped many of the instructions that are different from AACR2• concur with the International Cataloguing Principles (ICP)36
  37. 37. RDA Objectives & PrinciplesObjectives RDA 0.4.2• responsiveness to userneeds• cost efficiency• flexibility• continuityPrinciples RDA 0.4.3• differentiation• sufficiency• relationships• representation• accuracy• attribution• common usage or practice• uniformity37
  38. 38. Principle of representationfor example RDA = representationThe data describing a resource should reflectthe resource’s representation of itself.result = simplify transcription“Take what you see”38
  39. 39. RDA = Take what you seesource = Kemptville, OntarioAACR2 = Kemptville, Ont.RDA = Kemptville, Ontario264 1 $a Kemptville, Ontario_____________________________________________________source = Band LXXXVIII (series numbering)AACR2 = Bd. 88RDA = Band LXXXVIII490 $a ... ; $v Band LXXXVIII39
  40. 40. RDA = Take what you seesource = Third revised editionAACR2 = 3rd rev. ed.RDA = Third revised edition_____________________________________________source = 2nd enlarged ed., revisedAACR2 = 2nd enl. ed., rev.RDA = 2nd enlarged ed., revised40
  41. 41. Different instructionsAACR2 1.0F. InaccuraciesIn an area where transcription from the item is required,transcribe an inaccuracy or a misspelled word as it appears inthe item. Follow such an inaccuracy either by [sic] or by i.e. andthe correction within square brackets. Supply a missing letteror letters in square brackets.RDA 1.7.9 InaccuraciesWhen instructed to transcribe an element as it appears on thesource of information, transcribe an inaccuracy or a misspelledword as it appears on the source, except where instructedotherwise.41
  42. 42. Inaccuracy in RDA• make a note correcting the inaccuracy if considered importantfor identification or access (see 2.20 )• if inaccuracy in the title proper, record a corrected form of thetitle as a variant titleException for serials or integrating resources: correct obvioustypographic errors, and make a note42
  43. 43. RDA = Take what you seetitle page = Melallization of polymers(book)AACR2 = Melallization [sic] of polymersor Melallization [i.e. Metallization] ofpolymersRDA = Melallization of polymers245 14 $a Melallization of polymers246 1 $i Corrected title: $a Metallizationof polymers43
  44. 44. 2. Key concepts in RDAc) focus on the user44
  45. 45. RDA Objectives & PrinciplesObjectives RDA 0.4.2• responsiveness to userneeds• cost efficiency• flexibility• continuityPrinciples RDA 0.4.3• differentiation• sufficiency• relationships• representation• accuracy• attribution• common usage or practice• uniformity45
  46. 46. Focus on the user• record data that is important to the userwhy is it important?helps the user to findidentifyselectobtain46
  47. 47. Resource discovery = user tasksBibliographic data• find• identify• select• obtainWhy record the data?Authority data• find• identify• clarify• understandTo help user achieve thesetasks.47
  48. 48. Consistent focus on the user• RDA divided into 10 sections• each section begins with general guidelines• functional objectives and principles specific to the sectionFunctional objectives = relationship between data and usertasksthe data (recorded or constructed accordingto the instructions in that section)the user tasks48
  49. 49. Example from Section 1Section 1= Recording attributes of manifestations & items1.2 Functional Objectives and PrinciplesThe data describing a manifestation or item should enable the user to:a) find manifestations and items that correspond to the user’s statedsearch criteriab) identify the resource described …c) select a resource that is appropriate to the user’s requirements withrespect to the physical characteristics of the carrier and theformatting and encoding of information stored on the carrierd) obtain a resource …49
  50. 50. Basis for cataloguer judgment• instructions encourage cataloguer judgment--- based on user tasksfor example, from 3.7 Applied materialRecord the applied material used in the resource if it isconsidered important for identification or selection …50
  51. 51. Easier for user to identify• avoid abbreviations300 $a 398 pages :$b illustrations ; $c 25 cmAACR2: 300 $a 398 p. :$b ill. ; $c 25 cm.• avoid square brackets300 $a 48 unnumbered pages, 256 pagesAACR2: 300 $a [48], 256 p.• replace Latin abbreviations300 $a 48, that is, 96 pagesAACR2: 300 $a 48 [i.e. 96] p.• avoid cryptic information300 $a xiv, 179 pages (incomplete)AACR2: 300 $a xiv, 179 + p.51
  52. 52. Easier for user to find, identifyRDA: no more: rule of threeno more … [et al.] in descriptionif statement of responsibility names morethan one person >>> record all RDA omission: record first named andsummarize the omission[and six others]access points for first named or principal coreor allor cataloger judgmentor institutional policy52
  53. 53. Easier for user to find, identifyRDA: record all authors; access points for all authors;define relationships with designators100 1 $a Berry, John W., $e author.245 10 $a Cross-cultural psychology : $b research and applications /$c John W. Berry, Ype H. Poortinga, Seger M. Breugelmans,Athanasios Chasiotis, David L. Sam.250 $a Third edition.264 1 $a Cambridge : $b Cambridge University Press, $c 2011.300 $a xxii, 626 pages ; $c 25 cm700 1 $a Poortinga, Ype H., $d 1939- $e author.700 1 $a Breugelmans, Seger M., $e author.700 1 $a Chasiotis, Athanasios, $e author.700 1 $a Sam, David L., $e author.53
  54. 54. Easier for user to understandRDAoptional omission ( than three, omit and summarizecore relationship = access point for first-recordedomit relationship designator100 1 $a Berry, John W.245 10 $a Cross-cultural psychology : $b research andapplications / $c John W. Berry [and four others].250 $a Third edition.264 1 $a Cambridge : $b Cambridge University Press, $c 2011.300 $a xxii, 626 pages ; $c 25 cm54
  55. 55. Easier for user to findAACR2 Aesop’s fables. Polyglot.RDA Aesop’s fables. GreekAesop’s fables. LatinAesop’s fables. EnglishAesop’s fables. GermanAACR2 Aesop’s fables. English & GermanRDA Aesop’s fables. EnglishAesop’s fables. German55
  56. 56. 2. Key concepts in RDAd) content standard56
  57. 57. RDA as a content standardAACR2: MARC encoding + ISBD displayRDA = what data should the cataloguer record?• possible to encode using many encoding systems• can be encoded using MARC• does not have to be encoded using MARC encoding• can be used with web friendly XML based encoding schema,such as Dublin Core, MODS• possible to display the data in many ways57
  58. 58. RDA as a content standardRDA= instructions on recording datanot tied to one encoding practiceRDA= record person’s date of birth = 1982Encode?$d 1982- MARC 21<subfield code="d">1982- </subfield> MARCXML<mods:namePart type="date">1982- </mods:namePart><dob>1982</dob><xs:element name="rdaDateOfBirth“>1982</xs:element>58
  59. 59. RDA as a content standardRDA= instructions on recording datanot tied to one display of datafor example, create displays that suit your user groupRDA says: record person’s date of birth = 1982Display? born 1982b. 19821982-date of birth: 198259
  60. 60. Identifying the entityeithereye-readable data: namedate of birth and deathShields, Carol, 1953-2003and/ormachine actionable data: identifier0101A6635,_Carol60
  61. 61. RDA as a content standard• not locked into library encoding practices• not locked into library display practices• get out of the library silo>>> data visible on the web>>> data interacting with thedata of other metadatacommunities61
  62. 62. 2. Key concepts in RDAe) bibliographic informationas data62
  63. 63. Data Elementselement = A word, character, or group of words and/orcharacters representing a distinct unit ofbibliographic information.appears similar to AACR2 definitionminus “forming part of an area”effect is quite different from AACR2each element is ≈ discrete≈ precisely defined≈ single attribute / single relationship63
  64. 64. AACR2for exampleAACR2: information embedded in non-specific placesnotes digital file characteristicsphysical description file typeMARC 538 encoding format516 file size500 resolution300 regional encodingtransmission speed64
  65. 65. RDARDA: precise elements and element sub-typesdigital file characteristics RDA 3.19file typeencoding formatfile sizeresolutionregional encodingtransmission speed65
  66. 66. 347 Digital File Characteristicsnew MARC field 347subfield codes$a - File type (R)$b - Encoding format (R)$c - File size (R)$d - Resolution (R)$e - Regional encoding (R)$f - Transmission speed (R)66
  67. 67. AACR2 InformationAACR2: assume human will decipherok to be ambiguousAACR2: date of publication, distribution, of copyrightdate of manufactureMARC 21: 260 $c260 $g67
  68. 68. RDA Data ElementsRDA: precise elements – only one kind of data in an elementRDA: 5 different elements: RDA 2.7-2.11date of productiondate of publicationdate of distributiondate of manufacturedate of copyrightMARC 21: 264 $c 5 different indicators68
  69. 69. Controlled vocabulary• controlled vocabulary recommended for many elementsencoding format DAISY, CD audio, MP3, Access,XML, JPEG, TIFF, CAD, PDF,Blu-ray, DVD video, VCDproduction method blueline, blueprint, engraving,etching, lithograph, photocopy,photoengraving, woodcutbase material Bristol board, canvas, cardboard,ceramic, glass, leather, paper,parchment, vellum69
  70. 70. RDA data = precise + usable dataRDA• each element is distinct and precisely defined• each element contains only one kind of data• controlled vocabulary in many elements each element has the potential to be usable:to indexto searchto build meaningful displays of data data in any element can be used: by humansby computers70
  71. 71. Many new elementsmany new elements but do not have to use them allcore elements• not a level of description• core elements are a minimum “a floor, not a ceiling”• must include any additional elements required to differentiatethe resource or entity from a similar one• inclusion of other elements --- cataloguer judgment71
  72. 72. Phase 1: RDA using MARCBibliographic description:• core elements (RDA core, LC-PCC core)• new MARC fields• simplified instructions for transcription• some new instructions when recording dataAuthorized access points in bibliographic records:• LC/NACO authority file• some new instructions when identifying persons, families,corporate bodies, works and expressionsAuthority records:• NACO guidelines72
  73. 73. AACR2: simple book (abbreviated)020 $a 9780230242685 (hardback)100 1 $a Stanfield, J. Ron, $d 1945-245 10 $a John Kenneth Galbraith / $c by James Ronald Stanfieldand Jacqueline Bloom Stanfield.260 $a New York : $b Palgrave Macmillan, $c c2011.300 $a xi, 251 p. ; $c 23 cm.490 1 $a Great Thinkers in Economics Series700 1 $a Stanfield, Jacqueline Bloom, $d 1947-73
  74. 74. RDA: simple book (abbreviated)020 $a 9780230242685 (hardback)100 1 $a Stanfield, J. Ron, $d 1945- $e author.245 10 $a John Kenneth Galbraith / $c by James Ronald Stanfieldand Jacqueline Bloom Stanfield.264 1 $a New York : $b Palgrave Macmillan, $c [2011]264 4 $a ©2011300 $a xi, 251 pages ; $c 23 cm.336 $a text $2 rdacontent337 $a unmediated $2 rdamedia338 $a volume $2 rdacarrier490 1 $a Great Thinkers in Economics Series700 1 $a Stanfield, Jacqueline Bloom, $d 1947- $e author.74
  75. 75. AACR2: sound disc (abbreviated, for illustration)100 1 $a Dibdin, Michael.245 10 $a End games $h[sound recording] / $c Michael Dibdin.260 $a Oxford, England : $b Isis Publishing Ltd., $c p2008.300 $a 10 sound discs (11 hr., 15 min.) : $b digital ; $c 4 3/4 in.500 $a Read by Michael Tudor Barnes.500 $a Compact discs.700 1 $a Barnes, Michael Tudor.75
  76. 76. RDA: audio disc (abbreviated, for illustration)100 1 $a Dibdin, Michael, $e author.240 10 $a End games. $h Spoken word245 10 $a End games / $c Michael Dibdin.264 1 $a Oxford, England : $b Isis Publishing Limited, $c [2008]264 4 $c ℗2008300 $a 10 audio discs (11 hr., 15 min.) : $b CD audio, digital ; $c 4 3/4 in.336 $a spoken word $2 rdacontent337 $a audio $2 rdamedia338 $a audio disc $2 rdacarrier344 $a digital347 $b CD audio700 1 $a Barnes, Michael Tudor, $e narrator.775 08 $i Adaptation of (expression): $a Dibdin, Michael. $t End games. ...76
  77. 77. AACR2: compilation (abbreviated for illustration)100 1 $a Williams, Tennessee.240 10 $a Selections. $f 2009245 10 $a Favorite plays and a short story / $c Tennessee Williams.260 0 $a Boston : $b University Press, $c 2009.300 $a 325 p. : $b ill. ; $c 28 cm505 0 $a The Glass Menagerie -- A Streetcar Named Desire -- Caton a Hot Tin Roof -- The Night of the Iguana.77
  78. 78. RDA: compilation (abbreviated, for illustration)100 1 $a Williams, Tennessee.240 10 $a Works. $k Selections. $f 2009 optional245 10 $a Favorite plays and a short story / $c TennesseeWilliams.264 1 $a Boston : $b University Press, $c 2009.300 $a 325 pages : $b illustrations ; $c 28 cm336 $a text $2 rdacontent337 $a unmediated $2 rdamedia338 $a volume $2 rdacarrier700 12 $a Williams, Tennessee. $t Glass menagerie.700 12 $a Williams, Tennessee. $t Streetcar named Desire.700 12 $a Williams, Tennessee. $t Cat on a hot tin roof.700 12 $a Williams, Tennessee. $t Night of the Iguana.78
  79. 79. Key conceptsKey concepts shape RDA:• theoretical framework• objectives and principles• focus on the user• content standard• bibliographic information as data>>> visible impact on RDA and the content of instructions>>> many changes in RDA trace back to concepts79
  80. 80. Familiarity with key RDA concepts• a useful way to grab hold of RDA80
  81. 81. Flickr credits: creative commons attributionCross track – iPhone wall paper by CJ Schmit climbing is fun by mariachily silo by TooFarNorth
  82. 82. Questions …?chris.oliver@mcgill.ca82